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Kn-fh^d. \y^a^^ td 

— -^ 

.x\* . ' 




1852 AND 1863. 









On the Use of Shall and Will. By Hknslkigh Wkdowood, 
Esq 1-5 

On some Philological Peculiarities in the English Authorized 
Version of the Bible. By Thomas Watts, Esq 7-1 1 

An Attempt at an Outline of the Early Medo-Persian History, 
founded on the Rock- Inscriptions of Behistun taken in com- 
bination with the Accounts of Herodotus and Ctesias. By 
the Rev. J. W. Blakbslbt -. 13-26 

Some Suggestions in Logical Phraseology. By Professor Db 
Morgan 27-30 

On the Etymology of the word Stone-henge. By Edwin 
Guest, Esq 31-35 

On the Aorists in -ca. By R. G. Latham, Esq., M.D 37-39 

On the Origin and Primitive Meaning of the French word 
Ange, By M. H. Leducq 41-49 

On the Amphictyonic League, and the meaning of the term 
Amphictyones, By Professor Maldbn 51-58 

On the Personal Pronouns and Numerals of the MaUicolo and 
Erromango Languages. By the Rev. C. J. Abraham : — 
with Remarks by R. G. Latham, Esq., M.D 58-62 

On the Imperfect Infinitive, Imperfect Participles, and those 
Substantives which fall under the definition " nomen actionis,** 
By Professor Key 63-72 

On the Languages of New California. By R. G. Latham, 
Esq., M.D 72-86 

On English Etymologies. By Hbnslbioh Wedgwood. Esq. 87-91 

Miscellaneous Remarks on some Latin Words. By Professor 
Key 93-99 

On the Position and Tactics of the Contending Fleets in the 
Battle of Salamis. By the Rev. J. W. Blakesley. (With 
aMap.) 101-115 

On some alleged Distinctions in Languages believed to be 
without foundation. By Professor Key 117-126 

On Keltic Words used by Early English Writers. By the 
Rev. John Davibs 129-137 


On Words admitting of being grouped around the root Flap 
or Flak. By Hbnslbigh Wedgwood, Esq 143-152 

On Feminines in w and oft, and on the word yvvri ; A Contri- 
bution to Oreek Grammar and Etymology. By H. L. 
Ahbbns, Ph.D. : — translated from the German by Pro- 
fessor Kbt 155-178 

On the Inscription of Sora. By Dr. G. Henzbn : — translated 
from the Italian by Professor Kby. (With a Plate.). . . . 179-187 

On Natural Sounds. By Professor J. G. E. Buschmann, of 
Berlin : — ^translated from the German by Campbell Clarke, 
Esq 188-206 

Philological Scraps. By Professor Kbt. 

On the Etymology of anXoos, StwXoos, &c 127, 128 

————— <rroa, oroca, and Doric irnaa 138 

Some Remarks on the Speech " Pro Plancio " 139-142 

On the Etymology of Circum/oraneus ; Circulator; Cento. . 152-154 

A Dictionary of the Circassian Language, in Two Parts : — 
Part I. English — Circassian — ^Turkish, pp. i — Ixzxix. 
Part II. Circassian — ^English — ^Turkish, pp. xci^-clxxvii. 

With a Preface, and a Table of the Alphabet adopted to express 
the Circassian or Addee-Ghey Language. By Dr. L. Lobwb. 


Vol. VI. NOVEMBER 26, 1852. No. 126. 

Hbnrt Malden, Esq. in the Chair. 

The following works were laid on the table : — 

"Contributions to Knowledge," 4 vols. 4to, 1851. — "Report of 
Recent Improvements in Chemical Arts/' 8vo. — " Fourth Annual 
Report," 1849.— "Fifth Annual Report," 1851.— And various 
Papers, presented by the Smithsonian Institute. — '* Address to the 
Greographical Society for 1852," by Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart. — 
Pamphlets " On Mount Serbal," and " On Grecian Antiquities in 
Sicily," by John Hogg, Esq. 

A paper was then read : — 

" On the use of Shall and Will." By Hensleigh Wedgwood, 

The peculiarities in the use of the auxiliaries shall and t^i//, in 
different persons, have often excited the interest of grammarians, 
and have been made the subject of a few observations by Professor 
De Morgan, in the 90th number of our Transactions. On the present 
occasion it is proposed to carry the inquiry a little further, and to 
trace the source of these peculiarities to the principles on which the 
terms in question are originally used as indicative of future action. 
The original meaning of the term %o\ll is the condition of an intel- 
ligent agent under the influence of appetite, or passion, or other 
motive, inclining him to accomplish a certain purpose. Thus we 
speak of being willing or unwilling to do something, of being dis- 
posed to do it, or feelmg a repugnance towards it. To do anything 
with a will is to work with a hearty inclination for what we are 
about. To bear a person good or ill will, is to sympathise with his 
weiror ill> being, and so to be disposed to promote the one or the 
other if the opportunity should occur. And, as the same temper 
which inclines us to exert ourselves for the satisfaction of our desires 
would dispose us to engage the activity of another person in the 
attainment of the same end, the domain of the will is extended to 
the acts of others, and a large proportion of the conduct of every 
man is directed by the will of those to whom he looks with reverence 
or love, or whom, he fears to offend, or finds it his interest to obey. 
It often happens that the will of others, to whom circumstances have 
given paramount authority over our actions, comes in competition 
with the dictates of our constitutional appetites and passions. In 
such cases the inducement to act in accordance with the external 
rule may be of such a character as not only to overcome, but wholly 


to destroy the inclination to pursue a different course of conduct ; 
but on other occasions it may leave unaffected the natural repug- 
nance of the agent to the act required of him, or his natural longing 
for some incompatible object, and in such cases the agent will have 
a vivid feeling of acting against his will. 

When used as a verb, the term will is to be understood kqt e£ox»?K 
as signifying the effective inclination of the agent at any moment, 
on a balance of all the motives to which he is subjected, — the incli- 
nation destined to be carried out into action, whatever may be the 
violence or the variety of motives by which he is solicited in other 
directions. When we say. The vicious horse will kick ; The ge- 
nerous man will forgive an injury ; the import of the proposition is 
an assertion that the effective disposition of the vicious horse is to 
kick, — of the generous man to forgive an injury when the opportunity 
may occur. Now it is obvious that such a proposition has only to be 
applied to particular circumstances of time and place, in x)rder to 
convert it into a prediction of the future. The knowledge of a 
certain horse as being of a vicious disposition, includes the expec- 
tation of its kicking a person going within reach of its heels, and 
we say, Do not go near that horse, he will kick you. Thus tve 
judge of the future conduct of personal agents from a knowledge of 
their inherent disposition, and we express the result of such a 
judgement by a proposition in which the verb will is made the 
copula between the agent and the action expected. 

Between the natural disposition of an animate agent to a certain 
line of conduct, and the tendency of an inanimate power to produce 
a certain effect, there is a close analogy. Experience makes us 
acquainted with the powers of nature and their tendency, under 
certain circumstances, to produce certain effects, just as it makes us 
acquainted with the disposition of different kinds of animals or of 
particular individuals. When therefore we recognize the operation 
of a certain power in a material system, we specvdate concerning the 
result to be expected, just as we speculate concerning the future 
conduct of a personal agent from a knowledge of his character ; and 
the tendency to take effect in a certain manner, which forms the 
ground of our judgement in the case of the inanimate agent, is na- 
turally expressed by the same term will, which is applicable in the 
first instance to the effective inclination of a personal agent. We 
recognize in a book, as in all other bodies, a tendency to fall down- 
wards when not effectually supported, and when we see a book in 
such a condition, we call attention to the anticipated result in the 
words. That book will fall. The tendency of the forces, to the. 
operation of which that book is subjected, is to make it fall. Thus 
the expectation of action, whether of personal or impersonal agents, 
arising from a knowledge of the intrinsic principles in operation, is 
expressed by the term will. 

But it frequently happens that we have occasion to make mention 
of action to be expected from the influence of another person, irre- 
spective of the inclination of the agent himself. The assertion that 
a certain line of action is thus chalked out for an agent is conveyed 

by the verb $hall. My servant shall carry your bag for you ; he is 
destined by my will to do you that service. The aniJogous condition 
of things in the case of impersonal action is when an event is fore- 
seen as about to be brought to pass by an influence considered as 
external to the system in action. When the prophet says, • It shall 
come to pass in that day,' he speaks from a knowledge of the will of 
the Supreme Director of events, whom he regards as about to efl^ect 
the purpose announced • by an extraordinary exertion of sovereign 
authority. On the contrary, when an event is foreseen from a 
knowledge of the principles by which the course of the world is 
habitually governed, the expectation is expressed by the term will — 
' A time will come when he wiU repent his crimes.' The proper 
import then of will in the third person is to express expectation of 
the future from a knowledge of the principles of action by which the 
subject of discourse is supposed to be animated or directed ; of shall, 
an announcement of future events to be brought about by an agency 
considered as external to the system in which the events in question 
are expected to take place ; but as the latter is the exceptional case, 
the signification of mil in the third person is commonly extended to 
express a general expectation of the future, without reference to the 
intrinsic or extrinsic nature of the principles of action from which 
the event predicted is foreseen. 

The use of these auxiliaries in the second person does not mate- 
rially differ from that in the third. The will of every man, in the 
primary sense of the term, being completely known to himself alone, 
can never be a subject on which he can receive information from 
another person. We can therefore rarely have occasion to make 
use of the verb will in the second person for the purpose of asserting 
the special inclination of the party addressed to a certain action, but 
the term will be left open without danger of ambiguity, to express 
that simple expectation of the future which it commonly bears in 
the third person. When I say. You will be at Derby at two o'clock, 
it cannot be supposed that I refer to any special intention on the 
part of the person addressed to effect that purpose, because he must 
know his own intention much better than I can, and the sentence 
will naturally be taken to signify that the causes by which his 
motions are understood to be directed are calculated to bring him 
to Derby at that hour. On the other hand, I have frequent occasion 
to make known to a second person the things which I myself design 
that he should do or suffer, and for that purpose I require the use of 
thou shall in the original and emphatic sense of the word. Thus 
thou shall or thou shalt not, when joined with an active verb, is ap- 
propriated to the expression of command ; when joined with a neu- 
ter or a passive, it gives the force of an engagement, or a threat, 
according as the predicated condition is the object of desire or of 
alarm. ' You shall receive your money tomorrow,' implies that 
that event is destined to take place by the will of the speaker, without 
the necessity of exertion on the part of the person addressed, and the 
expression of this intention binds the speaker to make good the 
engagement on which he has led the other to rely. When Joseph 

says to his brethren, • Ye shall surely die,' he holds out the expec- 
tation of a condition to be fulfilled by an interference on his part 
with the principles by which the ordinary duration of life is under- 
stood to be determined, viz. by putting them to death in case they 
disobey his command. In the second person then as in the third, 
the auxiliary shall is appropriated to indicate expectation of an event 
to be brought about by external agency, while the simple expec- 
tation of the future is expressed by will. 

The special and general use of these auxiliaries is precisely reversed 
in the first person. 

The rational agent considers beforehand the line of conduct which 
it will be expedient for him to pursue on a given emergency. He 
sets before himself the motives to the di£ferent alternatives between 
which he has to choose, giving them the weight they appear to . 
deserve, at a moment when his reason is undisturbed by the bias 
of immediate temptation. He thus determines or marks out the 
course to which, at such a moment, he finds himself effectively 
inclined, with the purpose of deciding his conduct at the moment of 
action by the result of his previous deliberation. The determination 
so formed lies exclusively within his own cognizance, while it is 
often of the utmost importance that it should be made known to 
others, in order that they may be enabled to shape their own actions 
accordingly. When speaking therefore in the first person, it behoves 
me chiefly to distinguish the acts which I have specially determined 
to accomplish, from those which I simply foresee on my own part as 
if I were contemplating the acts of another person, and indicating 
the former by / will, in the emphatic sense of the term, I regard all 
the rest of my future conduct as depending more or less on the in- 
fluence of external circumstances, and express my expectation of 
such a contingency by the auxiliary shall. When I say, I will be at 
Derby at two o'clock, I not only express my expectation of being there 
at the time appointed, but intend to bind myself to that effect by what- 
ever force there may be in the knowledge that another person is re- 
lying on my engagement. But when I say, I shall be at Derby at such 
an hour, I give the party addressed to understand that he is not to 
rely on any special engagement on my part to effect that purpose, by 
the use of a term, the primary import of which is to express expec- 
tation of action under the inducement of causes extemsJ to the will 
of the agent. 

Thus, I shall or you will be at Derby at two o'clock, equally imply 
that such is the anticipated effect of the causes by which mine or 
your movements are understood to be directed, independent of any 
special intention on my part in the one case, and on yours in the 
other, to accomplish the end in question. If tiierefore grammarians 
are right in grouping together eram and fui as parts of the same 
conjugation, notwithstanding the difference of verbal root, it would 
seem that the same rule should lead to the conjugation of the future 
of the verb love in the form / shall, thou wilt, he will, we shall, you 
will, they will love. 

The complemental formation / will, thou shall, &c., has not the 

same claim to be treated as a grammatical combination. The sig- 
nification of the propositions / will and you shall, does not differ in 
person only, as is the case with / shall and you will. The import of 
I will is the imminence of the act in dependence on the will of the 
agent ; of you shall, the imminence of the act in dependence on the 
will, not of the agent himself, but of the enouncer of the proposition. 
The essential distinction between the two cases was perhaps over- 
looked by Professor De Morgan when apparently condemning both 
alike in the paper above quoted. He says, " In introducing the 
common mode of stating the future tenses, grammar has proceeded 
as if she were more than a formal science. She has no more busi- 
ness to collect together / shall, thou wilt, he will, than to do the 
same with / rule, thou art ruled, he is ruled." (Philolog. Trans, 
vol. iv. p. 186.) 

In recapitulation, the principle by which the use of opposite 
auxiliaries in the first and second persons respectively of the English 
future is governed may be summed up in this, that while the signifi- 
cation of either of these verbs may be extended to express a simple 
expectation of the future, irrespective of the intrinsic or extrinsic na- 
ture of the principles of action from consideration of which the events 
predicted are foreseen, yet the exigencies of language having appro- 
priated will in the first person, and shall in the second, to the pri- 
mitive and restricted sense of the word, the complementary forms 
I shall and thou wilt are left for the purpose of simple prediction. 


Vol. VI. 

DECEMBER 10, 1852. \v n . No. \^y<V^ 

x^^Lli^^^^ -'V' 

The Rev. Olivbb Cockayne in the Chair. 

The following paper was read — 

"On some Philological Peculiarities in the English Authorized 
Version of the Bible." By Thomas Watts, Esq. 

Even in the Bible there are few passages that thrill the heart so 
forcibly as the well-known words in the ninetieth psalm i-^** The 
days of our age are threescore years and ten ; and though men be so 
strong that they come to fourscore years, yet is their strength then 
but labour and sorrow, so soon passeth it away, and we are gone." 
They form part of our burial service. We have all heard them when 
everything around us combined to drive their awfiil purport home. 
But under any circumstances whatever, this passage can hardly ever 
fall on a languid ear. There is a solemn beauty in its wording that 
deepens to a singular degree its inherent impressiveness and effect. 
One element of this beauty is surely the unwonted, and, if we may 
call it so, the patriarchal phrase of "threescore years and ten;" 
words in which there is something inexplicably touching to the ear 
and the mind, on both of which they linger with a mournful harmony. 

It is to the pen of Coverdale, the early English translator of the 
Bible, that we appear to have been indebted for an expression so 
happy. In the original it does not occur. The word employed in 
the Hebrew is simply D^V^K^f or " seventy," without a periphrase. 
The Septuagint closely follows the Hebrew, and the Vulgate agrees 
with botk. Coverdale has been accused of making too much use in 
bis English of the Oerman translation of Luther, which preceded 
his ; but in that version also, nothing but the ordinary " siebenzig" 
appears. It has not been supposed that he consulted the French 
translation, but in that language the turn of phrase which in ours 
is a beauty or a blemish, is a strict necessity, and the ungraceful 
" soixante-dix " may possibly have suggested the fortunate para- 
phrase. Whatever its origin, the beauty of the expression in this 
passage seems to have stamped it as a " possession for ever:" it has 
passed into all subsequent versions, and probably no innovator will 
ever arise so tasteless as to propose the removal of the hallowed 
" threescore and ten." 

There occurs in an English book of a still earlier date than Co^ 
verdale's Bible, an instance of the passing over of the word " seventy " 
so striking as to be worthy of notice. The book is the " Recuyell 
of the Histories of Troy," translated by Caxton; a work remarkable 
on several accounts, as it is the first book printed in the English 
language, while the original by Raoul Le Fevre, also from the press 
of Caxton, is the first book printed in French. In the title-page to 
the 'Recuyell,' — for title-page it may be called, and it is one of the 
earliest in existence, — ^it is said that the translation was " ended and 

VOL. VI. c 

fynnishid in the holy cyte of Colen, the xix day of septembre, the 
yere of oursaydlord god a thousand foure hundred sixty andenleuen." 
One might almost be led to imagine, from so strange a paraphrase 
for seventy-one as ' sixty and eleven/ that a word for seventy was 
wanting in the English of that time as well as the French ; but there 
are ample proofs tiiat this was not the case. In Wickliffe's version 
of the Bible, and in other early records of the language, the word 
seventy is of frequent occurrence. The ' sixty and eleven' of Caxton 
must therefore be ascribed, either to the not uncommon tendency of 
translators to slip unawares into the idioms of the language tiiey 
are rendering, or to an unacquaintance with his own tongue, not to 
be wondered at in an " uplandish man," as he terms himself, who 
had spent abroad so much of a life which was finally destined to be 
so memorable and so useful. 

To return to the English Bible. There is another and a very 
striking instan'ce of the influence which Coverdale's version appears 
to have exerted over our language. An acclamation which has rung 
for centuries from the mouth of English millions, differs most 
remarkably in its wording from all its foreign equivalents. In 
France the welcome which greeted a monarch was " Vive le Roi," 
even in hyperbolical Spain or fervent Italy it is " Viva el Rey," or 
" Viva il Re ;" in short, in nearly aU countries but our own it is 
merely a wish that the king may " live," sometimes accompanied 
with Uie addition that he may live many years. In Russia the phrase 
is, " Da zdravstvuet Tsar," " May the Tsar be healthy," which cer- 
tainly adds somewhat of benediction. In England the loyal accla- 
mation combines the name of the Deity with that of the sovereign. 
It is always " God save the King," or " God save the Queen." The 
origin of the phrase has been seldom thought of, and once at least, 
when inquired into, the search has ended in error. Mr. Richard 
Clark, in his elaborate "Account of the National Anthem," (an 
octavo volume published in 1822) says, " It will be seen by the fol- 
lowing extracts from sacred history that the expression of ' Gkxi save 
the king' may be traced as fiEur back as three thousand years." He then 
cites, from the authorized version of the Bible, some of the passages 
in which the phrase occurs, and concludes ; — " These are the earliest 
accounts on record that I can find of the expression of ' God save the 
king.' " The leading passage is the well-known verse describing the 
coronation of Solomon : — " And Zadok the priest took an horn of 
oil out of the tabemade and anointed Solomon ; and they blew the 
trumpet, and all the people cried, God save King Solomon" (1st 
book of Kings, chap. i. ver. 39). There are five other passages of 
scripture in which the expression is repeated* ; all in the historical 
books. In every one of the six a reference to Uie Hebrew will show 
that the original is less emphatic than the translation, — that in the 
language of the Scriptures the English acclamation has no precedent. 
The words in each instance are simply *] yDH ^H^ or " May the 
King live,'* the identical phrase which is in use in the modem Eu- 

* I Kings, c. i. vv. 25. 34. 2 Kmgs, c. xi. ▼.12. 2 Samuel, c. zri. ▼. 16. 
2 Chron. c. ii. ▼. 23. 

ropean languages already cited, in all of which they are accordingly 
8o rendered. 

It may be remarked in passing, that if this simple phraseology 
had been adopted in our Coronation Anthem, it would in that case, 
taken in connexion with what follows, have produced an additional 
beauty. The words now used are these : — " Zadok the priest and 
Nathan the prophet anointed Solomon king, and all the people 
rejoiced, and said, Ood save the king, Long Uve the king, Gk>d save 
the king. May the king live for ever." There is here a want of 
climax : how preferable would have been the arrangement — " May 
the king live. May the king live long. May the king live for ever!" 

The expression " God save the king" does not occur in the early 
English versions of the Bible which were current towards the close 
of the fourteenth century. The recent editors of these versions, the 
Rev. Josiah Forshall and Sir Frederick Madden, have published the 
text of two, one of which they assign to Wickliffe, and the other to 
Purvey, one of his followers and a leader of the Lollards. In Wick- . 
Hffe's, which is the earlier translation, the verse in the Book of Kings 
stands thus : — " And Sadoch the preest took an horn of oyle fro the 
tabernacle and anoyntide Salomon, and thei sungen with the trompe, 
and al the puple seide, Lyue the kyng Salomon*." In Purvey 's it is 
as follows : — " And Sadoch the preest took an horn of oyle of the 
tabernacle and anoyntide Salomon, and thei sungen with a clarioun 
and al the puple seide, Lyue kyng Salomon." The. date of both these 
versions is settled to have been anterior to 1390. About a hundred 
and fifty years afterwards, when Cranmer's Bible was issued, the ac- 
clamation appears to have been in popular use. In the engraved title- 
page to the edition of 1540, which is said to have been designed by 
Holbein, and is not unworthy of his master-hand, the king is repre- 
sented on his throne distributing the Scriptures with one hand to 
the clergy and with the other to the laity, while at the bottom of 
the page a multitude is depicted as vehemently shouting in honour 
of the exemplary monarch. Labels are introduced, attached to the 
mouths of sefveral of the figures, bearing in some cases the inscrip- 
tion " Vivat Rex," and in others " God save the kynge." These 
expressions were evidently considered then, as now, equivalent to 
each other. 

It is a question more easy to ask than it is to answer, how it 
came to pass, that a form of words which answers so much more 
closely to the " Domine salvum fac Regem," should thus have been 
substituted for the unadorned " Vivat Rex." It was not used by 
Wickliffe in 1380, it was used by Coverdale in 1535, and why ? He 
did not find this in the German, any more than the threescore and 
ten ; the phrase made use of by Luther is " Gliick zu dem Konige," 
**' Good fortune to the King." If Coverdale first made use of it 
purely at the suggestion of his native taste, we may admire his own 
good fortune in having been followed, not only by all subsequent 
translators, but by the whole body of a nation : and unless the form 
of words can be pointed out in some earlier writer, to him the 

^ Wickliffe's Bible, Forshall and Maddcn's edition, A.D. 1850, vol. ii. p. 161. 



honour seems justly to belong. The phrase, embodied in the au- 
thorized version of the Scriptures and enshrined in the national 
heart* is become an heir-loom of the language. 

In several points of view the universal adoption and establishment 
of a single version of the Scriptures is undoubtedly an unalloyed 
good. It is this probably, more than any other circumstance what- 
ever, which has tended to keep to one conmion standard a language 
which is now spoken by so many millions, scattered over so many 
lands. This fixity of expression, however, while of advantage in 
almost every other way, renders it more difficult for the inquirer 
into the history of the language, to trace its successive changes, 
from the operation of which the only work that is certain to be in 
the hands of all is now withdrawn. When a fresh version of the 
Scriptures was issued at the interval of every few years, the com- 
parison of the same passage in different renderings afforded an easy 
method of measuring the gradual changes which crept over parts 
of the language. 

We should thus have been enabled, for instance, to ascertain both 
with ease and precision, at what period a word now so familiar as 
"its" — the possessive case of the neuter pronoun — was first 
introduced into English. At present the only information on the 
subject that can be derived from the comparison of the different 
versions of the Bible is, that so lately as 161 1 — the date of the issue 
of the authorized version — the word did not exist, or at all events 
was not considered to belong to that elevated portion of the lan- 
guage regarded as suitable for the translation of the sacred writings. 
There is one verse of the Bible in which the neuter pronoun would 
now be used very frequently in different cases, and it is curious to 
observe how it is dealt with in the various versions. 

The recent editors of what is generally called Wickliffe's Bible, n^ 
have, as has been already stated, printed two versions at length. 
The verse alluded to (which is the 9th of Numbers, chapter iv.) is 
far frx>m alike in the two renderings. Wickliffe's is as follows : — 

" And thei shulen take the iacynctyn mantil with the which thei shulen 
couer the candelstik with the laiitems and her toonges and snyters." 

Purvey's runs thus — 

*< Thei schulen take also a roentil of iacynt with which thei schulen hile 
the candilstike with kite lanternes and tongis and snytels." 

It will be observed that it is here a candlestick which is on one 
occasion referred to, with '* her tongs," and in the other, with " his 
lanterns," — in neither case with '* its ;" that in fact in one case the 
candlestick seems to be made of the feminine, and in the other of 
the masculine gender. The uncertainty prevailed for centuries after 
the time of Wickliffe. In Tyndale's version of the Pentateuch, printed, 
in 1530, the candlestick is both feminine and neuter : — 

" And they shall take a cloth of jacyncte and cover the candclstickc of 
light and hir lampes and hit snoffers and fyre pannej and all hir oyle vessels 
which they occupye aboute it and shall put upon her and on all hir instru- 
mentes a couerynge of taxus skynnes and put it upon staues." 



In Coverdale's version, printed in 15d5« the passage is as follows: — 
" And they shal take a yalowe clothe and cover the candilsticke of light 
therwith, and hit lampes, with his snoffers and outqiienchers/' &c. &c. 

In Matthews's Bible (1537), the candlestick is feminine again : — 

** And they shall take a cloth of iacincte and couer the candelstycke of 
;ht and her lampes and her snoffers and fyre panes and all her oyle vessels 
which they occupye aboute it," &c. 

Last of all comes the authorized version : — 

** And they shall take a cloth of blue and cover the candlestick of the light 
and his lamps and his tongs and his snuffdishes and all the oil vessels 
thereof wherewith they minister unto it" 

From the repetition of " his lamps, his tongs and his snuffdishes," 
in connexion with the '* it" at the end of the verse, the pronouns in 
all cases referring to the candlestick, no other conclusion can be 
drawn than that the word " its " did not then exist, or was purposely 
excluded, llie same phenomenon presents itself repeatedly in other 
portions of the same book, in which, from the nature of the subject, 
the occasion for these pronouns recurs more frequently than in other 
portions of the Scriptures. It has been suggested, that the regular 
possessive for it, before the introduction of its, was his ; but it will 
be remarked, that if this observation be true, it will only apply to 
one stage of our language. The quotation from Matthews's Bible 
shows that in the time of Henry the Eighth, the candlestick could 
be spoken of with ** her oil vessels which they occupy about it," 

It would be a curious task to trace at what period the missing 
possessive pronoun found its way into our language and who intro- 
duced it. In Shakspeare there are frequent indications of its non- 
existence. Thus in the opening speech of the king in Henry the 
Fourth we find — 

'*The edge of war, like an ill -sheathed sword. 
Shall only cut his master." 

and there is a still more apposite instance in the opening scene of 
Hamlet : — 

'* When yon same star that *s westward from the pole. 

Had made his course to illume that part of heaven 

Where now it bums*." 

The verbal indexes to Shakspeare and Milton, minute as they are, 
do not descend to words deemed so insignificant as " it " and '* its ;" 
and without these and similar aids, it can only be by good fortune 
that any progress can be made in the search for so small an object 
over so wide a field. Perhaps at some future period the subject may 
be resumed, 

* The passage from Hamlet wu obligingly suggested to the writer by Mr. Camp- 
bell Clarke, at the meeting of the Philological Society. 


Vol. VI. JANUARY 28, 1853. No. 128. 

ProfeMor Malden in the -Chair. 

The following paper was read — 

" An Attempt at an Outline of the Early Medo-Persian History » 
founded on the Rock- Inscriptions of Behistun taken in combination 
with the Accounts of Herodotus and Ctesias." By the Rev. J. W. 
Blakesley, late Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

llie deciphering of the Behistun Inscription by Colonel Rawlinson, 
from the light which it has thrown upon the early history of Persia, 
has enabled us to form a truer estimate than before was possible, 
both of the nature of the sources of information possessed by Hero- 
dotus, and of the amount of allowance to be made in estimating his 
authority, hitherto regarded as paramount. 

It is impossible to doubt, that in the main outline of ^e events 
recorded, the credit to be attached to the inscription is incomparably 
greater than that which can be claimed by any existing historian, or 
by the whole of them put together. The inscription is a formal ac- 
count of the acts of Darius, sculptured by his own authority, and 
consequently possesses as authentic a character as a medal or a con- 
temporaneous state paper ; that is to say, its authority is absolute 
for events and dates, although the colour given to the events would 
naturally be made conformable to the views of the sovereign by 
whose order they were recorded. 

The site of this inscription is the lower part of a naturally scarped 
precipice of enormous height — it is said nearly 1500 feet — in which 
the range of mountains constituting the northern boundary of the 
plain of Kermanshah suddenly terminates towards the east. At a 
height of about 100 feet from the base, a smooth surface has been 
formed by cutting into the rock, and in this, presenting the appear- 
ance of a bas-relief set in a frame, Darius, with a crown on his head 
and a bow in his hand, is represented as setting his foot upon a 
prostrate figure, who with stretched-out hands appears to ask for 
mercy. Nine other personages, with their hands pinioned behind 
them, and connected by a rope, which passes round their necks, 
approach the monarch ; and behind him stand two attendants, appa- 
rently of high rank, — as their costume, except for the crown, is the 
same as that of Darius himself — canying the one a bow, the other a 
lance upon which he leans. In the air above the group hovers the 
figure of Ormuzd, which is substantially the same as that in the title- 
page of Mr. Layard's ' Nineveh,' and over the heads of the human 
figures are tablets containing cuneiform or arrow-headed writing ex- 
plaining who they are. But the most important part of the whole 
are the inscriptions in the same character containing the annals of 
the monarch. These Rawlinson has discovered to be trilingual, 


although the elements of the words in each being cuneiform might 
induce the belief in a superficial observer that the language was the 
same throughout. To the three languages he gives the several names 
of Persian, Median, and Babylonian. The first is contained in five 
columns (of which the four first are twelve feet in length and about 
six in breadth), immediately under the group of figures just de- 
scribed. Judging from the scale given together with the drawing of 
the group*, the dignity of the personages seems to have been re- 
garded in the size of which the sculptor represented them. Darius 
himself, and the figure upon which he is trampling (who is Gomates 
the Magian), are made full six feet in height. Tlie two attendants 
on the king are no more than five feet six or seven inches, while 
the conquered chiefs with ropes round their necks barely rise above 
four feet, — with the exception of the last, Sarukha the Sacan, who 
besides being a little taller than his companions in misfortune, wears 
a tiara, whereas they are all bare-headed. 

Of the five columns, the first and third are, according to Raw- 
linson, very fairly legible. They contain ninety- six and ninety-two 
lines respectively, which are broken up— the one into nineteen, the 
other into fourteen paragraphs, each beginning with the form Thdtiya 
Ddryawush k'hshdyathiya (Saith Darius the king), llie second co- 
lumn extends to ninety-six lines, but it is much injured by a fissure 
in the rock, which extends along the whole length of the tablet. The 
fourth column contains ninety-two lines, the greater part lamentably 
injured. The last legible paragraph (the 18th) in this column fur- 
nishes a list of those individuals who alone were with Darius when 
he " slew Gbmates the Magian, who was called Bartius;" and the 
very natural bias to bring the account given by Herodotus to aid in 
deciphering this, produced one or two erroneous guesses which a 
second careful inspection of the inscription on the spot has corrected. 
The assistants of Darius are now undoubtedly ascertained to have 
been Intaphemes son of Veispares, Otanes son of Socres, Gobryas 
son of Mardonius, Hydames son of Megabignes, Megabyzus son of 
Dadoes, and Ardomanes son of Vacces. Following this list of names 
there was once another paragraph, which is entirely obliterated, and 
appears never to have had any equivalent in the Median translation ; 
— a singular circumstance, which suggests the conjecture that its 
obliteration may have been ordered during the lifetime of the mo- 
narch, perhaps as a conciliatory measure towards his Median sub- 
jects. The fifth column only extended to half the length of the 
other four, containing but thirty-five lines, and it is described by 
Rawlinson as having been of a supplemental character, and to have 
contained an account of two revolts ; the one in Susiana, which was 
crushed by Gobryas, the other conducted by Sarukha, the chief 
of the Sacans who dwelt upon the Tigris, which was put down by 
Darius himself. Rawlinson states, however, that one side of this 

* In the * Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society,' vol. x., which is devoted to Raw- 
linson*s Commentary on the Cuneiform Inscriptions of Babylonia and Assyria, and 
contains tlie interpretation of the Persian tablets on which the views in this commu- 
nication rest. 


tablet is completely destroyed, and that it is impossible to give a 
complete translation, although it appears (he says) that both expedi- 
tions ended successfully, llie Sacan Sarttkha, who is the last of the 
string of figures sculptured in the bas-relief, has been added subse- 
quently to the other eight by a further smoothing of the face of 
the rock. 

Fortunately the first column of the inscription, which is in the 
best preservation, contains by fiEur the most important statements in a 
historical point of view. Its four leading paragraphs are a repetition 
of the contents of a tablet over the head of the monarch in the bas- 
relief, and run as follows : — 

" I am Darius the great king, king of kings, king of Persia, king 
of the provinces, son of Hystaspes, grandson of Arsames, an Achse- 

" SaithDarius the king : My father was Hystaspes, of Hystaspes the 
father was Arsames, of Arsames the father was Aryaramnes, of Arya- 
ramnes the father was Teispes ; [whose] father [was] Achaemenes." 

" Saith Darius the king : On that account are we called of Achae- 
menes ; from of old we have been unsubdued ; from of old those of 
our race were kings." 

" Saith Darius the king : eight of my race were kings before me ; 
I am the ninth." 

The fifth paragraph acknowledges his power to be the gift of 
Ormuzd, and the sixth gives a list of the provinces which, by the 
favour of Ormuzd, had come under his power. In the seventh and 
eighth he asserts the entire subjection of these to him, and declares 
that throughout them he maintains the true faith and roots out 
heresy, and in the next six he gives a complete history of the circum- 
stances which led to his own succession, as follows : — 

" Saith Darius the king : Ormuzd granted me the empire. Ormuzd 
brought help to me until I acquired this empire. By the grace of 
Ormuzd I hold this empire." 

" Saith Darius the king : This is what was done by me before I 
became king. He who was named Cambyses, the son of Cyrus of 
our race, he was here king before me. Of that Cambyses was a 
brother named Bartius, of tiie same mother and the same father* as 
Cambyses. Cambyses slew that Bartius. When Cambyses had 
slain Bartius, that which Bartius had stirred up was unknown to the 
tete. Afterwards Cambyses proceeded to Egypt. When Cambyses 
had proceeded to Egypt, afterwards the state became irreligious ; 
afterwards a lie became abundant both in Persia and Media and the 
other provinces." 

" Saith Darius the king : Afterwards was a man, a Magian, named 
Gomates. He rose up from Pissiachada, a mountain, named Araka- 
dres : from thence on the 14th day of the month Viyakhna, then it 
was that he rose up ; to the state he thus lied : ' I am Bartius, who 
am Cyrus's son, Cambyses' brother.' Afterwards the whole state 
came into the conspiracy ; it passed from Cambyses to him, both 

* Rawlinson reverses in his translation the order of the original, making it " of 
tlie same father and the saipe mother." I have preserved a relative position of 
the parents which was possibly not unimportant according to Median notions. 



Persia and Media and the other provinces : he seized the empire. 
On the 9th day of the montli Garmapada then it was he thus seized 
the empire. Afterwards Caml)yse8 chafinii^ died." 

"Saith Darius the king: That empire of which Gomates the 
Magian deprived Camhyses, that empire from of old helonged to our 
race. After Gomates the Magian had deprived Camhyses of both 
Persia and Media and the other provinces, he did according to his 
desire ; he became king." 

" Saith Darius the king : There was not a man, neither Persian 
nor Median, nor any one of our family, who would deprive Gomates 
the Magian of the empire. The state feared to oppose him. He 
often proclaimed to the state as he had known Bartius do, in that 
same way he proclaimtHl to the state, ' Beware it hold me not in 
other account than as Bartius, son of Cyrus*.' No one was bold ; 
every one was standing around Gomates the Magian until I came. 
Afterward I adored Ormuzd. Ormuzd brought me aid. On the 
10th day of the month Bagayadish, then did I with faithful men slay 
Gomates the Magian and those who were his chief associates. Sik- 
takhotes was the fort named ; Nissea the region of Media : there I 
slew him : I deprived him of his empire : by the grace of Ormuzd I 
became king. Ormuzd gave me the empire." 

" Saith Darius the king : The empire which had been wrested from 
our race that I recovered ; I established it firmly ; as in the days of 
old, so did I. The rites which Gomates the Magian had introduced 
I prohibited f, I restored to the state the chants and the worship, 
and to those families which Gomates the Magian had deprived of 
them, i firmly est^iblished the kingdom, both Persia and Media and 
the other provinces as in the days of old. Thus did I restore what 
had been taken away. Thus did 1, by the grace of Ormuzd, that 
Gomates the Magian might not blot out our race." 

In comparing this ofi&cial statement with the account of Hero- 
dotus, it is plain at the first blush of the matter, that while in the 
former the successful sovereign appears as the representative of 
great interests, the champion of a race of distinct blood and religious 
faith, and seems pointed out for the position he takes by the illus- 
trious descent which he boasts, if not actually by near relationship to 
the sovereigns he succeeds ; in the latter his personal prowess and 
energetic character are made the sole source of his success, and 
there is no intimation that by birth he was a person of any distinc- 
tion. His father holds a provincial government under the Persian 
king, and he himself, while serving in the Persian army which occu- 
pied £gypt, is a person of no importance, glad to accept a present of 
a cloak, and so little likely to be able to make any kind of return 
for it, although of a generous temper, that the donor regrets the 
sudden access of liberality which had induced him to part with his 
garment j. While, therefore, the two accounts of Darius's fortunes 

• RnwlinHon renders this sentence, " He would frequently address the utate 
which knew [the old] Barlius, for that reason he would address the state, saying, 
' Beware lest it regard me as if I were not Bartius the son of Cyrus.' " 

f The words in italics are doubtfully interpreted by Rawlinson. 

t Herod, iii. 139, 140. 

. .^ --. -*» "^ T T ^ > 


are not necessarily incompatible with one another, tk^^^irmihiy«^ 
seem to spring from entirely different sources. One couTZhafarosTSs" 
little gather the illustrious connexions and the political party of 
Darius from Herodotus, as one could his peculiar temperament from 
the rock tablets. In these we recognize the dry but authentic record 
of those widely operating influences which issue in momentous poli- 
tical changes ; in the narrative of the logographer we may (I appre- 
hend) no less decisively remark the characteristics of popular tradi- 
tion, which seizes and preserves in a way that nothing else can do 
the ethical characteristics of men of mark, while it soon drops or 
modifies the historical facts which really constituted the staple of 
their lives. Each of these classes of evidence has its value in after 
times. The historian of Napoleon will neither neglect the songs of 
Beranger nor the bulletins of the Moniteur, if he wishes to form a 
complete estimate of his hero. The Dundee Ballads are in their way 
quite as valuable as the Annual Register. The greatest misuse of 
either the one or the other is to consider them as documents of the 
same kind, and to treat them as if nothing more could be required in 
combining them, than to piece out the one with fragments gathered 
from the other. 

If, however, a different principle of interpretation be adopted, and 
the rock-inscription be regarded as the official record of the Persian 
court, while the narratives of Herodotus and Ctesias are referred to 
as conveying the current notions of different localities* and different 
classes, embodied in such stories as were likely to come to the know- 
ledge of Hellenic merchants and Persian court -physicians, and more- 
over modified more or less by their individual habits and ways of 
thinking, — a perfectly coherent idea may be formed of the whole 
transaction, without either detracting from the character of any one 
of the sources of information, or attributing the weightiest historical 
events to motives which belong to the region of fiction. The follow- 
ing sketch is an attempt to supply a clue for the criticism of the 
early history of these great states, on which at that time the desti- 
nies of the world depended. 

The relation of Media to Persia, antecedently to the revolution in 
which Astyages was dethroned, seems to have approached that of a 
suzerain over a dependency, analogous perhaps to that of the house 
of Hapsburg over the old Swiss Cantons before the time of Tell. The 
Persian clans, however much they might value the purity of their 
own blood, would be naturally despised by the Median courtiers, as 
the Scotch Highlanders were by the frivolous associates uf the English 
Stuarts, and as the Tyrolese are by the aristocracy of Austria. If 
the Achaemenids were even at first, as seems probable, the most noble 
of the Persian clans, this circumstance would not in any way help to 
save them from the contemptuous designation of peasants and herds- 

* Ctesias expressly stated that his authorities for what he did not see were the 
accounts of Persians received by hinueif {ap, Photium, p. 36). In the case of 
Herodotus, I believe it may be demonstrated, that the * Persians' whom he quotes 
are Hellenic traders with Persia, or person.^ similarly situated. What he says of 
the Persian names (i. 139), that they all end in S, is true, notot them,hui of their 
Hellenic repreientatives, as the Behistun inscription shows. 

D 2 


men in the common conversation of the fastidiouB oligarchy of the 
capital. A Ban of Croatia would probably have met with no more 
complimentary a description at Vienna ten years ago. 

Cyrus the Great, whom the inscription recognizes as of the family 
of Darius, without however in any way ascribing to him that heroic 
character or pre-eminent fame wiUi which he is invested by the later 
historians, was, in the view of Herodotus, the oflfspring of a mixed 
marriage between Mandane, the daughter and heiress of Astyages*, 
and some Achsemenid, not considered at the time to be of such a 
rank as to acquire by this marriage any predominant weight. This 
is accounted for by Herodotus in exactly the way in which one 
might expect popular traditions to account for it. He is said to 
have been of a quiet temper, although of a good family f. If the 
real motive, however, of marrying Mandane to a Persian was to 
prevent the excessive aggrandizement of her husband, some other 
security than mere temper would ddubtless have been sought ; and 
nothing would be more obvious than to select for her a husband, 
who, if of royal blood, should at the same time not be likely to suc- 
ceed to the throne of his country. Now I am disposed to think 
there is a considerable probability that the individual thus selected 
was actually a collateral relation of Darius, and so connected with 
him as to make the latter, at the time of the death of the last sur- 
viving child of Cyrus 'the Great, next heir to the crown of Media. 

In Book vii. § 1 1 of Herodotus, Xerxes is made to trace his own 
pedigree up to his eponymous ancestor Achsemenes, and so com- 
pletely without any motive for introducing this scrap of genealogy, 
that the most obvious reason for his doing it seems to be, that 
Herodotus, having obtained it from some quarter or other, was 
desirous of incorporating it in his narrative, and saw no other way 
of doing so but by putting it in the mouth of the monarch himself. 
That it does not belong to the same cycle of traditions which are the 
source of the narrative of the infancy of Cyrus is certain ^m the fact, 
that in that narrative the father of Cyrus's parent Cambyses bears a 
name identical with that of his illustrious grandson t, whereas in the 
pedigree of Xerxes that same Cambyses is made the son of Teispes. 
And the exact accordance of the pedigree with the Behistun 
inscription for the greater part of its extent would «eem to be a 
decisive proof that it is derived directly or indirectly from the same 
source, if only the remainder of it can be explained consistently with 
the .same record ; and this I will endeavour to show may be done 
most naturally by adopting the hypothesis just mentioned. 

The pedigree Xerxes gives of himself (taken downwards for the 
sake of convenience) runs as follows : — (l) Achaemenes, (2) Teispes, 

* Herod, i. 109. Cten\a» says that Cyrus was no relation to Astyages. But 
it is to be remarked that Cteslas knows nothing of the Mandane of Herodotus. 
Astyages' daughter is (according to him) Amytis, whom Cyrus adopts as his 
mother and afterwards marries (see note on page 20). Both accounts therefore repre- 
sent the kingdom as coming to Cyrus by descent, real or conventional, from the 
daughter of the deposed monarch. 

fid. i. 107. 

X wvtrOavofiai a>s dpa MavSdvrit re sii; trait r^c 'Avrvdyew Bvyarpht xai 
Kaftpvaeia rov Kvpov (i. 111). 


(3> Cambyses, (4) Cyrus, (5)Tei8pe8, (6) Ariaramnes, ^7) Arsamea, 
(8) Hystaspes, (9) Darius, (10) Xerxes, which (it will be seen) be- 
comes identical with the authentic genealogy of the Behistun inscrip^ 
tion, if the second, third and fourth terms of the series be taken 
away. This, however, without some satisfactory explanation of the 
reason for which Herodotus was induced to adopt them, is a mode of 
reconciling discordant statements by no means to be approved. But 
what if the only error here should be, that Herodotus, or rather the 
authority followed by him, had put two separate genealogies (belong- 
ing to the two branches of the same family) one after the other- in- 
stead of side by side? What if the pedigree of Cyrus ran (1) 
Achsemenes, (2) Teispes, ^3) Cambyses, (4) Cyrus, and that of 
Darius in exdbt accordance with the Behistun inscription, starting from 
the common ancestor, (1) Teispes, (2^ Ariaramnes, (3) Arsames, 
(4) Hystaspes, (5) Darius ? This mistake is so natural a one, and 
accounts so well for the form given to the genealogical tree in the 
passage in question, that it can be fedrly assumed as a probable 
hypothesis, remaining to be confirmed or weakened by the conformity 
or disagreement of other facts with it. 

The internal government of Media in the time of Astyages appears 
clearly to have been a monarchy surrounded by an extremely power- 
ful oligarchy, united to one another by the bond of the Magian 
religious system. The religion of Persia, on the other hand, appears 
to have approached very nearly to pure Theism, or at any rate to 
have been quite alien from the symbolism and the complicated cere- 
Bionial of Media. This difference of religion superadded to the dif- 
ferences of civilization must have increased the improbability of Cyrus 
the Persian succeeding to the throne of Astyages, had not the ty- 
ranny of the latter induced his nobles, and among them Harpagus, 
his own relation (Herod, i. 109), to conspire against him, and, with 
the assistance of Cyrus and his hardy Persian troops, to dethrone him. 
Jealousy of each other (perhaps aided by the physical force which 
Cyrus had at command) probably prevented them from doing that 
which Astyages thought would have been the natural thing, — making 
one of their own body (Harpagus himself for instance) the successor 
(Herod, i. 129) ; and these considerations doubtless added force to 
the claims of Cyrus through his mother, which of themselves, had he 
been of pure blood, would have been irresistible* ; and thus the son 
of Cambyses the Persian became king of Media and suzerain of Persia, 
but not king of Persia in the same sense in which the sovereigns of 
the line mentioned in the Behistun inscription were, from Achsemenes 
down to Hystaspes inclusive. Consequently his name would not be 
introduced into that list, although his position would be higher than 
that of any of his feunily. But this elevation of Cyrus to the imperial 
throne could never have been acquiesced in if he had not been able 
to accommodate himself to the order of things into which he had been 
introduced. It was only natural that he should adopt the state religion 
and be received as a Magian, This is (I apprehend) the principle 

* *Affrw<Syij« fiev itrri yipwv, koI air ait iptrtvot yovov el ie GtXfiiret, tovtov 
rek€vrfi<favro9f it ri)v Gvyarepa ravrtiv Apafirivai i| rvpavvh, ic.r.X. 
(i. 109.) 


involved in the strange proceeding recorded by Ctesias, that Cyrus 
secured his power by first adopting as kis mother, and then marrying, 
Amytis, the daughter of Astyages, although her husband had to be 
slain to enable him to do this*. The first act of the revolution was 
thus brought to an end, and no further troubles seem to have arisen 
till after Uie death of Cyrus. 

The pedigree of the Achsemenids may, after what has been said, 
be with considerable probability set out as follows, in substantial 
accordance with Herodotus and Ctesias, as well as with the Behistun 
rock tablets. 

Achaemenes (king of Persia) 

Teispet (king of Persia) 

Cambyses (husband of Mandane the 
Ariara'mnes (king of Persia) daughter of the king of Media and 

suzerain of Persia) 

Arsames (king of Persia) Cvrus (king of Media and suzerain 

I 'I of Persia) 

Hystaspes (king of Persia) Cambyses (king of Media Bartius, otherwise 

I and suzerain of Persia) Smerdis, otherwise Tany- 

Darius (king of Persia, oxarces, hing of Baetria, 

king of Media, and suzerain according to Ctesias. 
of Persia). 

* Ctesias related that Astyages was first of all put in chains by Cyrus, but soon 
after released by his own hand, xal un Tcarepa rtfitiOrivcu, leai ri^y Bvyarepa 
'Afiiriv irpSrepov fikv fifiTpiKTit AiroXavirai rtu^s, eireira ik Kai eU 
yvvaiKa dx^^^^^ ^V iL-bpi^^ ^vtrdfia rov Avopbs avrnt Avyptifievov, Src 

eilfevtraro dyvoeiv elirtav kpevviifievov 'A<rrt/tyav xal in irpbs BaKrplow 

iiroXtfiriae [Kv^] ital dyx^/^oiKot 17 iidxfl eyevtro* iirei ik Bdicrpiot 'A^rvtvav 
fikv warkpa Kvpov yeyevtiuevov, *AfiVTiv ih fitiripa Kai y vvaiKa eitaBoVt 
€avroi)9 Mvrei 'A/i^ri vat Kvptp irapiio<rav. It appears to me not unlikely that 
at the coronation of the Medo-magian kings, some ceremony like the proceeding 
which Ctesias states to have taken place was employed to typify the conveyance of 
abiolute dominion over the earth, — an essential idea of Oriental sovereignty. That 
such a meaning might naturally be so symbolized is shown by the interpretation 
which the soothsayers put upon Julius Caesar's dream (Suetonius, Jul. Cms. § 8), 
and that which Hippias put upon his own (Herod, vi, 107). The case of Comon 
the Messenian refugee (Pausanias, iv. 26. 3) is still more decisive; and indeed 
Artemidorus (see Casaubon's note on the passage of Suetonius), whose work is a 
repertory of traditional interpretations, and therefore represents the notions of a 
much earlier time than his own, lays it down as a settled point that a dream like 
Cflssar's is an especially lucky one for a statesman, on the ground of its symhoUzing 
an absolute dominion willingly acquiesced in. It is only natural that the ceremonies 
of a foreign hierarchy should be taken literally by a people not familiar with 
them, and hence the coarse charge of Catullus, embodying, no doubt, the vulgar 
notions prevalent in Rome at his time— 

Nascatur magus ex Gelli matrisque nefando 
Coi\jugio, et discat Persicum aruspicium. 

Nam magus ex matre et gnato gignatur oportet, 
Si vera est Persariim impia relligio. — Catullus, xc. 
That the interests of the Magians and those of the dynasty of Astyages were 
closely bound up together, and that the possible succession of Cyrus was looked for- 
ward to as something necessarily fatal to the former as well as the latter, appears 
from Herodotus (i. 120). 


The corrected pedigree will now in its turn enable us to offer an 
explanation of some parts of the Inscription which are otherwise un- 
intelligible. Darius, in the first part of what may be called his annals* 
as well as in the tablet above his own figure in the bas-relief, asserts 
that there have been eight kings of his race before him, and that he 
himself is the ninth. As it is plain from the genealogy which accom- 
panies this assertion that three of the number were not in the direct 
line from Achsemenes to himself, and consequently were not kings 
of Persia, they must be sought for elsewhere. I believe that they are 
Cjnu the Ghreat, Cambyses, and the true Smerdis. It may be argued 
against this view, that as he speaks of Smerdis (Bartius) as a 
fomentor of troubles, it is not to be supposed that he would acknow- 
ledge him as a sovereign dejure. To this, however, I cannot agree. 
Ctesias expressly states that Cyrus left his son Tanyoxarces (who is 
identical with the Bartius of the inscription) an independent save* 
reign of a portion of his dominions, at the same time that he consti- 
tuted the elder brother Cambyses his succeissor in the empire'*' ; and 
although subsequent proceedings cost the younger son his life, yet 
this would not (I conceive) at all detract from the disposition to 
acknowledge his royal character. Jehu paid a similar mark of 
respect to the idolatress Jezebel immediately after he had caused her 
destruction (2 Kings, ix. S4) . And it is to be observed, that Bartius's 
conduct is nowhere spoken of as if it had extended to open rebellion 
against Cambyses. He is rather conceived of as secretly tampering 
Tiith the subjects of the latter, and, if destroyed at all during his reign, 
as cut off by assassination ; and that in so mysterious a manner as to 
occasion very different reports both of the time and the circumstances 
of his death, and to furnish more than one pretender with plausible 
grounds for asserting his existence. For until after the death of 
Cambyses it was popularly believed that he was alive and reigning ; 
therefore, up to that time it was impossible that he should have been 
publicly declared a rebel and as such deprived of his royal character, 
even if we grant that this consequence would, in oriental ways of 
thinking, follow from such a public declaration. And after the death 
of Cambyses, and the assertion being publicly made that the professed . 
Bartius was an impostor, there would remain no motive for such a 
gratuitous insult to the memory of the real Bartius, a prince who no 
longer stood in the way of Darius. 

To return to the history of the empire after the death of Cyrus, 
it may be gathered from every account of Cambyses that his di- 
stinctive character was that of a despiser of the prevailing religion, 
his hostility to which was carried to the extreme of intolerance. A 
savage in temperament and filled with religious fanaticism, his policy 
put an end to the calm which had been produced by the compromise 
of his father Cyrus, and induced the troubles which it was the interest 

* Kvpof ik fUKkuv rffXf vr jv KafiPiKniv iikv rhv icp^rov vlhv PaaXia 
KaOcvnf , TawolidpKfiv Sk rhv vebtrepov eireorji^e ^«9ir6rifv Bavrpcwv icai 
rrit x^P^'"^ *A* XopaiivUtv Kai JIapOiuv cai JLapfiaviutVt dreXecs l;(eiv 
rdff x^P^* ^copc<raftcvos. jtp* Photiumf Biblioth, p. 37. 


of his brother Bartius, king of the Baetrumt*, to foment. It was 
only natural under such circumstances that the Medians shoold seize 
the opportunity of Cambyses' absence in Egypt to endeayour to rid 
themselves of him, and at the same time revive the supremacy of 
their own religion. It had become a question between supremacy 
or extinction ; and accordingly the general revolt spoken of in the 
Behistun tablets took place, and was for a time eminently successful, 
until the Oromzd worshipers under the guidance of Darius — the 
next heir to the empire after the death of Bardus — once more 
obtained the victory, and by the consummate skill of their champion 
succeeded in consolidating it. Indeed the true political significance 
of the Magian usurpation, — represented as it is by Herodotus in the 
light of a private scheme, carried into effect by an ambitious and 
unprincipled pretender, — yet shows itself here and there in his nar- 
rative, in insulated passages which harmonize ill with the story thai- 
he follows in his main account, but are in exact agreement with the 
course of proceedings as recorded in the Behistun tablets. Several 
of these undesigned confirmations of the official account I have my* 
self remarked; and probably more will be detected by a reader whose 
attention has been once called to the subject f. 
The narrative of Herodotus represents the cadastral system intro* 

* Se« the ptBsage of Ctehias quoted above in the last note, and the latter part of 
that in the note on page 80, by which last the attachment of the Bactrians to tha 
Magian dynasty is proved to demonstration. 

t I* Herodotus says that on the accession of Darius to the throne, he found 
the whole of Asia, with the exception of the Arabians, submissive to his rule, 
'* Cyrus, and qfterwards Cambytet, having subdued it" (iii. 88). Bot in the 
whole of his work there is no account of Cambyses having done anything of the 
sort On the contrary, the expedition to Egypt ia spoken of as if immediately fol- 
lowing the death of Cyrus« But the Behistun inscription does imply something of 
the kind; for after mentioning troubles excited in the state by the true Bartius, 
and his death by Cambyses, it adds that the troubles then ceased and Cambyses 
went to Egypt. 

II. Again, in describing the conduct of Oroetes (whose satrapy included neariy 
the whole of Asia Minor) after the Magian usurpation, Herodotus says that he 
** gave no help to the Persians when they had been deprived of their sovereignty 
by the Medes" (iii. 126), — a phrase appropriate not to a mere personal usurpation, 
as he represents the Magians' to have been, but to a revoludon restoring the rela- 
tive position of Medes and Persians as it had existed in the time of Astyages. It 
is therefore exactly in keeping with the account of the rock-tablets. 

ill. On this same principle perhaps may be explained another passage (i. 130), 
which has given a great deal of trouble to the commentators. After winding up the 
account of the dethronement of Astyages and the subjection of the Medes to the 
Persians, in consequence of the acerbity of the Median monarch's temper, Hero- 
dotus adds, that subsequently the Medes repented of the course they had taken, 
and revoltadfrom Darius, but on doing so were subdued and again put down. This 
notice has been assumed to refer to the revolt under Darius Nothus, which was put 
down in the year 408 B.C., and of course the chronology of the matter occasions 
great difficulty. One can hardly conceive Herodotus engaged in writing his history 
so late as this, or that If he meant Darius Nothus, he would not have added some 
qualifying expression to distinguish that monarch from his much more celebrated 
ancestor. Even if an ancient interpolation, this might be looked for. I myself 
cannot but think that here there is either a perversion of the revolt under the Go- 
mates of the Behistun inscription (which was quelled hy Darius), or an allusion to 
the Veisdates of the same (who really revolted from Darius), or— which in my 


duced by Dariun as his first measure after setting up the monument to 
which the strange story of hir horse (iii. 89) was attached. But this 
system, from its very nature, implies a centralization of government. 
It was calculated by its operation to render the monarch far more 
independent of his powerM vassals *» and likewise to procure him 
personal popularity in the outlying countries, the imposts on which 
were fixed by it at a definite sum, instead of being left dependent on 
the will of the ruflianly chie£B who happened to be in command. It 
was only to be expected that this limitation of arbitrary power should 
be unpidatahle to the semi-barbarous Persian chivalry, and that they 
should express their contempt for the financial turn of their sovereign 
by nicknaming him " a tradesmanf*" Now when Herodotus puts 
the erection of the monument and the introduction of the cadastral 
scheme together, this is (I apprehend) due to the circumstance of 
the two relating to the two salient points of Darius's life. His acces- 
sion to the throne of Media not merely made him the feudal superior 
of the king of Persia, but united in one family the hereditary sove- 
reignty of both countries, and thus furnished him with a power that 
his predecessors had not possessed, — that of converting a bundle of 
states into an organic whole. Except under such circumstances, it 
is likely that the centralization effected by him would have been im- 
possible ; and we see that those Persians who were not Achsemenids, 
as well as the Magian usurpers, are represented by Herodotus as pur- 
suing the opposite policy, and one calculated to encourage the inde- 
pendence of the separate states J. But even with such advantages of 

opinion is the most likely of all (see the second note on page 25) — a compression 
of the two rebellions into one. 

IV. Herodotus, although he docs not ezprenly say that the murder of the Magian 
usurper took place in Susa^ yet by implication shows that he laid it there (iii. 64, 
70, 76). Yet he uses the expression of Darius : irapaylverai et rd Sovva <c 
nepo'ewv Hkwv, This expression (see iii. 30) is as inappropriate as it would be to 
say that a person came to Kendal out of Westmoreland. But it appears from the 
Behiatun inscription that the destruciion of the Magian really took place, not in 
Smsa, bat " in the fort Siktakhotes, in Nissea the province of Media : " and to kiH 
him there, Darius may very well have come ** out of Persia." 

* Orestes is represented by Herodotus (iii. 127) as having, at the time of the 
Magian usurpation, the government of " the Phrygian, Lydian, and Ionic nomes." 
The only check upon this absolute dominion over the whole of Asia within the 
Halys was the presence of the Achssmenid Mitrabates, who had the satrapy of 
which Dascyleum was the seat of government. This hindrance Oroetes removed by 
a violent death (iii. 126), and showed by unmistakeable conduct that he intended 
to assert his independence of the new monarch, to whom he stood in very much 
the same relative position as Vespasian to Vitellins on the accession of the latter to 
the throne of the Caesars. Herodotus (it is to be observed) describes the position 
of Orcetes in terms of the later dipision into satrapies, although it is quite clear 
that such a division could not have been made at the time Oroetes was appointed : 
for it was in the time of Cyrus (iii. 120) that he went to his post, probably as the 
successor of Harpagus, who had completed the conquest of the country (i. 162) be- 
gan by Masaivs (i. 156, 161.) 

t ff^iri|Xo«, Herod, iii. 89. 

X The Magians were greatly regretted by all the Asiatic states when they were 
killed, with the solitary exception of the Persians (iii. 67). Oroetes abstained from 
aiding the movement against theni, when he had the whole force of Asia at his 
comnwnd (iii 127). Arid Aryandes asserted the power of a sovereign by issuing 
a coinage (iv. 166). 


position, it is inconceivable that such a revolution as that efFected in 
the creation of the Persian empire (as we find it at the end of Darius's 
reign) can have been brought about by him rapidly. It is more 
reasonable to consider it as the ultimate state into which things sub- 
sided at the end of a long series of wars and civil troubles. And 
this is exactly what the B^iistun inscription would lead us to believe. 
The annals, which take up the greater portion of the first and the 
whole of the remaining three tablets which completed the original 
monument, are nothing more or less than the details of those cam- 
paigns which issued in the acquisition of absolute dominion over the 
twenty -three provinces, these provinces themselves being enumerated 
immediately siter the formal recitation of Darius's titles, that is, in 
the very beginning of the inscription. Hie acquisition of the empire 
and its reduction under a system of central government is plainly 
regarded by the Persian monarch in the same light as the French 
Code was by Napoleon : it is the great work in which he looks to go 
down to posterity, — the r4svmi of his achievements. Before it could 
have been effected, the spirit of the individual races must have been 
quelled, their separate interests fused together, and the weight of 
individual nobles diminished to an extent which could scarcely have 
been produced by any other agency than that which the inscription 
shows us to have been at work, viz. bloody wars of race and religion* 
terminating in the establishment of a central predominant power 
wielding the resources of the whole empire. 

Such a course of events is quite natural, and in accordance with 
what has taken place in many other countries. The struggles which 
resulted in the supremacy of Darius have their parallel in the Thirty 
Years' War of modern Europe, and in our own Wars of the Roses. 
Henry the Seventh is the English Darius in many important ele- 
ments of his character and fortunes, although wanting his personal 
accomplishments and generous temper. 

Conformably to what might have been expected from a train of 
events such as has been sketched out, it appears that Darius changed 
the seat of government from Agbatana to Susa. This was as import- 
ant a step as it would be to transfer the British court and legislature 
from Loudon to Edinburgh ; or as it would have been if the Bourbons 
on their restoration had made Bordeaux the capital of France"^. 
Yet the fact only appears indirectly from tlie narrative of Herodotus, 
who is perfectly unconscious of the momentous revolution of interests 
necessarily involved in such a policy, and pever explicitly notices it 
at all. (See i. 153 and iii. 64, compared with iii. 129 ; vi. 1 19 ; vii. 3 ; 
ix. 108.) 

Again, the extreme anxiety about the personal identity of Bartius 
(Smerdis), and the very mysterious circumstances attending his 
death, receive an entirely new illustration if the relationship of Darius 

* This ii even an understatement of the case. In the East, where there is no 
class of capitalisU, all artisans are maintained, from day to day, by the personal 
expenditure of the wealthy. The change of the seat of government is therefore a 
sentence of emigration or utter ruin to the non-agricultural portion of the com- 


to Cyrus was what I have suggested. It is perfectly certain that 
very many persons believed this individual to be the genuine son of 
Cyrus, and perhaps with justice. Darius believed himself to be the 
only person cognizant of the death of the real Smerdis (Herod, iii. 71). 
Prexaspes must have believed the same (iii. 74). Otanes, in his 
turn, fancied the pretender's secret known only to him (iii. 68). 
One thing is clear, that it was absolutely necessary for the Persian 
party to destroy the 'Magian, and that they had the same motive for 
denying his claim to be the son of Cyiiis that the Orange party in 
the reign of James II. had for trumping up the story of the warming- 
pan. The claim of legitimate succession has always been too pow- 
erful an engine not to be coveted by aspirants to power, and secured 
only too often, if necessary, by the commission of crime ; and the 
removal of the only obstacle to Darius's accession (whether Gomates 
or Bartius) was at last achieved by a small band of conspirators'*', who 
justified their act to the world by the equivocal evidence of producing 
the head of their victim and that of his brotherf in public. 

But by whatever means Darius may have acquired his power, it is 
plain from various incidents mentioned in the narrative of Hero- 
dotus, that he used it in a prudent and temperate manner. If he 
spared nothing to establish the supremacy of the religious party of 
which, according to the Bchistun inscription, he was the champion, 
yet, that result having been obtained, he appears to have been at 
least tolerant of the conquered party. The fierce fanaticism which 
had served him excellently as a weapon of offence must have become 
very inconvenient when he had no longer rivals to overthrow ; and 
it was only to be expected that he should revert to the policy of 
Cyrus and carefully avoid that of Cambyses. And hence, probably, 
arose that revival of Median customs and religious rites in the court 
of the new dynasty, which is indicated in the consultation of Magian 
soothsayers by his son Xerxes t. the Magian hero-worship at Ilium $, 
the scrupulous reverepce for Delos exhibited by the Median com- 
mander Datisll, and (as it would seem) the recognition in later times 
of the necessity of a Magian priest even where the ceremonial 
belonged to a simple religious system^. Indeed the remarkable 
tendency of the Persians to adopt foreign customs, which Herodotus 
himself remarks as an especial characteristic, would probably have 
baffled the attempt of Darius, had he even been desirous of making 

* This is the statement of the Behistiin tablets as well as of Herodotus. 

t I am much inclined to suspect that the two Magians of Herodotus's story 
(iii. 78, 79) grew out of the two pretenders, Gomates and Veisdates, of the Behistun 
annals. Etuh of these professed to be Bartius the son of Cyrus ; but there seema 
to have been a considerable interval between their attempts, — the one being the 
first, the other the seventh of the nine figures which in the original bas-relief ap- 
pear as conquered by Darius. An inverse mistake perhaps gave rise to the account 
of the protracted siege of Babylon (iii. 152). The Behistun inscription makes Dariui 
twice take Babylon after a revolt. On the first occasion he commands in person; on 
the second the successful general is Intaphres, a Median. The former appears as t.he 
thirdf the latter as the ninth of the great successes recorded on the rock tablets. In 
each case the leader of the rebeb professed " to be Nabokodrosor." Herodotus's 
informant seems to have compressed the two campaigns into one long one. 

X viJ. 19, 37. § vii. 43. 1| vi. 97. f i. 132. 


one. to retain them, after inheriting the wealth and civilizatiOD a 
their late masters, in the simplicity of their ancient manners a&4 
ancieot faith. The more sagacious chiefs of the old school doubtlesa 
like Artembares *, prophesied the degeneracy of a generation brougb 
up in habits which would have excited the horror of C3rrus, but tbeii 
protest was in vain ; and in the time of Herodotus it can scarcely Im 
doubted that the court of the Ghreat King presented in morals, reli- 
gion, and social indulgence of all kinds, a t)icture in no respect 
different from that which might have been seen in the worst days oi 
the Median or Assyrian dynasties. 

♦ ix. 122. 


Vol. VI. FEBRUARY 11, 185SJ. No. 129. 

Thomas Watts, Esq., in the Chair. 

A paper was read entitled — 

" Some Suggestions in Logical Phraseology.*' By Professor 
De Morgan. 

Among the most unfortunate ambiguities of language only, unac- 
companied by any confusion of thought, are those expressions which 
we so frequently qualify by the words exclusive and inclusive. 
Whether the termini or extreme cases are to be both taken in, both 
left out, or one taken in and one left out, is a matter which often 
requires an additional sentence. In mathematics, no ambiguity is 
more common than a statement about greater or less, which leaves 
it uncertain whether the extreme case, namely equality, is or is not 
included. In logic, the same thing occurs in the propositional forms. 
' Every x is y ' would be commonly understood as meaning that x is 
not coextensive with y, though the extreme case, that in which there 
are no more ys than xs, would not be held formally excluded. 
The distinction of these two cases led Aristotle to what have since 
been called the predicables. Returning to the master himself, and 
not attending to his followers, we find the distinction of genus, of 
definition ot property (words the distinction of which is extra-logical), 
and of accident. When all the xs are some (only) of the ys, y is 
the genus of x ; when all the jrs, and no other things, are ys, y is 
the definition or property of or. (Thomson, Outlines, &c. p. 146.) 

Similar ambiguities exist as to negative propositions ; but Aristotle 
does not take notice of them, as he would have done, if he had 
admitted contrary or privative terms. The universe of the propo- 
sition being either the whole universe of thought, or a given portion 
of it, all that is not x may be called the contrary of x. If y be a 
name entirely external to x, so that no or is y, then y may either 
apply to the whole contrary of x, or only to a part of it. We owe 
to this omission of Aristotle the want of clear phraseology by which 
to express relations of disagreement, in terms as familiar to us as 
genus, species, and property. I dissept from the general opinion 
that Aristotle confined himself to the common modes of thought, 
and maintain that it was the common mode of thought which con- 
fined itself to Aristotle. We owe the capability of our modem 
languages, as vehicles of abstract science of all kinds, to the scho- 
lastic followers of the Greek philosopher ; and I, for one, am per- 
suaded that the difficulty of certain existing and therefore possible 
forms of thought is due solely to neglect of cultivation; and that this 
neglect has been most injurious to the progress of mental power. 
My present object is to invite criticism and suggestion with respect 

VOL. VI. s 


to an attempt to construct language expressive of extension, and of 
distinction: of extension to privative or contrary notions* and of 
distinction between what, relatively to each other, we may call 
unambiguous and ambiguous predication. 

In my work on Logic I designated terms which are coextensive as 
identical, and the contained and containing terms as mtbidentical and 
superidentical : while terms which are contained in and contain the 
contrary were called subcontrary and aupercontrary. With these 
terms, as expressing the relations of extent, I am well satisfied. Any 
one who will learn to recall their meaning will very easily make 
axioms of those compositions of relations on the perception of which 
the complex syllogism depends. For instance, in the assertion ' A 
subcontrary (or contrary) of a supercontrary of jp is a subidentical 
of 2,' will be seen the mode of inference contained in the following : — 
' If no f be y (whether there be other things or not which are not 
ys), and if y contain all that is not z (and also some things that are 
Z9>), then X (and other things besides) must always be z* Reserving 
this language for comparison of extents, I now propose the following 
extended table of predicables, to express every way in which we can 
predicate or deny one notion of another, in which some is not ali. 

Let that which can be said of all be an attribute ; of some and 
some only, an accident ; of none, an excludent. Observe that the acct- 
dent is also, by definition, non-accident : the former in relation to the 
part of which it can be said ; the latter in relation to the part 
of which it cannot. Let each of these be divided into universal, 
generic, and specific. Let any predicable be universal when it applies 
in the same manner both to the subject of predication and to its 
contrary. Let it be ^generic when, not being universal, by en- 
larging the subject of predication from a species into some higher 
genus, the additional extent contains matter to which the pre- 
dicable is applicable, or which contributes towards the name. Let 
it be specific when no such thing can happen in any genus into 
which the subject of predication can be enlarged. The application 
of the three adjectives to each of the three substantives will give 
nine predicables, which are all that can be, so long as we do no more 
than annex the privative notion to the form of thought on which 
Aristotle distinguished genus, property, and accident. 

I take a descriptive example of each, the universe in question 
being animal^ that is, all the names of which we predicate being 
species of animals, and each species having all other animals in its 

1. Universal attribute, — The term organized, as applied to man, 
m the universe animal, is a universal attribute, because, besides ap- 
plpng to all men, it applies to all the contrary, or to all other 

2. Generic attribute (superidentical). — The term warm-blooded, 
as applied to all men, is a generic attribute, because, without being 
an attribute of all the contrary, it is of some, so that a larger genus, 
containing man, can be formed, of which the term in question shall 
still be an attribute. 


3. Specific attribute (identical). — The term rational is a specific 
attribute of man, because, applying to all men, it applies to nothing 
else* so that no additional extent contained in any genus of which 
man is a species, has anything to which it is applicable. 

4. Specific accident and generic non-accident (subidentical). — ^The 
term lawyer is a specific accident of man, inasmuch as no genus of 
man contains it except as man contains it. The species is called 
an accident of the genus even by Aristotle. 

5. Universal accident and universal non-accident, — ^The term dark- 
coloured, an accident of man, is a universal accident, because it is an 
accident of the class not-man. The word universal, it must be 
remembered, is used strictly according to definition. The universe, 
animal, is divided, as a subject of predication, into man and not-man, 
and the predicable which applies in the same manner to both man and 
not-man, is therefore called universal. But the phrase ' universal 
accident,' sounds like ' total part,' or ' permanent casualty.* One of 
the questions to which I wish to draw attention is the following : — 
When a word applies in a natural and vernacular sense to all sub- 
divisions except one, which should be preferred — ^the extension of 
the word to that one exceptional subdivision, which we are obliged 
to do in mathematics, or the introduction of another and, for the 
present time, more natural, expression ? 

6. Generic accident and specific non- accident (supercontrary). — 
The term unclothed (by art) is a generic accident of man, because, 
being an attribute of some races, and not being universal (for it 
is not an accident, but an attribute, of the contrary), a genus con- 
taining man can be formed, of which genus the term is still an acci- 
dent, the term applying also to the part of the genus which is not * 

7. Specific excludent (contrary). — ^The term dumb (in the sense 
of not capable of speaking and understanding language) is, as pre- 
dicated with respect to man in the universe animal, a specific 
excludent; because, not applpug to man at all, but to all other 
animals, it cannot be predicated excludently of any genus of which 
man is a species. 

8. Generic excludent (subcontrary). — The term quadruped is a 
generic excludent of man, because it is also an excludent of genera 
in which man is contained. 

9. Universal excludent. — The term mineral is a uuiversal excludent 
of man, because it excludes also every animal which is not man. 

The preceding cases include all the forms in which one term can 
be predicated of another without terminal ambiguity in the meaning 
of the word some. Here, some means not none and not all. In the 
sense in which it is used in the common proposition, it only means 
not none. 

And in passing to this common proposition, we see that the mode 
of predication affirms, not one of the preceding, but one of two. 
There are eight modes of connexion, for which eight distinct terms 
are absolutely requisite : these must be of that degree of deamess 
which will make axioms of the compositions of relations which take 


place in inference. In applying the terms genus and species here, 
instead of in the former enumeration, I consider them as having 
become vernacular, and as having taken a purely relative sense. 
When Aristotle mentions the genus, it is not so much with relation 
to species, as in connexion witib property and accident, I could not, 
in the preceding list, have used the word genus instead of atirHmte, 
merely because the word genus, in common language, is no more 
than a correlative of species, and is not usually thought of in oppo- 
sition to accident or excludent. 

I signify the four universals as follows : — 

Every ;r is y x is a species of y. 

Every y is x x is a genus of y. 

No j: is y * is an external of y (and y of x). 

Everything is either x or y\ , ^r/j irv 

or both I * ^* * complement of y (and y of x). 

The species, then, is either the specific accident or the specific 
attribute. The genus is either the specific or generic attribute. 
The complement is either the specific excludent or the generic 
accident. The external is either the specific or generic excludent. 
The name of the particular proposition which denies one of the pre- 
ceding universals, can in no case be a familiar term, so far as I can find. 
Not a species, is partly (at least) external, and may be called exient. 
Not a genus, that is, not entirely filling up, may be called subtotal. 
Not external, and therefore partly, at least, internal, may be called 
partient. Not a complement, and therefore not filling up the whole 
contrary, may be called a subremaindery or subremnant (the word 
. suhcontrary being already appropriated). Thus we have 

Some j:s are not ys . . or is an exient of y. 

Some ys are not a» • . a? is a subtotal of y. 

Some xs are ys x is a partient of y (and y of x). 

Some things are nei- 1 ^ jg ^ subremainder of y (and y of x). 
ther a» nor ys . . J y \ y / 

With little practice, any one will be enabled to reduce a compound 
relation to a simple one, when it can be done. That a species of a 
species is a species is self-evident at once, from our familiarity with 
this one word. That the complement of a subtotal is partient will 
perhaps give a few seconds' thought, at first. It is the axiom on 
which the inference of the following syllogism depends : — Everything 
is either x or y, some xs are not ys ; therefore some jts are xs, — 
in which x is the complement of y, the subtotal of z. 

All that precedes has been admitted into logic, so far as it can be 
done without direct admission of the contrary, or privative term. 
The cases I have brought forward are exhaustive of all the mode^ 
of predication which can be applied to one term by means of another, 
when the logical quantities employed are either none, some (not all), 
and all, or none, some (it may be all), and all. The question I 
raise is one of language entirely ; can we propose any words instead 
of those I have given,' which combine with sufficient system such 
an amount of ordinary meaning as will enable those who use them 
to do it with facility in a short time ? 


Vol. VI. FEBRUARY 25, 1853. No. 1 30. 

HxNSLBiGH Wboowood, Esq., in the Chair. 
O. Ferris, Esq. was elected a Member of the Society. 

A paper was read— 

" On the Etymology of the word Stonehenge" By Edwin Guest, 

That hackneyed subject, the origin of Stonehenge, bids fair once 
more to engage, if it does not reward, the attention of our anti- 
quaries. The hypotheses which have been lately started to account 
for it, are as various and as. inconsistent with each other, as those 
which exercised the ingenuity and the learning of the last century. 
It is not the intention of the writer to examine these hypotheses, or 
to determine whether Stonehenge be a portion of a gigantic plane- 
tarium ; or a druidical temple built by the renegade Britons, after the 
departure of the Romans ; or merely the " locus consecratus," where 
the Southern Belgae held their national gatherings, whether for 
judicial or other purposes. These are inquiries, which, however 
interesting they may be to the antiquary or historian, would clearly 
be out of place in a paper read before this Society. But some of 
the writers who have followed these investigations have partly based 
thdr conclusions on etymological grounds ; and it may not be an 
unsuitable inquiry, nor one altogether without interest to the pro- 
fessed philologist, to examine how far these grounds are tenable, 
and in what manner Englishmen, whose general attainments he may 
respect, will sometimes approach the discussion of questions which 
he has been accustomed to consider as falling more directly within 
his own province. He will probably think that a more familiar 
acquaintance with his favourite science would have led them to 
greater caution. 

Among the writers to whom we have referred, one of the foremost 
places must be assigned to the author of the ' Cyclops Chris tianus.' 
His favourite hypothesis is framed in accordance with the legend, which 
makes Stonehenge the scene where the Welsh nobles fell beneath 
the daggers of Hengist's followers. He considers this story to derive 
some corroboration from the name of the locality. Stonehenge, in 
the more ancient authoriHes, is often called Stonehenges, and a 
monkish writer of the fifteenth century, Simon of Abingdon, in one 
place writes the word Stonhengest, Mr. Herbert would have us 
consider Stonehenge and Stonehenges as corruptions of Stone heng est; 
and maintains that this latter word signifies the stone of Hengest. 

A scholar — and the author of the 'Cyclops Christianus' is a ripe 
and good one — could hardly overlook the difficulties which lie in the 
way of this hypothesis. He examines the question at great length, 
and with an ingenuity which may possibly have deceived him. I 



speak rather doubtingly, for he occasionally exhibits a spirit of banter 
which cannot but awaken the suspicion that he is playing with his 
reader. His arguments may be ranged under two heads : — 

1st. He maintains it as a law of our language, that in those com- 
pounds in which one element bears to the other the same relation 
as an adjective to its substantive, the adjectival or qualifying member 
takes the first place. Hence he argues, that the commonly received 
opinion, which makes Stonehenge to signify the hanging stones (the 
pierres pendues of Wace) must be erroneous, inasmuch as, in this 
case, the qualifying element stands last. 

2ndly. He considers this rule open to one exception, and that when 
the qualifying word is a proper name, it may take the last place ; 
e. g. Port-Patrick, Fort- William, Mount-St. Michael, &c. From this 
he infers, that though it would be contrary to analogy to interpret 
Stonehenge as signifying the hanging stones, yet, considered as a 
corruption of Stone hengest, it may very well signify the stone of 

It is presumed that no member of this Society will be disposed to 
quarrel with Mr. Herbert's first position. With respect to his 
second, we may observe, that such compound terms as Port-Patrick^ 
&c., are instances of a Norman idiom, which has partially afi^ected our 
language from the fourteenth century downwards, but which has 
never succeeded in establishing itself as a portion of our vernacular 
dialect. Stonehenge is clearly an English compound ; its elements 
are English ; and it may be traced to the twelfth century, when the 
Norman idiom referred to was unknown to our language. Such 
idiom therefore can hardly justify us in giving to Stonehenge or 
Stonehengest, the meaning which Mr. Herbert would assign to it. 

Mr. Herbert's speculations with respect to the origin of Stone- 
henge, and also as to the et3rmology of the name, are reviewed in 
an article which appeared in the Quarterly Review for last Sep- 
tember. In considering the first of these questions, the reviewer 
adopts, though with very scanty acknowledgement, all the con- 
clusions and most of the arguments which the present writer laid 
before the Archaeological Institute some two years back, and which 
were published in the Archaeological Journal, No. 30. It may seem 
therefore somewhat ungracious to quarrel with him on a point of 
philology. But his criticism a£Pords us an instructive example of 
the manner in which these subjects are ordinarily treated ; and as 
he appears to be a reader of our * Transactions,' he will probably have 
an opportunity of seeing these remarks, and if he thinks fit, of 
replying to them. 

To the following passage, which appears in his text — 

'* Mr. Herbert seriously thinks that Stonehenge means Hengist's stone, 
which is after all not more improbable than the derivation of Hanging 
stones.'*— Quart. Rev. Sept. 1852, p. 305. 

he appends the note — 

" We conceive that henge is a mere termination of the genitive or adjec- 
tive kind, 8uch as Mr. Kemble has given a list of in one of his papers for 
the Philological Society." 

May we not ask, what possible good can come ftt)m laying before 


the public crude and undigested notions like these ? It is clear, if 
the reviewer were asked for his philological objections to Mr. Her- 
bert's etymology, that he has none to give. What then is the value 
of his judgment upon it ? It is just as clear, if he were asked to 
explain the meaning of Stonehenge according to Mr. Kemble's 
theory, that he would be equally at a loss. What then is the value 
of the "conception" with which he favours us? The etymology 
which tradition has handed down to us, he dismisses very summarily ; 
but the writer hopes to advance reasons sufficiently strong to con- 
vince the reader, that it is an explanation of the term which will 
satisfy both good sense and philological criticism. 

We find in many of the Gothic languages words closely resembling 
henge, and signifying something suspended, as a shelf, a curtain, an 
ear-ring, the overhanging side of a valley, &c. These words enter 
freely into composition. 

hrot'hanget Germ. — shelves to hang bread on ; hrot, bread. 
qvark-hdnge, Germ. — a frame to dry curds and cheese upon ; qvark, curds. 
ihal'hange. Germ.— the steep side of a valley; thalt a dale. 
or-hdngey Swed. — an ear-riDg ; dr-a, an ear. 

Have we in our own language any word that seems to answer 
to the element which occupies the final place in these compounds ? 
Any person who enters a butcher's shop in the south or west of 
England may hear the phrase " head and hinge," by which ' the 
worthy tradesman designates the heads of certain animals, with the 
portions of the animal thence dependent. The word, it would seem, 
is sometimes pronounced hange or hanje ; and in the Glossary to the 
Exmoor Scolding is thus defined : — 

Hanje or hanje. The purtenance of any creature, joined by the gullet to the 
head, and banging together, viz. the lights, heart, and liver. 

The writer believes this to be only another application of the word, 
which appears as the final element of the compound Stonehenge \ 
and that in such compound henge signifies the impost, which is sus- 
pended on the two uprights. 

According to these views, Stonehenge might be used in any case 
in- which one stone was suspended on two or more others ; and in 
this sense we find it not unfrequently used in our literature. Stukely 
appears to have had some obscure notion, that the word might be 
used with this general meaning, for he tells us, he had been in- 
formed that in some locality in Yorkshire, certain natural rocks were 
called Stonehenge. Mr. Herbert makes short work with " a dis- 
honest writer, the forger of the Dracontium ;" and will only admit 
that " some place may have been so surnamed in modem times by 
knowing persons, and by way of comparison, but perhaps not even 
that." Stukely, however, might have easily accumulated authorities 
to rest his surmise upon, had he known where to look for them. 
. *' — herein they imitated or rather emulated the Israelites, who being 
delivered from the £g}'ptians, and having trampled the Red Sea and Jordan 
(opposing them) under their feet, did bv God's command erect a stonage* of 
12 stones," &c.— Gibbons, A fool's bolt soon shot at Stonehenge. 

* It should be obserred, that Stonehenge is always called Stonage by the pea- 
santry of the neighbourhood. 



" Would not everybody say to him, we know the tUmage atOilgal ?" — Leslie. 

'' •— as who with skill 
And knowingly his journey manage will, 
Doth often from the beaten road withdraw, 
Or to behold a stonage, taste a spaw. 
Or with some subtle artist to conferre." 

G. Tooke's Belides, p. 11*. 

Hence we may understand bow it comes to pass that Hun- 
tingdon and our older authorities generally write the name Stone- 
henges. Each of the trilithons was, strictly speaking, a stonage ; 
and the entire monument might either be ctdled the Stonages, or, if 
the word were used in its collective sense, the Stonage, Stone^ 
hengest, which Mr. Herbert discovered in one of the authorities 
quoted by Usher, can only be a clerical blunder for Stonehenges. 

Besides the word hang-e, there seems to have been, both in our 
own and in the other Gothic dialects, a related word which did not 
take the final vowel. From this the Germans got their vor^hang, a 
curtain ; and ourselves, it would seem, the word Stonheng, 

** Arst was the kyng y buryed, er he myghte come there 
Wlthinne the place of the Stonheng, that he lette rere." 

Rob. of Gloucester, 154. 

The word hang, which we thus wish to distinguish firom hange or 
henge, is used in Norfolk, to signify, first, a crop of fruit t. e. that 
which is pendent from the boughs ; and secondly, a declivity : Vid. 
Forby. It enters into the West-of-£ngland compound, slake-hang. 

Slake^hang, s. sometimes called only a hang, A kind of circular hedge 
made of stakes, forced into the sea-shore and standing about six feet 
above it, for the purpose of catching salmon and other fish. — Jen- 
nings's Western Dialect. 

In East Sussex, it appears that the stage on which herrings are 
dried» is called a herring -hang : — 

Dees, Herring-dees, a place in which herrings are dried, now more generally 
called a herring-hang, from the fish being hanged on sticks to dry. 
— HolIoway*s Provincialisms. 

During the fifteenth century, the trilithons at Stonehenge — or 
perhaps we might more correctly say their imposts — were, it would 
seem, known as the Stone hengles : — 

" The kyng then made a worthy sepulture 
With the stone hengles [wythyn Stonehenge] by Merlyns whole 

For all the lordes Britons," &c. — Hardyng's Chron. p. 116. 

" Where he had woorde of his brother's enterrement 
Within the Giauntes carule that so then hight, 
The stone hengles [stonehenges] that now so named been," &c. 

Hardyng's Chron. p. 117* 

* The last two examples are quoted by Nares. 


" — buryed at Caroll no lease 
Besyde Vteipendragon full expresse 
Arthures father, of greate worthy nesse, 
Whiche called is the stone Hengles [Stonehenge] certayne 
Besyde Salysbury vpon theplayne/' — Hardyng's Chron. p. 150; 

The words included within brackets are the reading furnished by 
the Harleian MS, 

Mr. Herbert was aware of the term Stone-hengles, He observes, 
" The metrical historian Hardyng twice (query thrice) employed, 
but without explaining, the appellation Stone Hengles, * which called 
is the stone Hengles* certayne,* p. 116, 150. Ed. Ellis. This reads 
like lapides Anglorum, or lapides Angelorum ; but is indefensible." 

In this passage Mr. Herbert has not expressed himself with his 
usual clearness. He probably meant to say, that the only expla- 
nation of the phrase which presented itself to his mind, was that of 
lapides Anglorum or lapides Angelorum ; and that neither of these 
could be supported. The writer concurs in this criticism, but he 
believes Hardyng never would have thought of starting either of the 
explanations to which such criticism is applicable. It is submitted 
to the reader, that hengel is nothing else but a derivative of hang ; 
and that, like its primitive, it simply meant something that was 
suspended. In Devonshire, the moveable iron bar wluch is sus- 
pended over the fire to hang the caldron upon, is together with its 
appurtenances stiU called " a pair of hanglea" Jennings's West. 

Before we close this paper, it may be permitted us to notice 
another word, which seems to be formed on the same analogy as 
Stonehenge. The lych-gate, which is often found at the entrance 
of our churchyards, is called in the West of England a scallenge. 

SeaUage or scaUenge, s. — a detached covered porch at the entrance of a 
church-yard. Ducange in v, shows that scalui was sometimes used 
for stalhu, in the sense of a seat. Hence perhaps may have been 
derived scalaguim. Concerning the termination aguim, see Diez, 
Rom. Gramm. vol. ii. p. 252. 

The chief objection to this etymology is, that a scallenge rarely 
or never contains a seat. In most cases it consists merely of a tiled 
or slated roof, supported on two strong uprights. It may also be 
doubted, whether in the cases where scalus seems to take the mean- 
ing of * seat,' it be anything more than a blunder for stalus. Every- 
one that has looked into a mediaeval MS. knows how commonly 
these two letters c and / interchange. 

Now the Dutch call a slate schalie, and in our Old-English 
dialect we find it called skalye. See Jam. Diet. Hence the pits or 
quarries, whence, as at Stonesfield, the brown or stone slate was 
dug, took the monkish name of scalingi. A construction which 
supported a roof formed of such slates may have been termed a 

* It may be at well to inform the reader who is not familiar with the MSS. of 
the period, that the use of an initial capital in stone Hengles is a matter of no sig- 
nificance. In two of the three quotations, the word is written stone hengles. 


Vol. VL MARCH 11, 1853i\ '^' ^ 

Professor H. H. Wilson in the Chair. 

A paper was read — 

•• On the Aorists in -ica." By R. G. Latham, M.D. 

A well-known rule in the Eton Qreek Grammar may serve to 
introduce the subject of the present remarks : — " Quinque sunt aoristi 
primi qui fiituri primi characteristicam non assumunt: idriKaposui, 
I^ZutKa dedi, iJKa mist, eiira dixi, ^veyica tuli," The absolute accuracy 
of this sentence is no part of our considerations : it has merely been 
quoted for the sake of illustration. 

What is the import of this abnormal ic ? or, changing the expres- 
sion, what is the explanation of the aorist in -ca ? Is it certain that 
it iff an aorist ? or, granting this, is it certain that its relations to the 
future are exceptional ? 

The present writer was at one time inclined to the doubts implied 
by the first of these alternatives, and gave some reasons* for making 
the form a perfect rather than an aorist. He finds, however, that 
this is only shiifting the difficulty. How do perfects come to end in 
-n-a ? The typical and unequivocal perfects are formed by a redu- 
plication at the beginning, and a modification of the final radical 
consonant at the end of words, rwr(r)w, Ti-Tvi^-a ; and this is the 
origin of the \ in XiXexa* &c., which represents the y of the root. 
Hence, even if we allow ourselves to put the k in iBriKa in the same 
category with the c in ire^/Xi^ire, &c , we are as ftur as ever from the 
true origin of the form. 

In this same category, however, the two words — and the classes 
they represent— can be placed, notwithstanding some small diffi- 
culties of detail. At any rate, it is easier to refer Tre^iXi/ce and Idi^ica 
to the same tense than it is to do so with Tre^iXi/K-e and rtrv^a. 

The next step is to be sought in Bopp's Comparative Gframmar. 
Here we find the following extract: — "The old Slavonic dakh 
* 1 gave,' and analogous formations remind us, through their guttural, 
which takes the place of a sibilant, of the Greek aorists eOriKa, l^wra, 
qjca. That which in the old Slavonic has become a rule in the first 
person of the three numbers, viz. the gutturalization of an original s, 
may have occasionally taken place in l^e Greek, but carried through- 
out all numbers. No conjecture lies closer at hand than that of 
regarding i^wKa as a corruption of iSiaaa" &c " The Lithu- 
anian also presents a form which is akin to the Greek and Sanscrit 
aorist, in which, as it appears to me, ^ assumes the place of an ori- 
ginal s." (vol. ii. p. 791, Eastwick's and Wilson's translation.) The 
italics indicate the words that most demand attention. 
* English Language, p. 489. 

The old Slavonic inflection alluded to is as follows : — 


1 . Nes-ocA 'Se&'Ochowa Nes-oc^om. 

2. Nes-e Nes-o*/a 'Ses-oste. 

3. Nes-e Nes-M^a Nes-owa. 

Now it is clear that the doctrine to which these extracts commit 
the author is that of the secondary or derivative character of the 
form of K, and the primary or fiincUunental character of the forms 
in a. The former is deduced from the latter. And this is the 
doctrine which the present writer would reverse. He would just 
reverse it, agreeing with the distinguished scholar whom he quotes, 
in the identification of the Greek form with the Slavonic. 

So much more common is the change from k, g and theallied sounds, 
to 8, z,&,c., than that from s, r, &c. to k, g, that the cL priori probabili- 
ties are strongly against Bopp's view. Again, the languages that 
pre-eminently encourage this change are the Slavonic ; yet it is just in 
these languages that the form in /c is assumed to be secondary. For 
s to become h, and for h to become k (or g), is no improbable change : 
still, as compared with the transition from k to 8, it is exceedingly 

Aq few writers are better aware of the phsenomena connected with 
the direction of letter- changes than the philologist before us, it may 
be worth while to ask, why he has ignored them in the present 
instances. He has probably done so because the Sanscrit forms 
were in 8 ; the habit of considering whatever is the more Sanscritic 
of two forms to be the older being well-nigh universal. Never- 
theless, the difference between a language which is old because it 
is represented by old samples of its literature, and a language which 
is old because it contains primary forms, is manifest upon a very 
little reflection. The positive argument, however, in favour of the 
k being the older form, lies in ti^e well-known phsenomenon con- 
nected with the vowels e and t, as opposed to a, o, and u. All the 
world over, e and t have a tendency to convert a A* or ^, when it 
precedes them, into 8, z, sh, zh, ksh, gzh, t8h, and dzh, or some similar 
sibilant. Hence, as often as a sign of tense, consisting of k, is fol- 
lowed by a sign of person, beginning with e or t, an 8 has a chance 
of being evolved. In this case such a form as ^^'Xi^tra, c^iXii^af , 
mXtjae, may have originally run e^tXi^ica, c^/Xi^icas, k^iXriae, The 
modified form in a afterwards extends itself to the other persons 
and numbers. Such is the illustration of the h3rpothesis. An ob- 
jection against it lies in the fact of the person which ends in a small 
vowel, being only one out of seven. On the other hand, however, 
the third person singular is used more than all the others put 
together. With this influence of the small vowel other causes may 
have cooperated. Thus, when the root ended in k or y, the com- 
bination ic radical, and ic inflexional would be awkward. It would give 
us such words as }[k€K'Ka, &c. ; words like rkrvv-Kay iypav-Ka, being 
but little better, at least in a language like the Greek. 

The suggestions that now follow lead into a wide field of inquiry ; 


and they may be considered, either on their own merits as part of a 
separate question, or as part of the proof of the present doctrine. 
In this latter respect they are not altogether essential, t. e. they are 
more confirmatory if admitted, than derogatory if denied. What 
if the future be derived from the aorist, instead of the aorist 
from the future ? In this case we should increase what may be 
called our dynamics, by increasing the points of contact between a k 
and a small vowel; ibia being the influence that determines the 
evolution of an s. All the persons of the future, except the first, 
have e for one (at least) of these vowels — 

rwir-ff-w, TtnT'ff-eis, rvir-ff-ec, rwa-i-rriy, &c. 

The moods are equally efficient in the supply of small vowels. 

The doctrine, tiien, now stands that k is the older form, but that, 
through the influence of third persons singular, futiu-e forms, and 
conjunctive forms, so many «-es became developed, as to supersede it 
except in a few instances. The Latin language favours this view. 
There, the old future like cap-S'O, and the preterites like vixi (vic-si) 
exhibit a small vowel in all their persons, e, g, vic-s-i, vic-s-isti, 
vic-8'it, &c. Still the doctrine respecting this influence of the small 
vowel in the way of the developement of sibilants out of gutturals is 
defective until we find a real instance of the change assumed. As if, 
for the very purpose of illustrating the occasional value of obscure 
dialects, the interesting language of the Serbs of Lusatia and Cotbus 
supplies one. Here the form of the preterite is as follows, the 
Serb of lUyria and the Lithuanic being placed in juxtaposition and 
contrast with the Serb of Lusatia. Where a small vowel follows the 
characteristic of the tense, the sound is that of sz ; in other cases it 
is that of ch (kh). 





Sing. 1. 

noBzach . . 

ioneso . . 

nesziau. . 



noBzesze. . 

donese . . 

nesziei . . 



noszesze. . 

doneae . . 

neszie . . 


Dual I. 




noszestaj . 

neszieta. ■ 



noszestaj . 


Plur. 1. 






noBzes'c'e . 


nesziete . 



noszachu . 


neszie . . 



Vol. VI. APRIL 8, 1853. i'^ ' ' * ' ^6.1^ ' j 

^ ^^^XjpWT^.'- 

Hbnslbigh Wedgwood, Esq. in thc^^^ — 

The following paper was read — 

" On the Origin and Primitive Meaning of the Word Ange** By 
M. H. Leducq, late Principal of the College of Aire and Member of 
the Asiatic Society of Paris. 

The Barbarians did not always spoil what they changed. In de^ 
grading some of the Latin forms, they put a new life into them, and 
impressed on their derivatives all the originality of a creation. 
Among a great number of French words distinguished by this cha- 
racteristic, the word atige may be cited as at once one of the most 
poetic and graceful terms in our (French) language, and so much 
the more French, that its form and sound are not found in any other 
of the languages derived from the Latin*. 

The modem French ange stands to the old form ang-el in the 
same relation that the words dom, dame,femfne, page, lame, &c. do to 
d!om-inus,/cem-ina,/N^-ina, /om-ina, &c. The so-called diminutival 
terminations -invs, -ina, instinctively cut off, have given rise to the 
so-called positive forms dom, dame,femme, page, lame ; and in the same 
manner, tibe so-called diminutival termination -el has been cut off in 
ang^l, and from this 'Apocope' has been evolved the form ange, of 
which the spelling is no less arbitrary and barbarous than the pre* 
ceding, since it sprung in the Middle-ages from that same blind 
instinct, which, in the absence of grammar and of writing, guided 
our ancestors in their transfer of the Latin element, and in the cre- 
ation of our (French) national language. 

The word amande is, among words of this class, one of the most 
curious that we could compare with our ange. ' From the Latin amyg^ 
dala (G. &fjLvyda\ri, almond ; root&fxvaffw, to prick, scarify; from the 
little holes in its shell), the Proven9al amandola has been formed by 
an assimilation to the diminutival form, very natural in a country, 
and at an epoch, when diminutives were springing by thousands from 
Latin adjectives and substantives. And then, as a sequel to, or if 
you will, a reaction from, this process, the so-called positive forms 
amanda, amenta (in Raynouard), which have passed from the South 
to the North of France, were deduced from the so-called dimi- 
nutive amandola. Such is the origin of the word amande, which, as 
well as the fruit that its name expresses, has come to us (through 
Provence, Italy, and Greece) from Persia ; whence also has come, as 
is well known, the peach, lap^che (L. Persicum malum, Plin. Colum.), 
a fruit of the same family. When compared with the word ange 

* The Portuguese word anjo, cited further on, is from its guttural pronunciation 
and the Semitic sound of the j («the ^ in Arabic), a word very difficult and very 
dbtastpful to us. 



from ang-ei, the word amande, from amand-o\&, presents an exact 
parallel in the manner and progress of its derivation : — the same 
error in the etymological appreciation of the forms amand-ola. and 
an^-el ; the same consequence of the error in the production of the 
forms amande and ange ; lastly, in the origin of the thing, the same 
distance passed over, and hy the same road, in its passage from 

This old Romance word of the Trouv^res and Troubadours, angel, 
a copy from the Latin angelus, disseminated by the Latin church, is 
found everywhere in Europe, after the establishment of Christianity, 
among the Celtic, Scandinavian, Germanic, and Sclavonic races ; — 
in the English angel, identical with the Romance of the period of the 
introduction of Christianity into Great Britain ; in the Anglo-Saxon 
anj^/; in the German and Danish engel; in the Swedish ^tit^e/ ; in 
the old High- German angil; in the Gothic (with the suffix n) 
angil'U ; in the Welsh engyl ; in the Gaelic and Irish aingeal ; in the 
Hungarian angyal ; the Polish aniol ; the Russian angoll ; — as well 
as among the I^tin races, — in the Italian angelo ; the Spanish angel^ 
and the Portuguese anjo, which alone reproduces the French Apocope, 
though not the French pronunciation*. 

The Latin angelus, identical with the Greek ayyeXos (messenger, 
bringer of news, of a despatch or order), has been referred to dyy^XXoi 
(to bring a message, to announce news), which itself assuredly comes 
from ayycXot. The 'ErvjuoXoyiifov /xeya proposes ayeXos and aytoy to 
lead, to collect together, as its source ; and, not to overdo quotations. 
Dr. Webster, with his usual rashness, seeks for the root of dyy^XXw in 
the Irish- Celtic galla, to speak, from the root of call,-'OT, says he, the 

Arabic \\j, qdla, to say, to tell. But the Etymologicum Magnum 

and Dr. Webster despise equally the authority of Grecian history, — 
which attributes to the Persians the method employed in Greece for 
the transmission of letters and despatches, — and the authority of 
common sense, which ordains that we should look for the origin of the 
names of things, in the places whence the things themselves came. 
The question then is, not to throw out, at the will of chance or 
imagination (in Ireland or Arabia), any etymology one fancies, 
founded only on a relation of sound, but to find one rational, local, 
BJid precise, and which reconciles the origin of dyyeXos with the un- 
disputed data of history. Setting out, then, from this principle, and 
considering that dyyeXos will not yield to any Greek ancdysis, it 
becomes not only a duty, but a necessity, to have recourse to the 
Persian dialects, following the evidence of Suidas (confirmed by 
Hesychius), and Xenophon (Cyropaedia, 8, 6, 1 7), and Herodotus. 
8, 78, &c. Now, as in Greek, a/i^Ayiu and dfiiPyia, yAa^m, yAw^w 
and yPd^w, wiraAoy, nriiioy and 7rr^Poi'( =Sansc. />a/ra, wing and 
leaf), fjLayBPa and fxay^aXoy, &c. &c. are radically identical, what 
can be more natural, and more conformable to analogy, than to 
assume at once the identity of dyycXos (a messenger, a message, 
news — in Polybius) and of ayynpos (a bearer of despatches, a mes- 

♦ See the preceding note. 


senger) ; as well as of ayyeX/a (a message, news) and dyyapein (the 
service performed by a courier, a message) ? On the one hand, the 
sense is radically the same ; on the other, the equivalence of the / 
and the r, so common in Greek, is so much the more probable here, 
that, in its borrowings from the ancient Persian, the Greek ap- 
proaches most closely to the Indian, where the / and the r appear to 
become one. For example, in Sanscrit we have — 

vol and vri, to cover. 

U — ri, to flow, to melt. 

fa/ and crt, to pierce. 
kal — kur, to resound. 
val — vri, to love. 
bal — bri, to nourish, live. 
pal — pri, to love. 
&c. &c. 

sal — sri, to throw. 

dal — dri, to eat. 

hal — hri, to take, to hold. 

hval — hvHy to turn. 

Let us carry to its utmost limit this comparison of r and /, so in- 
teresting, not only in the question we are discussing, but for etymo- 
logical science in general. Their equivalence extends to identity, 
even in the domain of Persian itself, vnthout any need of appealing 
from it to Sanscrit. In fact, pure Persian has no /. L does not 
figure in its alphabet, or its spelling, till after the Mahometan in- 
vasion (the seventh century of our era), and then only in words 
imparted by the conquest. This is a fact beyond all controversy, and 
to which one woidd try in vain to bring forward any serious excep- 
tions. Even though the study of modem Persian in the state to 
which the Arabs (from a.d. 652 to 1258), and after them the Mon- 
gols (from 1258), reduced it, were not sufficient to demonstrate 
conclusively that the / C^f) is not Persian, yet a single glance at the 
lojigusige of Persia prior to the invasion, the Persian of Magism, 
— in a word, the Zend, — would be enough to place it beyond all 
doubt. There is no / in the language of the books of Zoroaster ; 

the Zend character ) (r) occupies the place and unites the etymo- 
logical powers of the two liquids*. And thus we find justified by 
History : — 1. the graphical identity of dyycAos and ^yyaFos, in the 
domain of Persian ; 2. the etymological priority of the Grseco-Zend 
spelling ay yapos over its Greek variation ayyeXos (although this 
lat^ter is more ancient in Greek) ; — two important facts which form 
for us, on this point, a rational chronology, in the absence of all 

Before going more deeply into the Persian question, to which we 
have thus cleared the way, let us cast a last look behind upon the 
Middle-ages. By a coincidence really curious to remark in the 

* The Zend character ) (r) expresses, in Pehlvi, the two sounds / and r, with a 

diacritical sign for the r T X J, The forms of / and r, in modern Persian and 

in Arabic, A, ., differ but little from each other, or from their Zend type 3 (»*)i — 

nor, as the learned and ingenious Mr. Norris lately showed me at the Asiatic Society 
of London, do the Hebrew form^of r and/ differ, in inscriptions, except by a slight 
mark, ^ (r), ^ (/). 



history of the word ange, thU ancient change of the r and /, in 
ayy^Xos and ayyapos, is reproduced, at an immense distance from 
Greek etymology, in a special form of the Romance of the Trouveres, 
' angre/ which is to the other Romance form ' ange// as ayyofwc is 
to ayyeXos. There is also this other singularity in it, that the g 
resumes its original hard sound ; and that the liquid, become final 
in Hngel, returns to its primary position, before the tennination, in 
angre. A double fact, to be attributed no doubt to the influence of 
the Franks, who had only the hard g, and who, by an inverted pro- 
nunciation of the liquid,— ^habitual to the Germanic languages in 
their terminations el and er, — mixed up, in Northern France, with the 
Romance form angel, the quasi- Germanic form * angle/ of which 
angre is at once the variation and the derivative*. If then this 
variation angre appear at first sight to be a chance peculiarity, an 
attentive observation brings it back, under the common law of ana- 
logy, to an order of facts of wide extension in the Old Romance of 
the North c^ France. Indeed, angre is to angle, — ^the Germanic 
pronunciation of ange/ (Lat. angelus),—}}Mt as the French ap6tre 
(apostre) is to the Northern-Romance apost/e ^retained in Eng^h), 
which is only the Germanic (Frank and Norman) pronunciation of the 
more pure Romance aposte/, aposto/ (Lat. apostolus, Gr. dir6<rroXo$) ; 
as too the French 4p(tre (ipistre) is to the Northern-Romance epist^. 
South, episto/e and pisto/a (Lat. epistola, Gr. kvittroKiO', as the 
French chapUre (chapistre), £ng. cheater, is to the Northern- 
Romance chapit/e, capit/e, Proven9al capito/ (Lat. capitulum) ; as 
too the French litre is to the spelling of the Trouv^es tit/e (retained 
also in English), and to that of the Troubadours (titel) titol (Lat. 
iitulus) ; — we might add esdandre, Romance escand/e (Lat. scanda- 
lum), and many others. 

But to proceed. It being demonstrated, — 1. by the radical iden- 
tity of the meaning ; 2. by the vocal and etymological equivalence 
of the r and / ; 3. by the normal and constant fact of their inter- 
change, — that ayyofUMi and ayyMXos are originally only one and the 
same word ;— cmd it being proved besides, by the absence of the / in 
the Persian contemporary with the Ancient Greek, that ofyyaPos is 
the etymological spelling of the word, — it now remains for us to 
bring forward the Persian origin, which, taking as a basis the Greek 
tradition, will justify the statements of Hesychius, Suidas, Xeno- 
phon, Herodotus, &c. above referred to. And first, ayyapos (a Persian 
courier who carries despatches, orders, royal letters) and dyyapeia 
(the service performed by an ayyapos, the carrying or transmission 
of despatches) imply necessarily the idea of a thing written, an account 
given, an order sent forth on tablets or on the filfiXos, the liber, &c.. 
after the manner of the ancients. One readily understands that the 
text of a royal letter, the details of a note on a delicate and important 
subject, the report of the general of an army, &c., are not of a nature 

* In this substitution of the r, account must perhaps also be taken of the necessity 
that existed for avoiding the foi-m 'ang/c,' which had been already admitted into 
the language of the Trouvdres under another acceptation, namely as a correlative of 
the Latin anguttu. 


to be confided to the memory, and the word-of-mouth expressions of 
a subaltern or a courier, — ^nor, in many cases, to his discretion. Tliis 
idea of a tUng written^ which I assume as radical here, cannot be a gra- 
tuitous supposition : " "Ayyapos, quomodo Persicorum regum nuncii 
Yocantur, ut scribit Suidas, et Hesychius confirmat, qui sic appellari 
dicit eos qui regias epistolas, alter alteri succedendo ferunt."— - 
Vossius, Etym. Lat. " "AyyofMt dicuntur nuncii regum, tabellani, 
teste Suida, yocabulo Persico k Graecis recepto" (see H. Relandi 
Dissertatio 8, De Veteri lingud Persarum, p. 125-128, and Albert 
adHe^chium, tom. i. col. 37. ""Ayyapoi, oi Ik ^mfoxns ypa^a- 
ro^opoi.'* Suid. '* Tabellarii qui ex successione liiteras ferunt." (Ex 
iElio Dionysio apud Eustath. Od. r . p. 1854.) As one can see by 
these trustworthy renderings, the idea of the letter, the thing written, 
prevails m ayyoftos, who is, in the estimation of Suidas, only the 
letter-wm, letter-carrier. The following passage from Xenophon, 
among a great number of others of the same kind, adds to the idea 
of the thing written, that of the seal which accompanies it: — "*0 
Ilepaiis, 6 <pipijy rh ypafifAaTa^ hei^as r^v BaaiXews a^payl^a 
(sigillum) diriyi/w ra yeypo/i/ii^va" ("EW. 7. 1. 27). See(pa8sim), 
in Greek authors, many analogous phrases, under the words a^ayll^ta, 
signo, to seal, and a^payiayia, atppayls, tn^paylZiov, sigillum, seal, also 
9ilfi€loy in Plutarch. The fitness of meaning, thus ascertained, in- 
duces us then to seek for the etymology of dyyapos, in this idea of 
a thing written, by pursuing a line parallel to that which unites 
tabellarius with tabula, and ypafifjLar6((popos) with ypa^oi (to trace, to 
delineate, to write). At this point, if we turn to a dictionary of 
Modem Persian, we find at once .\^1, angdr, an account, a book (of 
account), and a painter, — a meaning which, at first sight, seems very 
far indeed from the preceding ones ; then h^jj\» angdreh, a narrative 
or statement of facts, of events, of news, a newspaper, — extensions 
which, to go no further, would be sufficient to explain both the idea of 
despatch, proper to ayyapo%, -pela, and that of message, news, essential 
to ayy eXos, -X/a. But the corresponding verb ^^^JJ^\» angaridem, 
or ^jj\^\, angarden, (-iden, -den, are suffixes of the Persian infi- 
nitive,) to trace, represent, to grave, carve, shape, paint ; then, to 
think, to reckon (putare, com-putare), carries us farther by the power 
of its meaning. In fact, the two meanings of counting and painting, 
of which the close approach surprises us in angdr,. find their common 
explanation in the idea of tracing, delineating, — to which also the 
meanings of a statement of facts, a newspaper, contained in angdreh, 
naturally refer themselves. As to the other signification, to think, 
it is a moral meaning of to shape, represent, and may be compared 
with our French verbs s'imaginer, se figurer, se retracer (from imago, 
Jigura, &c.); and with the Latin fingere, fictum (animo). We 
are then brought, in Persian, by the convergence of all the widely- 
spread ideas of this group towards the generic notion of tracing, deli- 
neating, to recognise and set down here, as radical, this idea, which 
is itself a remarkable approximation towards that of ** writing,'* pre- 
sumed to be etymologically in ayyapo$. 


Without departing from the Persian, we can take one step more in 
advance, and turn assumption into certainty. The rationed instinct 
which impels us to go to India to seek traces of the Persian, leads us to 
discover in the dictionary of this language, instead oiangdr, angaridcn, 
an old and curious orthographical form : .1^ , nigdr, painting, 9Xi image, 
an idea, and ^djjij, nigariden, to trace, to grave, to figure, to paint, 
to WRITS, a form douhly interesting, from the brilliant light which 
it casts, as well behind us, upon the etymological meaning of 
dyyapos, as before us, upon the path which must lead us to the 
Sanscrit. In truth, on the one side, the sense of writing, at length 
so clearly brought out in the word nigariden, is, in our estimation, 
the corollary from all the meanings comprised in angariden, and the 
final limit of the etymology of angdr, ayyapos ; while, on the other 
side, the form nigariden, a primitive Persian form still impressed with 
its original Sanscrit character, shows us & Sanscrit synthesis, and 
consequently a Sanscrit analysis, obscurely hidden under the cor- 
rupted form angariden. Let us attempt this analysis. In the Old- 
Persian or Zend, as well as in the Sanscrit, ni — the equivalent of the 
Latin ta (which is only a letter-changed version of it) — signifies in, 
within, and enters into combination, as in Latin, with simple verbs, 
forming a numerous class of compounds. Following up this fiEu^t, 
let us take from the verb ni-gar-iden, the prefixed preposition ni, 
and the infinitival suffix -iden, and we shall have the syllable gar as 
the radical theme and grammatical term of comparison with the 
Sanscrit, whose roots are well known to be monosyllabic. The 
comparative study of the derivation of ideas will furnish us, according 
to the method that I have constantly followed, with a safe rule for 
ascertaining the primitive meaning in Sanscrit of this root gar which 
is retained in modem Persian under the acceptation of writing, I 
said before, that the idea of tracing, scarifying, was an approximation 
to that of writing ; — ^perhaps I ought to have said, it was identical with 
it ; for what was writing among the ancients ? It was tracing by an 
incision into the surface of tablets with a pointed or cutting instru- 
ment like the arvXoi (Lat. stylus), a style or pin, or the ypai^tioy, 
ypai^U (Lat. graphium), a pencil, a style. This is why in Greek, as 
generally in languages which have an ancient character, the ideas of 
writing and of graving or sculpturing are comprised under the same 
root, which also very often implies the notions, — always radical when 
they occur,— of incising or cutting. For example, the notion of w- 
cising is at the bottom of the Latin s-cri-bo, s-cri-ptum, to write, as 
well as of its Greek form ypa^ta, ypanrioy, (from which we cannot 
separate yXa^w and yXv^u, -irreoF, and, with an initial s, a-Kokiriat 
-Trrioy), and also of the lAtin sculpo, to sculpture, etymologically 
identical. Setting out from this primary notion, we see the se- 
condary ideas of tracing, delineating, painting, reckoning (in ypa^w, 
I paint, reckon up, Xen. Peed. iv. &c., and in ypa<tfts, a dehneation, 
figure, pen), and then those of writing, a book, a letter (in ypapfi-ara), 
issuing the one from the other, and forming a series of ideas mutu- 
ally related, intellectually, as the words that express them are, 
grammatically. Further, this series of ideas which comprises, like 


the Persian gar^ the acts of counting and painting, follows in its de- 
velopment a course parallel to that of the extensions we have pointed 
out in nt-6AB-t(2eit. Hie same parallelism strikes us in xapaaaia, -rrti. 
Setting out from its primitive meaning of incising, scarifying, it 
passes successively, first to that of sculpturing (that is, cutting with 
a chisel) ; then to that of tracing lines, ploughing {finder e terram) ; 
then to that of ^ figure, drawing, inscription, letter (in its substantive 
XapoKriip), and lastly to that of a book, uniting -paper, or paper 
written on (in xofntts, Lat. charta, Fr. carte and charte). Beyond 
the Indo-European family, in the Aramic and Semitic languages, 
the derivation of ideas follows the same course in a numerous class 
of verbs synonymous with scriho and ypdi^ia. In Hebrew, for ex- 
ample, PPv A^^fl? (Arabic ^ haqqa), so near in sound to the 
Grerman hacken (£ng. hack), means ' to cut,* and includes the sense 
of inscribing. The Semitic and Splac verb 83 IH' ^*^0' ^^^^^> ^r^ 
(of which the Greek xajoarroi would seem to be only a copy, so com- 
plete is the identity of meaning and sound), passes first from its 
radical meaning of incising, hollowing out, to Uiat of graving; and 
then, by its substantive ^"^^t* ^^'> ^^^ chisel of a sculptor, a tool 
for engraving, tipen for inscribing or writing, a writing, it repro- 
duces successively all the meanings of ypaifHS, and takes in the 
whole breadth of meaning of the Persian nigariden, supposing that 
that has for its starting-point the sense of incising, as it has writing 
for the last term of its extended meaning. It would be easy to 
multiply these logical comparisons, but we will stop them here, as this 
small number, drawn from languages differing so widely, is sufficient 
to prove how natural and deep the relation is, which connects, as well 
in the human mind as in the history of things, the idea of writing 
with that of cutting, incising, — a relation as plain in this case, as that 
of an effect from a cause, of a deduction from a principle. Guided, 
then, by this sure law of analogy on the one hand, and on the other 
by history, — which connects Persia with India as well in its lan- 
guage as in its origin and civilization, — we cannot hesitate to recog- 
nize, in the Persian root gar, the Sanscrit kri (whence kar-ita, &c.), 
in its virtual sense of dividing, cutting, incising ; — clearly shown not 
only in its Greek co-relative K^ip-w (whence Kap-roi), but also in its 
Sanscrit compound apa-kri, to trace lines, to plough, and, above all, in 
its secondary Sanscnt forms krit, krig, to split, cut, plough, and carve, 
grave ; which, as we see, reproduce in the same order of derivation 
all the ideas included in the Persian gar of an-gar-iden, and in the 
Greek yapaatrta, if we add this primary notion of cutting, to which 
we are led by the logical force of the facts*. 

If, from the study of the Persian meaning, we pass to that of the 

* One might be tempted to compare with the Persian gar^ the Sanscrit ^t and 
fol, to bore, drill, which, in its derivatives ^ala a pike and ptrt a point (L. quirts, 
a spear or javelin), borders on the primary notion of a style or awl, and ihe double 
spellingTf which would give, for the third time in the history of the word ange, the 
change of r and /. As to the passing of the Sanscrit p into k and gt we often find Uiis 
in the Indo-European family ; and as to the meaning, the Persian root gar, to trace, 
grave, sculpture, paint, write, would stand to pri, fal, to bore, drill, in the same rela- 
tion as pingo, pictum, and fingo^fictumf to pungo and/lgo, to prick, bore ; and it would 


spelling, we see approximationB to the Persian form^or •= Sansc. kri, 
in the forms of the Zend-Avesta, which insert a and e before r, as 
in the Zend — 

ghere, ghar, from Sanscr. M, to take ; 

gerev, from Sanscr. gribh, to seize ; 

geri^, from Sanscr. gri, to swallow ; 

here, from Sanscr. krt, to do ; 

&c. As to the passing of k into g, if any one would dispute it in 
the direct relation of the Sanscrit and Zend, it is found everywhere 
in the latter ; and so equal is their power in modem Persian, that 
the same form, ^, with a diacritical sign very often omitted, ex- 
presses the sounds k and g of the Romanic and Germanic languages. 
Again, is not the change of the Sanscrit ni into the Persian and 
Greek an (ay), in an-gar, Ay-ytipos, justified by the universally 
inversive forms which ^e Sanscrit preposition ni has assumed in 
Europe ? Lastly, if the Greek preposition iy, the etymological 
equi^^ent of the Sanscrit and Zend nt, has not appeared in ay- 
yapos, ayycXos, under the forms iy-yapos, iy-yeXos, gramma- 
ticaUy identical with the Persian ni-gareh, and with an assumed 
Sanscrit form ni-kara (from ni-kri), — supposing indeed that this 
anomaly of Greek spelling could not be found in the variation angareh, 
— yet it would be explained by a very simple observation, and one 
applicable to all languages. One can easily conceive that a word 
which was not put together in Greece, but was imported entire, at 
a time much later, no doubt, than that of the first formation of the 
Hellenic idiom, should have escaped grammatical laws, and, as 
happens to all exotic words, — their roots being unrecognised, — should 
have talc^en an arbitrary letter-form. How many anidogous cases do 
we not see round about us ! From the Spanish and Provencal article 
el, the, (le), to the Arabic article a/, J I , the, (le, la, lee), there is not 
so great a distance in sound, as from the Greek iv to the Zend and 
Sanscrit ni ; but nevertheless, the Romanic article el, le, is never 
found in Spanish in the Arabic words brought in at the time of the 
conquest, because the Iberian and Romanic races received these 
as strangers and without analysing them, as the Greeks did with 
ayyekos, dyyapos, and many o^ers. It is the same with the Arab 
and Semitic compounds (from abd, servant ; ben, son ; ab, father, &c.) 
which formerly came into Latin Europe. Their elements, from want of 
analysis, have been as it were stereotyped in the Romanic orthography, 
lliis confusion of distinct constituent parts of which words are 
composed, is seen even in circumstances which would seem to render 
it logically impossible ; for example, in the relation of a language to 
itself and acting on its own elements. If the proof were no longer 
extant in the writings of the Middle-ages, what philologist could 

be curious to see the same mutual relation of sounds and ideas going on even to the 
Sanscrit, inpf;,ptii;, to colour, paint, which is to pij, pitch, knock against, (the root of 
the French pic, and bee), as pingo, to paint, is to pingo, to knock against (in i^-pingo). 
The Greek, yp&muL Kocdwrai, a letter has been written (from cdirrw, to cut, hit^, 
would seem to lend to such an induction the support of/act. But in kri (^Keipiu), 
besides that the relation of the spelling is more normal, that of the meaning is more 
direct and complete. 


accept without scruple the formation of the French words lierre, 
lendit, lendetnain, &c. from hedera, indicium, in-de-mane, by the absurd 
incorporation of the article le with the Latin elements which follow 
it : — how admit, in French, this misunderstanding, this confusion, 
with regard to a word which is not only indigenous, but popular, in 
France ? Hiere exists nothing less probable, but at the same time 
nothing more true. Lastly, we find in the dictionary of modem 
Persian, under the double spelling an and ni, a sequence of syn- 
onymous words which will not let us look on this correlativeness of 
an and ni, in an-gariden and ni-gariden, as an absolutely isolated fact. 
These kinds of double forms, in Persian, seem to be, by comparison 
with the Zend and Sanscrit, that which these double French forms are, 
in comparison with the Latin, — as fiiduire and tnduire, Lat. tnducere ; 
empreindre and mprimer, Lat tmprimere ; entonner and mtonation ; 
tfffcourir and incursion, &c. 

To sum up. The Persian iit-^ar(iden)=an-^flr(iden) corresponds, 
in the elements of its meaning as well as in its grammatical ele- 
ments, with a primitive Sanscrit compound iii-AT^= Gr. iy-icclp-iut), 
in the primary meaning of incising, then, by extension, of engraving, 
tracing upon, inscribing, and enters into the analogy of the Sanscrit 

ni-dig, in-diquer . . . • (from ni and dig, to show). • . . in-dic-o ; 

ni'joHy en-gendrer . . (from ni nndjan, to be bom). . ey-yiy-w; 

ni-bandh, attacher . . (from ni and handh, to bind) . . ein-bind-^n ; 

ni-vrit, retoumer . . (from ni and vrit, to turn) in-vert-o ; 

&c. If, from modem France to ancient India, from an-ge to (ni- 
kara) ni-kri, the gap is immense, fearful indeed, at first sight, it 
cannot be doubted, on the other hand, that the intermediate forms 
an-gel, an-gel-xxs, oy-ycX-os, ay-yap-o*, an-gar and ni-gar, which are 
all historical, regularly divide the distance, and bring us, as it were 
by stages, — Ik ^ca^ox^f t according to Suidas's expression, — up to the 
birth-place both of the word and the idea. Between the original 
and the actual idea, the intellectual distance is not less great ; — 
incision in India ; inscription, then, a thing inscribed or written, in 
Persia; carrier of a writing (ypafxfiaro^pos, courier, messenger), 
in Greece and Italy; lasUy, in Christendom, to date from the 
Middle-ages, & courier from heaven, a messenger from God ; and, thus 
spiritualized by Christianity, the angel, in the symbolic meaning of 
the word, has come to express the ideal of moral beauty, and conse- 
quently of physical beauty, in the child and in the woman : — ** Angel 
of virtue, of candour, of goodness, of grace, &c. — he is, she is, an 
angel ; lovely as an angel," &c. Here the Greek physical notion of 
the message disappears under the mightier moral idea, sprung from 
the depths of religious faith, just as the last traces of the Indo-Persian 
spelling ni-gar disappear in the French form an-ge and the Portu- 
guese an-jo. How many are the words, which, considering the 
double distance of space and time, have had only the Alps and the 
Middle-ages to pass over, and have preserved scarcely one letter of 
their immediate Latin type in their modem French form ! 



Vol. VI. APRIL 22, 1853. No. 133. 

Robert Gordon Latham, Esq. in the Chair. 
Dr. Altschul was elected a Member of the Society. 

Two papers were then read : — 

1. "On the Amphictyonic League, and the meaning of the' term 
Amphictyones." By Professor Maiden, M.A., Trin. Coll. Cemb. 

In accounts of the Amphictyonic Council it is commonly stated, 
that the spring meeting of the council was held at Delphi, and the 
autumnal meeting at Thermopylae (for example in Dr. Smith's ' Dic- 
tionary of Antiquities,* p. 39 a ; and lliirlwali's * History of Greece,* 
eh. X. p. 376) : I am not aware of any ancient authority for this 
statement. The passages which are cited by Mr. Clinton to prove 
the point (Fast. Hell. vol. ii. App. c. 16, pp. 358, 359, ed. 3). fall 
short of the proposition which they are intended to support*. 
Charles Fred. Hermann, in his ' Political Antiquities of Greece,' is 
more cautious in his assertion, and contents himself with saying 
that the council met sometimes at Delphi, sometimes at Thermopylae 
(ch. i. § 14.). 

Boeckh has pointed out that the second of his Delphic Inscriptions, 
which contains a decree of the Amphictyons, and which is dated in 
the third Pry taneia of an Attic year, must consequently be the record 
of an autumnal meeting ; and the decree was probably passed in a 
session held at Delphi, inasmuch as it is concerned entirely with the 
regulation of local matters (Corpus Inscriptionum, Pars Sexta, sect. i. 
n. 1688, p. 808). 

This evidence, by itself, would only show that some autumnal 
meetings were held at Delphi. There is a strong presumption that 
at least the autumnal meeting of every fourth year, t. e. the third 
year of each Olympiad, the year in which the Pythian games were 
celebrated, was held at Delphi : for the Amphictyons were the 
dywoQirai, or managers and presidents of the games ; and it seems 
likely that their meeting to celebrate the games was also a meeting 
for the transaction of their other business. Now Mr. Clinton has 
demonstrated triumphantly that the Pythian games were held in 

• Mr. Clinton cites from Libaniua, OraUxxxv. (the declamation on the admission 
of Philip to the Amphictyonic league) : ciioi iihv, H dvdpes 'AOijvaloi, iatj ycvoiro 
rrjv UvXaiaVf fit) AeX^o^s i^eTy, fii^ Ilv^ta, roeravrijs fi€ra<rr<i(T6ws ravra 
K€KivijKvia9f icai ro<rovrov veutrepitrfiov travra dvu* Kai KaTut^ ir67roiijK<5ro«. 
Score<v6v uiv rb Sap* drepirh dk rd ^OivotnopoV daKpvutv dk yefiovaa 17 irav- 
iryvpu, ifllvXala had signiBed only the meeting at Pyl«, this passage might 
seem to refer it to the spring, and the meeting at Delphi to the autumn ; but the 
term IlvXaia is applied to all the meetings of the council, whether at Pylse or 
Delphi, whether in spring or autumn ; and there is no exact antithesis between the 
two clauses of the sentence. 



autumn (Fasti Hellen. vol. ii. Append, ch. 1); but he has not 
adverted to the probable conclusion, that the Amphictyons held a 
session at Delphi at the same time. I believe, however, that in the 
historic period of Greece ail the meetiugs of the Amphictyonic 
council for the transaction of business were held at Delphi ; and 
that Heeren has given the true account of the matter where he says 
that " the deputies first met at Thermopylae to sacrifice to Ceres ; 
and then proceeded to Delphi, where business was transacted." 
(Sketch of Political History of Ancient Greece, chap. vii. note q.) 

Strabo states expressly that the Amphictyonic deputies met and 
sacrificed at Thermopylae upon the occasion of every meeting : lib. ix. 
C. iii. Ai fi€v ovv irpdrai ^wZcKa <Tvv€\Q€iv Xkyovrai iroKeis' iKaarti 
?* hrefiire UvXayopav, ^U icar ctos ovtrris rfjs avvohovt ^apos re Kai 
fieroTTwpov' vtrrepoy ^k xal irXetovs avyrjXdov iroXeis. Tijy J^ ovrolov 
HvXalav €KaXovv^ rijv /xcv kapivrjv, Trjy Ik fjLeronwpiyrjyf hrei^rj ey 
IlvXacs avyviyoyTO, ds Kal Qep/jLOirvXas KaXovaiy' eOvoy ^e ry ArifjiTjTpi 
01 UvXayopai : and in the description of Thermopylae, lib. ix. c. iv. 
loTi ^k Kal XifJLT^y fiiyas ahrodi Kal Aiifirirpos tepoy, ^y ^ Kara iraaay 
HvXalav dvalay eriXovy oi *Afi(^iKTvoy€s. 

It is to be noted that the Amphictyonic meeting was always called 
a Pylsea (ElvXa/a), and the ordinary representatives of the States 
which took part in it were called Pylagorse (UvXaydpai) or Meeters 
at Pylae. These names seem to indicate, that Pylae was the primitive 
place of meeting. I believe that when the Council was originally con- 
stituted, whenever that was, and long afterwards, the representatives 
of the confederate nations met, and performed their sacrifices, and held 
their consultations, and did whatever it pertained to them to do, in the 
ancient temple of Demeter at Anthele, which Herodotus names as their 
place of meeting (Her. vii. c. 200), close to Thermopylae. But when 
they undertook the guardianship of the temple of the Pythian Apollo 
at Delphi, — whether they first assumed it to vindicate the votaries of 
the temple from the sacrilegious extortion of the Crisaeans, or whether 
it was committed to them at some unknown earlier time, — the care 
of the temple, and the regulation of its rites, and the protection of 
its privileges, must have become their chief function and their most 
important business : and I believe that then, for the better perform- 
ance of this business, they transferred their sittings practically to 
Delphi; only assembling first at Pylae, at their original place of 
meeting, for the sake of performing their ancient and traditionary 
sacrifices, and then adjourning to the place wherfe their real business 
lay. I conjecture also, that it was at the same time that the deputies 
distinguished by the special title of Hieromnemones ('lepofjiv^ffjioyes. 
Minders of Sacred Matters) were added to the original Pylagorse. 
This hypothesis accords with the tradition related by the Scholiast 
on Euripides (on Orest. v. 1087), that Acrisius, king of Argos, 
formed a confederacy and constituted a council for the protection of 
the temple at Delphi, in imitation of the more ancient confederacy 
and council of Amphictyon ; and then, after an interval, brought 
about a union of the two councils. 

It must not be supposed, however, that tradition was uniform in 


aBcribing to Acriaius only a secondary place in the organization of 
the league. Other legends made him the original author of it ; and 
Gallimachos assigned to him the foundation of the temple of Demeter 
at Anthele, the primitive seat of the council : Epigr. 40 ; 

Afifitirpi rg UvXairf, rj tovtov ovk XleKairyuiv 
'AKpiffios Tov vffov l^el/jiaro. 

It is true that the more commonly received tradition made Am- 
phictyon the author of the league ; and by describing him as a son 
of Deucalion and Pyrrha, and brother of Hellen, made the con- 
federacy at least coeval with the Hellenic nation. But though the 
hero Amphictyon had a shrine, as we know from Herodotus (vii. 200)» 
close to the temple of Demeter, yet the sceptical spirit of modem 
criticism refuses to acknowledge his existence^ and sees in him only 
a personification of the Amphictyonic council ; deriving the name of 
the federation from the significant and descriptive term Amphictiones 
(*A/i^<cr/oves), which, according to the common interpretation, is 
Dwellers Round About*. 

It must not be supposed, however, that Acrieius is a much more 
certainly historical personage, or that his name is much more proof 
against sceptical etymology. I suspect that, when be is comme- 
morated as the founder of a confederacy, which was to unite as one 
nation the separate tribes of Greece, his name may be derived from 
&t:piros, and that he is a personification of axpiala, and is in a 
mythical form the Annuller of Distinctions. 

That the etymology of the name of the confederates which makes 
it a descriptive term, is the true one, admits of no reasonable doubt. 
The spelling of the name with an u in place of an i, is a corruption, 
and comparatively recent. In the great Delphic inscription already 
cited, the name appears several times as 'A/x^cin-coves (Boeckh, Corp. 
Ins. pars vi. sect. i. inscr. 1688)t. The spelling with v probably 
arose from the impersonation of the council in a mythic founder, 
Amphictyon. ^Afit^iKrlufy in the singular number becomes an un- 
meaning or even an absurd name ; and the termination voiv in a 
proper name is according to the analogy of such names as 'Ap^trpvoiF 
and 'HXeKTpuiify, 

It is necessary to inquire who the ^Afjupucrioyes were. Lists of 
them are given by iEschines (see Fals. Leg. p. 43. § 122), by Pau- 
sanias (x. c. 8. § 2), and by Harpocration, on the authority, appa- 
rently, of Theopompus. It is expressly stated (hat the confederate 
tribes were twelve in number ; but the list of iEschines contains 

* This is the etymology and interpretation given by Androtion in Paus. x. c. 8. 
§ 1 : — 'AvdpoTiutv Se hf rp 'ArOidi S^tj (rvyyoof y, kts rb H dpxfj^ d^Uovro h 
AeX^ovs irapd twv irpoffoixovvrutv (tweipevaovref koX dvoixaffOyvai fikv *Af»- 
^KTiovat Toift avv6\96vTaSf eKvtKrjffat de dvd xP^^oy rb vvv a^taiv 6vofia, So 
Anaximenes in Harpocration, ▼. 'Ap^iKTvov€9i — ^ Atrb rov trepioUovt elv«« 
rHy AeX^wv ro^ avvax'^ivrai, «» ' AvaKifievrii iy irpwry 'EXXijvtcwv. Anax- 
imenes seemt to have been a contemporary of Alexander; Androtion probably 
wrote about the middle of the following century. 

t Once it appears as ' Afi^ixrvovet, according to two copies of the inscription, 
Boeckh, p. 806. The same spelling appears in the Inscription, n. 1689. It appears 
also in nn. 1712 and 1713 ; but these art inscriptions of the Roman age, and art 
of no authority with regard ta'ancient orthography. 



only eleven names ; that of Pausanias* ten ; and Harpocration'a list, 
though seemingly complete, is liable to the suspicion of errors both 
of omission and insertion. By comparing the three we may arrive 
with tolerable certainty at the conclusion, that the confederate tribes 
were these: the Thessalians, the Perrhaebi, the Magnetes, the 
Achaeans of Phthiotis, the Dolopes, the Malians, the iEnianes of 
Mount Oeta, the Eastern Locrians, the Phocians, the Boeotians, the 
Dorians, and the lonians. It is to be observed that the confederacy 
was a confederacy of tribes, and not of states ; and therefore mani- 
festly had its origin at a period so early as to be anterior to that 
spirit of independence and mutual jealousy, which led every body of 
Greeks, large enough to constitute a municipal community, to stand 
aloof from their neighbours, and erect themselves into a separate 
republic. It appears from the brief account of JSschines (De Falsa 
Leg. as above) that the votes of the tribes only were counted in the 
council ; so that the votes of the representatives of the several states 
could have been effectual only in determining the resulting vote of 
their tribe. The fact that the federation was composed of tribes, 
and not of states, shows that Harpocration was in error in enu- 
merating the Delphians among the members of it : for the Delphians 
had no claim to be considered as a distinct and peculiar race*. 

Upon reviewing the list of confederates, it appears that the first 
five tribes, the Thessalians properly so called, the Perrhsebians, the 
Magnetes, the Achaeans of Phthiotis, and the Dolopes, were all 
included within the limits of Thessaly, in the wide geographical 
signification of the term, and dwelt on the northern side of the Pass 
of Thermopylae. The Malians possessed the sea coast and the lower 
part of the valley between the ridges of Othrys and Oeta; and 
Thermopylae was at the eastern extremity of their territory. The 
iEnianes held the upper part of the same valley. The Locrians, the 
Phocians, and the Boeotians, held the territories immediately to the 
south-east of Thermopylae: and it is to be remembered that the 
Boeotians, according to a consistent tradition, had migrated from the 
southern part of Thcssaliotis. The Dorian and Ionian races included 
states which were scattered over the southern parts of Greece, and 
had spread even beyond the iEgean sea. But the territory specially 
called Doris, and which was considered as the mother country of 
all Dorians, was the mountain district south-east of the southern 
end of Pindus, and interposed between Phocis and the regions of the 
iEnianes and Dolopes : and the mythic genealogy which described 
Dorus as the son of Hellen, and Ion as his grandson, expressed the 
traditionary belief that all Dorians and lonians were Bkin to the 
Hellenes of southern Thessaly. 

It is important also to observe what Grecian races were not 
included in the Amphictyonic League. The Western Greeks be- 
yond the Locri Ozolae did not belong to it ; neither the Acamanians 
nor the /Etoliansf : nor did the Eleans of the Peloponnesus, who 

* The way in which Pausanias (iv. c. 34. $ 6) mentions the fact, that the Del- 
phiani avoided the name of Phocians, shows tliat in his opinion they were un- 
doubtedly Phocians. 

f See the ingenious remarks of Boeckh on the Inscription, p. vi. sect. i. n. 1694, 
which belongs to a time when the yEtolians usurped the functions of the Amphic- 


were of iEtoliaD descent ; nor the Arcadians, who were considered 
by themselves and by all the other Greeks to be the aborigines of 
the Peloponnesus. In fact no Peloponnesian nation was a member 
of the confederacy (except that the Dorian states contributed their 
deputies to represent the Dorian tribe) ; unless we conceive the 
Achsei in Harpocration's list to be a distinct people from the Phthiotce 
who are named next to them, and to be, or to include, the Pelopon- 
nesian Achseans*. But even if the Peloponnesian Achseans were 
included, which seems the less likely supposition, the conclusion 
remains true, that all the confederate tribes were either tribes dwelling 
within the limits of Thessaly, or believed by common consent to have 
sprung from Thessaly ; or else tribes in immediate proximity to the 
pass of Pylae, either in the valley of the Spercheius, or on the 
southern side of it. 

I have said that the proper description and name of the members 
of the confederacy was the 'Afjupucrioyes : but I am not sure that the 
common interpretation of the name, which makes it synonymous 
with vepiKTioyes, and to signify Dwellers Round About, is the true 
one. It is possible that the name denoted The Dwellers on Both 
Sides ; that the confederacy was originally a confederacy of kindred 
tribes dwelling on the two sides of the Pass of Thermopylae, which 
afforded the only means of communication between them, and meet- 
ing at a common temple in the Pass, and that their name described 
strictly their relative position. 

I do not mean to say that the preposition iifi<pl is not often used 
as synonymous with ir€pl, and where what is meant is round about ; 
but I apprehend that the proper meaning of irepi is round about, and 
the proper meaning of afopl is on both sides of. This meaning 
appears most distinctly in the adverbial form d/i0/r, and in com- 
pounds such as a/i0fVro/ios, dfi(f>ihi^ios, and d/jifpiiKris, It is difficult 
to suppose that the word is not most closely connected in etymology 
and meaning with the adjectives &/i0w and c£/i^orepoi, both. 

The word vepiKTioves, about the meaning of which there can be 
no controversy, occurs in Homer : dfjuptKrioves does not. The ear- 
liest writer in whose remains the word d^^piKTioves occurs is Pindar ; 
and it is worth while to examine how he has used it. It occurs four 
times. In two passages in the Pythian odes (Pyth. iv. G6, and x. 8) 

tyons; perhaps in the year B.C. 290, when Demetrius Poliorcetes celebrated the 
Pythian games at Athens, because the iEtolians had occupied the passes around 
Delphi (Plut Dem. c 40). 

* There are twelve names in Harpocration's list: 'Axatoi, ^lioTai, come toge- 
ther ; and the Delphians are named separately from the Phocsans. The Theosali 
are omitted, who appear by abundant historical evidence to have been members ; 
and the Locri, who continued to be members in the time of Pausanias. It has been 
shown to be likely that the Delphians have no claim to be enumerated among the 
races; and if they be omitted, and if 'A^atoi ^QiStrai be read conjointly, as 
Acheeans of Phthiotis, room is made for the insertion of the Thessalians and Lo- 
crians. It is possible that AeX^ot <t>ii)jcfit8 should be read conjointly, and that 
Theopompus recorded, that when the Phocians in general lost their voice in the 
council, which was transferred to Philip of Macedon, the right) of the Delphians 
were preserved. The Delphians arc not likely to have shared in the sacrilegious 
plunder of the temple. 


I think that it is used as a proper designation. In Fjth, iv. 66, 

rj> fiky 'AttoXXwv & re UvSit 
Kvhos ^£ 'Afjuf^iKTidywy iiropey 

it seems to mean the Amphictyonic councillors, who were the 
dyutyodirai and bestowed the prizes. In Pyth. x. 8. the arpar6$ 
'AfifpiKTioyiay are the spectators at the Pythian games, who were an 
Amphictyonic assembly, an 'EjcicKfitrla 'A/i^cjcrvovinv as distinguished 
from the avyilpioy (see iEsch. c. Ctes. p. 71. § 124). In Isthm. 
iii. 26, the Cleonymidse, a noble Theban family, are described as 
irpo£evoi dfu^iKridyuty, This certainly seems to mean simply that the 
Cleonymidse entertained the citizens of neighbouring states. A wpd- 
ieyos was a citizen who exercised hospitality on behalf of his coundry, 
and received those who had a claim to be considered as public guests. 
It is true that the duties of a Proxenus had reference usually to a 
particular state. One man was Proxenus of the Lacedaemonians, 
another of the Corinthians; and we do not hear of a Proxenus 
charged with the exercise of hospitality to all comers. I was there- 
fore tempted to argue that the Cleonymidse were Proxeni of the 
Amphictyons, and that it was their duty and privilege to entertain 
the Amphictyonic deputies who might pass through Thebes on their 
way to Pylse and Delphi. But upon more mature consideration, this 
special interpretation appears to me untenable. The poetical con- 
ception of the passage requires a general description of their liberal 
hospitality, in connexion with their ancient honours and their abs- 
tinence from noisy violence : rol fiky (3v Qfifianri rifideyres dp^ddty 
Xiyoyrai , wpo^eyoi t dfi<piicri6y(av, KcKa^eyycU r opfayoi vfipios. 
In Nem. vi. 40, 

woyrov re yc^vp' aKOfxayTos iy dfn^iKTi6yuy 

ravpoifioyf rpierripih KpeorTtZay 

H fiacre Uoerei^ayioy av rifteyos, 
where it is the Isthmus of Corinth which is described as "the 
Bridge of the Unwearied Sea," and the Isthmian games as " the 
biennial festival of the dfn^iKTioyes" the word seems rather to mean 
the dwellers on both sides of the Isthmus, the Greeks within and 
without the Peloponnesus, than merely the people of the surrounding 
states. I would not however insist upon this interpretation ; for in 
Herodotus, viii. c. 104, the word is used in its commonly received 
sense, for the inhabitants of the surrounding region *. However, we 
must remember that the term ^Afifpucrioyes, as applied to the members 
of the Pylaic federation, is earlier by some centuries than Herodotus 
or Pindar ; and the more strict etymological interpretation may be 
the more true in the early age, though the word was used in later 
times less exactly. 

Several modem writers, assuming that the term *A/i^cirr/oves de- 
scribed merely persons who dwelt around some given locality, and 

* 'Ev ^6 Toiffi Ufiddooitn TOVTOitrt ToidySe ^eperai frpiiyiia yiveoOai' itredv 
Tolffi dp^iKTioei fraeit Toicri dp^i ravrtis oUeovot ri|t ir^Xioc, fiiKXy ri ivrbt 
Xpovov i^ecOai xaXeirdv, rore tf Ipeiri ain'oOt r^s ' AOrivairis ^v€t wtrfufva piyar. 


wishing to bring together into one class and under one description 
what diey considered as similar political phsenomena, have called 
other confederacies or associations of states by the general name of 
Amphictyoniea (Heeren» C. F. Hermann, Thirl wall, &c.). 

But no such general use of the term is to be found in Herodotus, 
or in any early historical writer. It is only when we come to Strabo 
that we find the association of States, the representatives of which 
met in the temple of Poseidon in Calaureia described as *A/i^c<crvov/ a 
rcf » a sort of AmpJUctyony, and one or two other similar expressions 
(viii. c. 3 ; and in ix. c. 2, ^Oy^aros h* karly, Birov to ^AfupiKTvoriKov 
ovyiiyero), I conceive that the term was so applied by Strabo, not 
because he understood it to be applicable etymologically (he was 
quite as likely to have believed in the eponymous hero Amphictyon), 
but because he thought that the Calaureian League resembled the 
Amphictyonic. We should be cautious, however, lest we confound 
by a hasty generalization associations which had different objects 
and were formed upon different principles. There were leagues by 
which the associated states were united into a federal state, and 
submitted themselves to a common executive power, for the direction 
at least of their external relations, although each state preserved its 
independence for matters of internal regulation. Such was the con- 
federacy of the Bceotian cities, with their four councils, and their 
supreme magistrates called Bceotarchs. There were leagues by 
which states absolutely independent were united in close political 
alliance. Such was the league of the twelve Ionian cities of Asia, 
whose representatives met at the Panionium. There were associa- 
tions which seem to have had no object beyond a religious object ; 
the performance of certain common sacrifices, and the celebration of 
a religious festival. Such was the assembly of Ionic Greeks at 
Delos. The original object of the proper Amphictyonic League 
appears to have been different from all these. It did not end with 
the sacrifices and religious rites, which gave solemnity and sanction 
to the meetings of the council ; and yet the League did not profess 
to establish a federation, or an alliance, or even peace among its 
members. On the contrary, it contemplated the probability of their 
beingengaged in war one with another ; and its object was to establish 
and enforce a simple code of international law, which should control 
and humanize the practices of belligerent states (see JEach. de Fals. 
Leg. § 121). The care of the temple of Delphi seems to have been a 
duty superadded to the original Unctions of the confederacy. In 
consequence of the Amphictyonic Council professing to maintain 
and enforce some kind of international law, disputes between states, 
which were referred to the arbitration of some other state, were 
called by later writers ^ixai 'A/z^iicrvoviJcat ; and the tribunal con- 
stituted by such a reference is called 'A/i0<icrvov/a, even though the 
reference is made to a single state'*'. 

♦ See Paul. iv. c 5. $ 1, cOeXeiv fievroi irapd 'Apyetotv, frvyytveaiv ovaiv 
dfi^oripmv, ev *Afi^iKTvovig. diSdvai dimas. It seems a mistake to conclude from 
thi« passage, aj Dr. Thirlwall has done, that there was an Amphictyonic association 
in Argolis: Hist, of Oretce, ch. z. (vol. i. p. 375). 


As I have attempted to restore what seems to me to be a correct 
view of the origin and primitive construction of the Amphictyonic 
Council, I will notice another error into which writers on the subject 
have fallen, although it is not closely connected with the points 
discussed hitherto. From the expression of iEschines, that he and 
his colleagues were chosen Pylagorse when Diognetus was Hiero- 
mnemon*9 it has been concluded rightly, that the office of Hiero- 
mnemon was more permanent than that of Pylagoras. But it has been 
hastily assumed that the office of Pylagoras was annual ; and the 
false conclusion has been drawn, that the Hieromnemon was ap- 
pointed for life. But the Hieromnemon is specially mentioned in 
the oath of the Heliasts (Dem. c. Timocr. p. 747) as appointed by 
lot at the same time with the Nine Archons : and this cannot be un- 
derstood except of an annual appointment. And Aristophanes in 
the Clouds speaks expressly of Hyperbolus obtaining by lot the 
office of Hieromnemon " this year" Mr. 623> Xaxwv ^YwcpfioXos Tfjres 
lepofivrifioveTv). The misinterpretation of the commentary of the 
Scholiast, by which modem critics have sought to make it appear that 
the appointment was for life, hardly deserves a serious refutation f. 

The solution of the difficulty seems to be, that the Athenian 
Hieromnemon was appointed by lot at the beginning of the year, 
and that the office of the Pylagorae was not annual, but that they 
were elected each half-year for each Pylaea. If they had been ap- 
pointed for the year, they would almost certainly have been appointed, 
like other functionaries, at the beginning of the year ; but it seems 
that ^schines and his colleagues were elected as Pylagorse to attend 
a spring Pylaea, which was in the latter half of the Attic civil year, 
a little while before the time of meeting (Dem. de Cor. § 149) : nor 
is there anything in the expressions of either of the rivsd orators to 
lead us to conclude that the same Pylagorse would have attended at 
the autumnal meeting. The Pylagorae seem, in fact, to have been 
regarded as ambassadors, and to have been elected for the occasion. 
It is in perfect consistency with this view that we find, that when 
the Amphictyonic Council resolved that an extraordinary meeting 
should be held at Pylae before the next regular Pylaea, the form of 
their resolution was, that the Hieromnemons should meet at Pylae 
(iEsch. c. Ctes. p. 71. § 124). 

2. " On the Personal Pronouns and Numerals of the Mallicollo 
and Erromango Languages." By the liev. C. J. Abraham, Chaplain 
to the Bishop of New Zealand. Communicated (with Remarks) by 
R. G. Latham, M.D. 

* JEsch. c. Ctes. p. 70, § 115. Compare also the expression in p. 71, § 126; 
rbv UpOfAVfifAOva rHv *A9tivaiiitv xal rout irvXaySpow roits del irvXayopovprat. 

t The Scholiast says merely, that Aristophanes said, ** this year" in violation of 
history ; for that no one related that Hyperbolus was Hieromnemon in the year in 
which the Clouds was acted ; for he was not yet a conspicuous person, while Cleon 
was still alive {ovSeiru ydp dUirptire KXecuvos en ZUvrot), It is almost incredible, 
that Mr. Fynes Clinton should have concluded from this passage, that Cleon was 
Hieromnemon for life, and Hyperbolus his successor (Fast. Hell. vol. iii. Supple- 
ment to the Appendix, ix. p. 621). 


■/' \ 


I v . > A 



X^jTuBfi^, 'z^^' 



chUdS--^ "--'--"'•- 








a man. 


1 «,- «.-.« exclua. 
} ^^ ^^- inclus. 


a male. 



a female. 


you two. 
you three. 

mariu, < 

the sun, abo their 
name for Gbd. 


you four. 




we three. 




we four. 







nelumbai, 1 
tatanini, J 















tipen agene, 

shoot arrows. 



to perito na 1 

throw stones. 




no kani wan- 
gaz izank, 


> I eat good food. 














zuku^rimendarai, nine. 


we. 1 




ye. 1 


they. I 













tan niteni. 


























































Since these vocabularies were laid before the Society, a " Journal 
of a Cruise among the Islands of the Western Pacific/' by Capt. J. 
£. Erskine, R.N., has been published. This shows the sources of 
the preceding lists ; since the bishop of New Zealand accompanied 
the expedition, and succeeded in taking back with him, on his return, 
some youths for the purposes of education. 

The class to which these vocabularies belong has never been, 
sufficiently for the purposes of publication, reduced to writing, nor 
is any member of it known to scholars in general, in respect to its 
grammatical structure. This, however, will probably not be the case 
much longer, since Capt. Erskine has placed the materials for the 
study of the Aneitum (Annatom) language in the hands of Mr. 
Norriss, who is prepared for its investigation. Neither has the class- 
been wholly neglected. A grammar of the Tanna (an allied lan- 
guage) was drawn up by Mr. Heath, but it has not been published* 
and is probably lost. Dr. Pritchard, who had seen extracts from it, 
writes, that it contained a trinai as well as a singular, a dual, and a 
plural number. The present list elucidates this. The trinai number 
(so-called) of the Mallicolo is merely the personal pronoun, the 
numeral 3 ; each element being so modified 'as to give the appearance 
of an inflection. 

The following tables exhibit the numerals of certain other islands 
in the neighbourhood. They are taken from Captain Erskine's work, 
in which reference is made to a " Description of the Islands in the 
Western Pacific Ocean, by A. Cheyne." This has not been ex- 
amined by the present writer. 

i»LB or 


one.. ILti ta-n U tahi.. pacha beta par-ai.. chaa. 

^wo.. ka-ru .... rua to lua .. lo he-luk.... par-roo.. Icuete. 

three ka-har.... torn ve-ti. ... tola., kuu he-yen.... par-gen kon-ete. 

few., ke-fia fk beu fk.... thack po-bita .. par-bai.. ek..eCe. 

>fve .. ka-rimm.. lima. ta-hue. . lima., thabomb.. nim pa-nim.. tibi. 

«ur .. Iiti(?).... ono no-ta .. tahi.. lo-acha .. nim-wet.. par-ai.. cha-lemen. 

Kven ka-ru (?) . . fitu no-bo . . loa . . lo-alo .... nim-weluk par-roo.. luen-gemen. 

eight ka-han(7) vam no-beti.. tolu.. lo-kunn.. nim-weyen par-gen kun-engemen 

nine. . ke-fii (7) . . ira no-beu .. ia . . . . lo-thack . . nim-pobit par-bai.. ake-ngemen. 

ten .. ka-rirum? tanga-ficru de-kau.. Kma.. te-bennete pain-duk.. pa-nim.. lue-ipe. 

Mr. Abraham's Mallicolo represents the same language with the 
Mallicolo vocabulary of Captain Cook's Voyages, with which it pretty 
closely agrees. 

His Erromango is more peculiar. iStAat = six = the Mallicolo 
sukai, which is, itself, nearly the sikai = one. The -ring in suku- rtn^, 
too, is the Mallicolo rima. This we know, from the analogies of 
almost all the languages of Polynesia and the Indian Archipelago, to 
be the word lima ^:^ hand. Hence e-rima (Mallicolo), hand, and 
suku-rtit^ (Erromango) = one hand. The vat in menda-va/ is the 

* Or Erronan. The Nuia or Iniiner numernls are the same, 


Mallicolo 'bats in e'bats, the Malay am-pa/se/otcr. Du-nc is the 
Mallicolo e-ry, there being in each case a prefixed syllable. The 
analysis of tesal and saitavan is less clear. Neither is it certain 
how ngaraodlen = ten. The other numerals are compounds. This, 
perhaps, is sufficient to show that the difference between the nu- 
merals of the Mallicolo and Erromango is a difference of a very 
superficial kind. So it is with the Tana, Fotuna, and the first Uea 
specimens. We must always remember that the first syllable is 
generally a non-radical prefix. 

In the Tana of the preceding table, the words for 6, 7, 8, 9, and 
10, seem to be merely the words for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 repeated, and 
something of the same kind appears in the first Uea. Perhaps the 
representation may be imperfect. At any rate the Tanna of Cook's 
Voyages runs — 



one , . r-eedee. 
two , . ka-ruo. 
three,, ka-har. 
four . . kai-phar. 
five . . k-reerum. 

six. . . . ma-r-eedee. 
seven . . mn-ka-roo. 
eight , , mn-ka-har. 
nine , . ma-kai-phar. 
ten ma-k-reerum. 

The same appears in the Balad 
New Caledonian runs — 

of New Caledonia. Now Cook's 



one . . wa geeaing. 
two . . t9a-roo. 
three., lera-teen. 
four . . wa-mbaeek. 
five . . toa-nnim. 

six tra-nnim-geeek. 

seven . . t&a-nnim-noo. 
eight . , tc^a-nnim-gain. 
nine . . tra-nnim-baeek. 
ten. . . . t&a-nnim-aiuk. 

The Yengen and Lifu vocabularies are not so different but that 
the lu and kun of the one = the ink and yen of the other, as well as 
the lo and kiuu of the second Uea, and the roo and gen of the Balad. 
The importance of these non -radical syllables in the numerals has 
been indicated by the present writer in the appendix to Mr. M'Gil-^ 
livray's • Voyage of the Rattlesnake.' There we find several well- 
selected specimens of the languages of the Louisiade archipelago. 
The fact of certain affinities between these and the New Caledonian 
is there indicated. Each has its prefix. In each the prefix is a 

English two. 

Louisiade .... paihe-tunn. 
New Caledonia toa-teen, &c. 

Now the Tana and Mallicolo tongues have a prefix also, but this 
is not a labial. It is rather a vowel or k (guttural or palatal). Here 
lies a difference — a difference of detail. Yet the same change can 
now be shown to be within the pale of the New Caledonian itself, 
as may be seen by comparing par-roo and par-gen (pa/i-gen ?) with 
he-luk and he-yen. 


The change from r to i creates no difficulty. In one of the Tana 
vocabularies one^li-ti, in another r-eedee. 

These points have been gone into for the sake of guarding against 
such exaggeration uf the differences between the languages of the 
parts in question as the apparent differences in the numerals have a 
tendency to engender. 


Vol. VL MAY 13, 1853. No. 134. 

llie Rev. T. Oswald Cockatnb in the Chair. 

The following papers were read — 

1 . '• On the Imperfect Infinitive, Imperfect Participles, and those 
Substantives which fall under the definition nomen actionis," By 
T. Hewitt Key, Esq. 

As the phrase imperfect infinitive is one not commonly in use, it 
is desirable to commence this paper with a few words in its justifi- 
cation. The common title, present infinitive, seems objectionable, 
as the part of speech in question does not carry with it the idea of 
time. Debebam ecribere and debebo scribere are no less admissible 
propositions than debeo scribere; and what is here expressed by 
examples drawn from the Latin, might easily be confirmed by the 
aid of similar sentences borrowed from other languages. Indeed 
there seems to be something of inconsistency in attaching to the 
negative term " infinitive," anything so positive as the idea of special 
lime, whether past, present, or future. Similarly it may justly be 
contended that the participles of the L<atin and other languages 
should have attached to them names no way expressive of time. In 
the several expressions rediens peril, rediens periit, rediens peribit, 
the idea of time is exclusively expressed by the finite verb, and is 
only indirectly reflected by the participle which accompanies that verb. 
Thus rediens in the first sentence, standing in connexion with the 
present petit, through that connexion alone carries with it the idea 
of a present redit, while in the other sentences, through similar 
extraneous aid, it becomes an equivalent for redibat and redibit. 
Although it does not belong to the subject of the present paper, it 
may be here remarked that such participles as acriptus, aggressus, 
are but ill entitled to the name of past participles. They both 
speak of an act completed, but whether such completed state refer to 
past, present, or future time, can only be determined by the main verb 
to which such participle happens to be attached. Thus, to take an ex- 
treme case, this participle, which some call a past participle, is often 
found playing a part in a future proposition, as capta urbe redibit, 
where the capture of the city so far from being a past event, is altoge- 
ther problematical and conditional, a thing that may happen. " If he 
take the city, he will return," or " when he has taken it." In the 
case however of these participles in /iw, the term perfect participle 
is in perhaps more common use than the term past participle, and 
thus we have an additional reason for using the expression imperfect 
participle in reference to such forms as scribens, rediens, aggrediens. 

In linguistic inquiries, it seems to the writer a too common error 
to be satisfied with a very loose connexion of ideas between two 
words supposed to be related, provided there be a close similarity in 



form. We laugh perhaps at such an extreme case as the deri\ration 
of lucus a non lueendo. Nor wilf many be carried away by the 
assertion, gravely printed some few years back, that the Latin 
adjective piger means * slow/ because a pig is slow. Yet these 
instances are scarcely more groundless than many etymologies which 
have found a place in standard works. Thus latema is by Forcellini 
derived " a iateo quia in ea ignis latet/' and this though the differ- 
ence in the quantity of the vowel had not escaped his notice. On 
the other hand, there is too great an unwillingness to admit the 
relationship of words, most closely allied in sense and usage, where 
any strong letter-change has tended to obscure the connexion of 
form. It was not indeed to be expected that the affinity of forms 
so dissimilar as our own numeral /oiir and the Gh-eek retrvapes should 
be admitted until a full and satisfactory explanation of the letter- 
changes was produced. There are not many cases within the sphere 
of etymology eo startling as this, yet the virtual identity of the two 
words is now a fact no longer disputed by a single philologer ; and 
the time will be when equally full belief will be given to the pro- 
position that the Latin novem is identical with the Old Slavic 
devyaty and the Lithuanian dewyni. Indeed the intelligent inquirer 
will feel no little force in the argument that when the numerals of 
the Slavic and Lithuanian languages substantially agree with the 
Latin in nine of those which form the first decade, £e identity o^ 
the remaining pair must have been accidentally concealed only by 
some unusual letter-change. 

It is not here meant that we should be supine or credulous in the 
admission of alleged letter-changes. Although there are few pairs 
of letters that do not under some circumstances become convertible, 
the very feusility for argument to which an opening is thus offered 
should be in itself a warning against undue haste. Proof should be 
demanded that the asserted letter-change is one to be expected under 
the special circumstances of the case, and this once established, we 
ought not to be offended at any metamorphosis which may present 

Although we may not hitherto have succeeded on physiological 
principles in accounting for the interchange of the sibilant 8 with 
tfie liquids r and n, yet no candid inquirer will on that account 
dispute the fact when he finds the Laconian dialect of the Greek 
language habitually using a p as the suffix of the singular nomi- 
native, as eiriyeXatrrap, riKKOp, ^ai^u\op, viop, rip, vexvp, wop, &c. for 
eTTiyeXaarris, atrKoSp ^aihov\os, Oeos, tis, veicvt, ?rovs, as also in the 
plural nominative, for example 0ovXc^€p for ^uXXcoes, and in adverbs, 
as Pn$tp for laws. (Ahrens de Dialectis, ii. p. 71.) 

If the instances drawn from an ancient dialect be from the neces- 
sity of the case but few, this is a defect which may easily be supplied 
by casting the eye over the fidler series of modem languages. Thus 
the Icelandic shares the peculiarity with the Laconian, being no less 
attached to the same liquid where allied languages have the sibilant. 
In our own tongue ag^n, not a few instances present theuiselves, 
Ri, iron and hare, contrasted with the German eisen and hose. Even 


la Fnuice the interchange is not without example. Thus Schna- 
kenburg, in his synoptic table of the Idiomes populaires ou patois 
de la France (Berlin 1840), has the following: — 

** Un ph^nom^ne fort singulier c'est Tapparition de IV dans le 
patois du Nivemais au commencement de certains mots; p. ex. 
deux reufans, deux enfants ; mas raimis, mes amis ; ben das rann^es, 
bien des ann6es." In which examples it is clear that the initial r 
grows out of the sibilant at the end of the word which precedes, 
though Schnakenburg himself seems not to have seen this. 

The interchange of tr with v is also well marked in the dialects of the 
Greek tongue. Thus Ahrens (p. 291) gives abundant examples of the 
first person plural of Doric verbs terminating in ^Ats, where the com- - 
mon language has /lev ; and here, as he observes, the Doric form is in 
close agreement with the Sanscrit and Latin verbs tuddmas and ama' 
mus. Such changes seldom attach themselves exclusively to one part 
of speech. Thus the Greek adverbs et^^oy and e£w9f v with the Laco- 
nians took the forms ey^os and extras, nor was it necessary for 
Hemsterhuis and Ahrens to attribute the latter word to an error, 
and substitute for it eledn. For as oimrOey and oiriade coexisted, so 
also c^e^as may well have maintained itself alongside of e^eOa, The 
Latin again preserves its affinity to the Doric form in its so-called 
adverbs caelitus, radicitus, divinitus. It may also throw light on 
our future remarks if we notice the fact that while one of the ordi- 
nary Greek suffixes for the comparative is lovy /JeXr-iov-ej, &c., the 
old Latin had ios, melios, whence in the later tongue melior^ though 
the 8 still kept its position both in the neuter melius and the dimi- 
nutive meliusculus, -a -urn. For the sake of accuracy it may be 
observed that the short vowel o in the Greek fieXnoy stands to the 
long in the Latin melioris in the relation which commonly subsists 
between the two tongues. Thus the Latin had a suffix tor for the 
agent orator-em, but the Greeks rop, prirop-a ; and when the medical 
term irvev/iov- was adopted into the language of the Romans, it took 
the form pulmdn-. But if the Romans in their adverbial terminations 
often gave a preference to an «, a liquid at times existed by the side 
of the sibilant, not indeed as an n, but what better suited the Latin 
idiom as a final, an m. Thus protinus and protenam, versus and 
versum, are little if any more than dialectic varieties of the same 
word, and the suffix seen in clam, palam^ coram, is probably identical 
with that which occurs in tenus, versus, and cominus, just as the 
(jreeks again had auv and aies for varieties of the same word. It 
is unnecessary to repeat here what has been said in former papers 
of the interchange between v and er in such verbs as <^uiyuK, picuyu, 
erfiev'yvfii, compared with ipnapa, fiiaafia, atrPearot, 

We now proceed to a comparison of the Greek and Latin infi- 
nitives. In the latter, although the ordinary formation places a 
suffix ere before us in regere, &c., yet the so-called substantive 
verb esse has a sibilant for the penultimate letter. Again, dasi 
occurs as an archaic passive infinitive of da* ' give,' and. this of 
course implies an active infinitive dose ; and as we also know histo- 
rically that the older Latin commonly had an s where the later 



language had an r, we can have no hesitation in giving a preference 
to the sibilant. Esse however appears to have lost a vowel, just as 
ferre also has done, which is probably but an abbreviation of fir-ere. 
The only infinitives besides those already mentioned which do not 
end in ere, are the three related verbs, malle, nolle, velle, where the 
r that was to have been expected has become assimilated to the 
preceding liquid. 

In the Greek etvai ' to be/ we hfive in all probability a corruption 
of €a'€vai, corresponding nearly to rrOevac, and to the suffix of the 
perfect infinitive rerv^evac. Thstt the Greek v in this suffix should 
be represented by a Latin 8, is exactly what we had reason to expect, 
but t ere is still a difference in the terminating vowels, and a dif- 
ference the greater as the Latin gives us but a short vowel h the 
Greek a diphthong, nt. Here however we have the difficulty in a 
great measure removed, when we call to mind that this final at of 
the Greeks had in a great measure lost its diphthongal character. 
A final a I, says Buttmann, speaking of the law of accents, has only 
the influence of a short sound (p. 54) ; and he goes on to add, " ea 
erhellet also dass in diesen f>ehr gelaufigen Fiexions-Endungen diese 
Diphthonge sich so abgeschliffen hatten, dass sie in der gewohnlichen 
Sprache dem Olir als kurzen tonten und dass nur die geholtene 
Sprache der Poesie die Lange derselben bchauptete." Then again, 
if a( is to lose its full diphthongal pronunciation, the sound of an e 
is precisely that to which it would naturally degenerate, seeing that 
in the Sanscrit the symbol for the vowel e (pronounced of course as 
on the continent) is made up of the letter a and t combined. Our 
own tongue too abounds in examples where ai is used to represent 
the continental e. 

But the ordinary forms of the Gk-eck infinitive appear without a 
final ac. Thns the Dorians said ipeptr, and the common dialect had 
ipepeti. So the Homeric suffix efierai of the inf. was cut down m 
some dialects into e/iev, as axoveficyai and aKom^ev, A parallel to 
this loss of the final vowel occurs in the Latin biber for bibere, as 
used by the old writers Cato, Titinnius, &c. in the phrase date illi 
biber, ' give him to drink.' And similarly we know that the mother- 
tongue has been copied by her Italian and French daughters, which 
now retain, now reject the final e. But the Greek has yet another 
variety. In lieu of a final v, the dialects occasionally exhibit a final 
f. Thus, according to Buttmann, there was an Aeolic infinitive of 
contract verbs, such as yeXats for yeX^v, v\(/oii for vi/^uv, while to 
another dialect he ascribes infinitives of the substantive verb cl/iev 
and e7/i€ff. So also i7^cr, as an infinitive of the same verb, is given 
to Theocritus (vii. 86) by a scholiast ; but here we have Ahrens 
against us (p. 323), who would limit the Doric substitution of a ^ 
for a V in verbs to the first person plural. Similarly he disputes 
the authenticity of such forms as yeXacs, hxj/vis ; but his opposition 
seems not to be founded on any substantial basis. 

With regard to the /i which appears in so many of the Greek 
infinitives, as above exhibited, it seems doubtful whether we have a 
foreign element, or a genuine portion of the suflix. A problem of 


this kind is often one of much trouble. Thus it is difficult to 
account for the b and c in such derivatives as ludihunduSt moribundus, 
verecundus, compared with the ordinary participles ludendus, mort- 
ujidu9, verendus ; as also in amabilis, terribilis, compared with uiilis, 
agilis. There seems reason for believing that the b and c in these 
words are really suffixes independent of that which follows, for not 
unfrequently a suffix gets reduced to a single letter, and then from 
being habitually found in company with a second suffix, gets con- 
founded with this. An example in point is seen in such words as 
gosling, darling, &c., where it is now admitted that / (for el) and 
ing are independent suffixes of similar diminutival power. 

Leaving Uie question as to the origin of the /i in the longer Greek 
infinitives, we will endeavour to trace the analogue of the suffix fiey 
within the realm of the Latin language. We think it is found in the 
large class of neuter substantives in men, of which tegumen or tegmen 
may be taken as a sample. The sense of the infinitival form is not ill 
suited for the purposes of such nouns, as our own abstract substan- 
tives in ing are in meaning identical with the infinitive of other lan- 
guages, amo saUare *l love dancing' ; and on the other hand, these 
abstract nouns are often used with us as concretes. Thus tegumen 
cannot be translated more idiomatically than by the English word a 
covering. Other examples are shirting, sheathing. Indeed nothing is 
more common than for an abstract noun so far to extend its meaning 
as to signify a collection of concretes. Compare nobilitas ' a body of 
nobles, the nobility' ; juventus * young men' ; muliitudo * a mob' ; 
familia * a gang of slaves' ; venatio * venison, game' ; senatus * a se- 
nate'; whereas the suffixes seen in those words commonly denote 
the abstract idea, witness the nouns aequitas, seivitus, amplitudo, 
miseria, dictio, cultus. A second argument for connecting these 
nouns in men with an old Latin infinitive, the analogue of the Greek 
hhifitv, is the fact that substantival forms without an m occasionally 
occur in Latin, as unguen, 'inis, sanguen, -inis, so as to correspond 
with infinitives in ev, as ^epev. If the examples of this shorter 
form are few, we find abundance of neuter nouns in es and er, 
which may well be Considered as truncated infinitives. Such nouns 
in the first place, if traceable at all, are always traceable to verbs. 
We need only point to a few examples, as iter-, tuber^, uber-, 
genes- (genus, generis), opes- (opus), sceles- (scelus) ; and the word 
biber, already quoted, stands in a sort of transitional position between 
a verb and a substantive. We must also include such nouns as 
tempus, fulgur, robur, for nouns of this class seem very indifferent 
about the vowel which precedes the * or r. Thus temperi exists as 
well as tempori, to say nothing of the verb temperare, the substantive 
tempestas, and the adjective intempestus. Sometimes indeed we have 
an a, as in jubar ; and the corresponding family of nouns in the 
Greek gives us often an a, repus, xepas, yepas, yripai, and even a long 
w, as in hlwp, &c. But this brings ut^ to a new variation in our suffix 
by introducing a t, hlutp, vlaros, &c. The appearance of tliis con- 
sonant was no way surprising, indeed we always expect to find it 
making one of a partie carrie with the three consonants n, r, and s. 


Tbus while we believe the pronominal forms to have ended originally 
in an n, we constantly find the other three letters supplanting it. Our 
particle when, for example, is but a neuter form, in other words, only 
the base of the relative, and is readily interchangeable with wag Germ.. 
what Eng. and war, as seen both in our own adverb where, and in 
the German forms war-um, war-ein, &c. For though when is more 
limited to time, and where to place, there is no element in them 
which necessitates such a distinction ; and the examples of the Latin 
ubi * when or where,' usque * all the way' or * all the time,' show how 
indifferent language is as to such distinctions. But if the Greek is 
fond of exhibiting a final r in neuter nouns of this class, so also we 
have an example, though perhaps a solitary one, in the Latin caput. 

But here arises a new question. Is a consonant / traceable in 
the infinitives ? To this all the Slavic languages answer in the 
affirmative, where the ordinary suffix of the infinitive is ^t. So also 
does an infinitival / occur in the Celtic tongues, as for example the 
Breton. But as these are outlying languages, though admitted to 
be akin to those of classical pretensions, we will search for an 
example within the more sacred domain of those languages which 
are derived from the Greek and Latin. What we want is to be 
foond in France r — 

"Dans la partie nord de La Lorraine et notamment dans les 
environs de Metz, les infinitifs de la premiere conjugaison changent 
toujours r en t; p. ex. pal^t parler; treuvet trouver; vioidkt dans 
les Vdges vadgPt, garder ; itripi't attraper, rouaiiei regarder ; (Tpenki 
d^penser ; ionn>t toumer. Quelquefois la syllabe tr suit la m^me 
r^gle ; p. ex. ^ Besan^on remplit, remplir ; en gavache, boutity boutir, 
au lieu de bouter." (Schnakenburg's Patois de la France.) 

But if an ft is interchangeable with a ^ 3 fortiori is it inter- 
changeable with the intermediate sound nt. It is in this way we 
would account for the longer forms unguentO'y tegumento- (nom. tin- 
gucntum, &c.), where the t is little more than an outgrowth of the 
preceding n, much as gown with many among ourselves becomes 
gownd. We are not disposed to see an additional suffix in the letter 
/ of unguento-, tegumento-, any more than in our own verbs find, 
bind, mind, sound, compared with the Somersetshire forms fine, bine, 
mine, soun. 

Before we leave these abstract substantives of the classical lan- 
guages, which we believe to be akin to, or rather identical with, the 
infinitive, we must not forget the Greek neuters in /lar, as ovo^ar-, 
tnjfiaT", where, by the way, we again find the r ; and in confirmation 
of what we have said about the iuterchange of y and r, from these very 
nouns are deduced denominative verbs, ovofiauw, afifiaiyuf, where 
the V is again reinstated. So also from rrrn-iaT-, -rrpayfiar-, are 
deduced adjectives with the liquid in place of the r, aarifjLov-, 
airpnyfwv' : and this v again becomes a a in awpay fioavyii. 

In considering the infinitive mood, we should keep in mind the 
Greek habit of so far treating it as a substantive that it is declined 
with the article. In the same way in the German language, it is 
at times impossible to say whether a given form be the infinitive of 

a verb, or a neuter substantive. Wesen, for example, ^^^^ ibJfQf^^ V 
is evidently only an infinitive, is called in the dictionaries H^meuter 
substantive, and translated ' existence.' Here too we may observe 
^e identity of the infinitival suffix in German with that of the Doric 
Greek, schreih^en and ^ep-ey ; and to the more common infinitive 
TvirT€iv corresponds pretty exactly the German sein * to be.* This 
reminds us that we have said nothing on the diphthong which 
enters into the second syllable of Tvirreiv, At first it occurred to 
ns that from rvvrefiey, by the loss of the fi, we obtained in rvjrreey 
what would readily pass into rvirreiy. But to this view there is the 
serious objection that the Hhodians had an infinitive in /ifiv, airo- 
^fieiy, &c. (Ahrens, p. 315). The languages allied to the German 
have forms slightly difl^ring in suffix from the German itself. It 
would be useless to collect these, but I may observe, on the authority 
of a member of our Society, that in Somersetshire an English infi- 
nitive still survives ; for my friend tells me he one day heard a clerk 
give notice from his desk, that after Sunday the — th he should 
cease to cierky, 

llie imperfect participles next claim attention, and we may as 
well commence with our own language. Now it is a remarkable 
fact that the notnen actionis and imperfect participle with us have a 
perfect identity of form, dancing being the equivalent for both the 
Latin substantive saltatio and the participle^ 5a//aii«. The identity 
of form will seem satisfactorily explained, if the participle be really 
deducible from the substantive ; and such a derivation is scarcely to 
be doubted, when we call to mind that where we now say he was 
iuUding a house, the older expression was he was a-building a house, 
or better still, he was a-buiiding of a house, phrases which are still 
retained in the vulgar tongue. Tlie use of the preposition of seems 
to bear the strongest evidence to the substantival character of the 
preceding word building, and in the prefixed a we have another pre- 
position reduced from the older form an, the loss of the liquid being 
precisely parallel to what is seen in the so-called adjectives a sleep, 
a-live, a-foot, a^bed, a-board, a-horseback ; ' which are of course but 
equivalents for the fuller forms in sleep, in life, on foot ^ in bed, on 
board, on horseback. 

The view here taken of the origin of our participles in ing is fully 
confirmed by a similar formation in the Celtic tongues. Thus for 
the Gaelic, the grammar prefixed to the Dictionary of the Highland 
Society has this paragraph : — 

" Compound Tenses, — The compound tenses of the first order are 
made up of the several simple tenses of the auxiliary verb ' bi' be, 
and the infinitive preceded by the preposition ' ag' at. Between two 
consonants ' ag' commonly loses the g, and is written a ; as ' tha 
iad a' deanaaih' they are doing. Between two vowels, the a is 
dropped, and the g is retained, as ' ta mi 'g iarruidh* / am asking. 
When preceded by a consonant and followed by a vowel, the pre- 
position is written entire, as ' ta iad ag iarruidh' they are asking. 
When preceded by a vowel, and followed by a consonant, it is often 
Suppressed altogether, as ' ta mi d^anamh' / am doing " It would 


be difficult to find a more instructive example of the way in ^hich 
a little particle essential to the original construction of a phrase be- 
comes gradually absorbed, so as at last to leave not a trace behind. 
The Breton agrees with what we have seen in the Gaelic. Thus 
the imperfect participle in this language is at once obtained by pre- 
fixing to the ordinary infinitive och (pronounced as in German) if 
the said infinitive commence with a vowel, and a mere o before a 
consonant, this och being evidently the preposition which, as ordi- 
narily used, is written mch, and translated by Legonidec d. or aupr^s. 
Thus we have — 

beza, Itre ; o vera, etant. 

lavaront, parler ; o lavaront, parlant. 

kaout, avoir ; o kaout, ayant. 

kana, chanter; o kana, chantant. 

ober, faire ; och ober, faisant. 

baza karet, avoir aim^ ; o veza karet, ayant aim6. 
So again in Welsh, the preposition yn * in ' enters into the for- 
mation of the participle imperfect, as oeddwn yn myned, * eram in 
itione,' ' I was a-going,' myned being a mere infinitive. 

But it may be opposed to our assertion of the original identity 
between the substantive dancing and the participle dancing, that 
the corresponding forms in the allied languages, as the German, 
present a difference in form, the one ending in ung, the other in end. 
Here we would first observe, that the g of ung is a very different 
letter from the ordinary guttural g, and that in fact it merely marks 
a peculiar sound of the preceding nasal ; while the addition of a ^ 
in end is simply the same outgrowth from an n, of which we gave 
examples in gownd, mind, &c. Thus both the suffixes ung and end, 
as well as our own ing, may be regarded as corruptions of the 
simpler sound en, so common in German infinitives. Nay, the 
Germans seem at times to use the infinitive where a participle might 
have been expected, as stehen bleiben * to continue standing* ; and 
there are cases where that language leaves a free option' to the 
speaker to use which of the two he may prefer, as " Ich fand ihn 
unter einem Baume stehen, or stehend." 

The suffix of stehend cannot but remind us of the Latin gerund, 
such as seen in scribendum*. Here however again a question of 
primogeniture arises between the gerund and the so-called future 
participle scribendvs. But there can be little trouble in coming to 
a decision upon this point. The whole history of the language pro- 
claims that the gerund is the more archaic form. It is in Plautus, 
Terence, and Lucretius that we find such phrases as poenas in morte 
timendumst, where Cicero would have permitted himself to use 
solely the form poenae in morte timendae sunt. We have selected 
our example of the older phrase from Lucretius, because in his hex- 
ameters there was that which protected his text from those little 
modifications which the idioms of a later date made so tempting. 

* Here again we haire a variety of the vowel, regendo- or regundo', identical 
with what we taw above in the German sufBxea end and ung, ^ 


In the pages of Plautus and Terence, as the metres were not well 
understood, attempts to modernize the phraseology had not to en- 
counter the same opposition. Accordingly we find marked traces 
of such tampering processes. Thus in the Phormio, iv. 4. 20, the 
words as they now stand — 

" Spatium quidem tandem adparandis nuptiis, 
Vocandi, sacrificandi dabitur paululum," — 
cannot be received as the pure text of Terence^ since the genitives 
vocandi and sacrificandi require that the genitival construction 
should also be given to the preceding line, and we should therefore 
read adparandi nuptias, or perhaps rather nuptiae, a gen. in the sin- 
gular*. So again in the same play, ii. 1. 18, Donatus found in the 
existing text molendum esse in pistrino, vapulandum, habendae com" 
pedes, and thought it enough to account for the evident solecism^ 
that the words were in the mouth of a servilis persona. But Bentley 
was no doubt right when he changed habendae to habendum, though 
he seems to have had no justification for the utterly unnecessary 
substitution of molendumst for molendum esse, as the infinitival con- 
struction may well depend on the preceding phrase meditata sunt 

How completely Terence felt the substantival character of the 
gerundive forms is well seen in such constructions as : Hecyr. iii. 3. 
12, Ego ejus videndi cupidus, * I desirous of seeing of her,' and Heaut. 
Prol. 29, Novarum qui spectandi faciunt copiam, ' the opportunity of 
seeing of new plays,' where the literal translation of the Latin forces 
us, whether we will or no* to the so-called vulgar, but in truth more 
legitimate language of our provinces. 

In the Latin imperfect participle we find the letters enti added to 
the essential part of the verb, at least in the neuter plural of the 
nominative and accusative 5crt 6 -^/t-a and the genitive scrib-enti-um, 
while the ablative singular in the form scrib-enti, and the old accu- 
sative plural scrib-enti-s still retain the t. Now the letters ent of 
this termination may well represent an infinitive mood, but the t 
requires some independent explanation. If the latter be the remnant 
of a postposition in, just as a in a-foot is known to be an abbre- 
viation of an old preposition an, we have an explanation of the Latin 
participle which is in thorough agreement with the formation of the 
Breton and Welsh participles; nor is it at all a violent assumption 
that the old Latin preferred postpositions to prepositions. That the 
final t in scribenti is not an idle letter, seems to receive confirmation 
from a class of nouns in the Icelandic language which are employed 
to express agents, but are considered as in origin only imperfect 
participles, viz. those which end in andi, as bu-andi, les-andi, 

Lastly, the Greek participles rwrrofieyos, &c. bear a resemblance 
to the old infinitive%inrre/4ei', such as can scarcely be accidental. 

* Such a singular might well belong to the old language, and the change to a 
flural in order to please the ear of later times, when accustomed only to the plural 
nupltM, would be in accordance with what we know to have befallen the singular 
forU * a door,* of Terence, which has so often been forced to make room for the 
more familiar ybres. 



We may close this paper with some remarks, which though 
running heyond the limits of imperfect tenses, have a connexion 
with the suhject. The doctrine that imperfect tenses may he fitly 
expressed hy attaching a preposition signifying tit or at to an infi- 
nitive mood or nomen actionis, seems strongly confirmed hy the 
consideration that in a similar manner past and future time are 
occasionally expressed hy a similar use of a preposition. Thus je 
viens de lefaire ' I have just done it/ derives its power of expressing 
a past event chiefly from the preposition de ; and on the other hand, 
/ am to write, or / am going to write, employ the preposition to as 
an appropriate symbol of futurity. Thus the three prepositions 
from, at, to, are alone sufficient when attached to a nomen actionis 
to express the three ideas of time past, present, and future, the 
only added condition being, that the past shall be a recent past, the 
future an early future ; and in practice our past and future tenses 
are generally of this limited character. 

Even in the Latin and Gro^k languages we seem to see traces of 
such formation. In the Latin perfects, as we have contended at 
some length in former papers, Uie Latin verb signifying ' be,' uni- 
formly forms an ingredient. But in many of the Latin verbs we 
also find an s interposed between the radical portion of the verb 
and such affix. Thus in scrip-s-is-ti, we find four elements, and if 
the s which occupies the second place signified yrom, we should have 
a little phrase of the most inteUigible character : ' thou art from 
writing.' Now in the declension of the substantive in Greek, Latin 
and English, it is this very sibilant that plays the chief part in the 
formation of the genitive, that is, the case whose office is to designate 
from. The same argument may be applied to the first aorist of the 
Greek, c-ri/Tr-^-a, or to use that older form which Sanscrit scholars 
justly claim for the Greek grammar €-rvir-o^-a/i, inwhich, as well^as in 
TeTvi^-afii the final syllable is but a corruption of ec/ic, and a precise 
equivalent in both form and sense of our own verb am. On the other 
hand, the proposition that the s in scripsistif €Tvyl/a, may be identical 
with the s of the genitival suffix, will be less startling to those who 
reflect that the very same word may be a verb and a substantive, or 
to use our oft-repeated term, a nomen actionis, 

2. " On the Languages of New California." By R. G. Latham, 

The languages of the south-western districts of the Oregon terri- 
tory are conveniently studied in the admirable volume upon the Philo- 
logy of the United States Exploring Expedition, by Mr. Hale. Herein 
we find that the frontier between that territory and California is 
most probably formed by the Saiutskla, Umkwa, and Lutuami lan- 
guages ; the Saintskla being spoken on the sea-coast, the Umkwa 
lying to the east of it, and tlie Lutuami east of the Umkwa. All 
three, in the present state of our knowledge, belong to different 
philological divisions. It is unnecessary to add^ that each tongue 
covers but a small geographical area. 

The parts to the north and east of the great Califomian desert are 


occupied by a different division of the Oregon languages ; a division as 
remarkable for the multiplicity of the dialects and languages which it 
embraces, as for the vast tract of country which it covers ; a division, 
too, in which the distribution of its component parts is no less in- 
teresting than the magnitude of its area. The generic name which 
the present author has suggested for this division is Paduca, — a 
term, which, without professing to have any greater scientific 
accuracy than many others which can be proposed, is left to stand 
or fall simply on the score of convenience. It is the name given by 
the Pawni Indians of the Nebraska territory to their western neigh< 
hours on the head-waters of tlie rivers Platte, Arkansas, and oti^er 
tributaries of the Mississippi. It contains, amongst other groups, 
the important classes of the Comanch and the Shoshoni Indians. 

The Paduca area extends in a south-eastern direction in such a 
manner as to lap round the greater part of California and New Mexico, 
to enclose both of those areas, and to prolong itself into Texas ; and 
that so far southwards as almost to reach the Gulf of Mexico. Hence, 
except at the south and the north-west, the Califomian languages 
(and indeed the New Mexican as well) are cut off and isolated from 
the other tongues of America by means of this remarkable extension 
of the Paducas. The Paduca tongues dip into each of these coun- 
tries as well as lap round them. It is convenient to begin with a 
Paduca language. 

The Wihinast is, perhaps, an Oregon rather than a Califomian 
language ; though at the same time it is probably common to the two 
countries. It can be shown to be Paduca by its vocabulary in Mr. 
Hale's work, the Shoshoni being the language to which it comes 
nearest ; indeed Mr. Gallatin calls the Wihinast the Western Sho- 
shoni. Due east of the Wihinast come the Bonak Indians, cur- 
rently believed to be Paduca, but still requiring the evidence of a 
vocabulary to prove them so. 

The true Shoshoni succeed; and these are, probably, Oregon 
rather than Califomian. At any rate, their language falls within 
the study of the former country. But the Uta Lsdce is truly a part 
of the great Califomian basin, and the Uta language is known to 
us from a vocabulary, and known to be Paduca : 


sun tap taharp. 

moon mahtots mush. 

star. . . « quahlantz t4arch. 

man tooonpayah tooavishchee. 

woman naijah wyapec. 

boy ahpats tooanickpee. 

girl mahmats wvapeechee. 

head tuts paaph. 

forehead muttock 

* Reports of the SecreUry of War, with Reconnatsoances of route from San 
Antonio to El Paso. Washington, 1850. (Appendix B.) 

t From a Nauni Vocabulary, by R. S. Neighbour ; Schoolcraft's History, &c., 
Pt. ii. 



face kooelp koveh. 

eye puttyahoe nachich. 

nose mahvetah moopee. 

mfmth . , timp . . teppa. 

teeth tong ^ . tahnee. 

tongue ahoh ahako. 

chin hannockquell 

ear nink nahark. 

hair Buooh parpee. 

neck kolph toyock. 

arm pooir ; . mowa. 

hand masseer mowa. 

breast pay toko. 

foot namp nahap. 

horse kahvah teheyar. 

serpent toeweroe noheer. 

dog sahreets ebardee. 

cat moosah 

fire coon koona* 

food oof ,.,...*.. 

water pah pahar. 

The Uta being thus shown to be Paduca, the evidence in favour 
of other tribes in their neighbourhood being Paduca also is improved. 

The Diggers are generally placed in the same category with the 
Bonaks, and sometimes considered as Bonaks under another name. 

The Sampiches, lying south of the Uta, are similarly considered 
Uta. Special vocabularies, however, are wanting. 

The Uta carry us from the circumference of the great basin to 
an angle formed by the western watershed of the Rio Grande and the 
rivers Colorado and Gila ; and the language that comes next is that 
of the Navahos. Of these, the Jecorillas of New Mexico are a branch. 
We have vocabularies of each of these dialects tabulated with that 
of the Uta and collected by the same inquirer. 

Mr. Hale, in the "Philology" of the United States Exploring 
Expedition, showed that the Tlatskanai and Umkwa were outlying 
languages of the great Athabaskan family. 

It has since been shown by Professor Turner that certain Apatch 
languages are in the same interesting and important class, of which 
Apatch languages the Navaho and Jecorilla are two. 

Now follows a population which has stimulated the attention and 
excited the wonder of ethnologists — the Moqui. The Moqui are 
they who, occupants of some of the more favoured parts of the 
country between the Gila and Colorado, have so often been con- 
trasted with the ruder tribes around them — the Navaho and Uta 
in particular. The Moqui, too, are they whose ethnological relations 
have been looked for in the direction of Mexico and &e semi-civi- 
lized Indians of Central America. Large towns, regular streets, 
stone buildings, white skins, and European beards have all been 


attributed to these mysterious Moqui. They seem, however, to be 
simply Indians whose civilization is that of the Puebla Indians of 
New Mexico. The same table that gives us the Uta and Navaho 
vocabularies, gives us a Moqui one also. In this, about eight words 
in twenty-one are Uta. 

Languages allied to the Uta, the Navaho, and the Moqui, may 
or may not fill up nine-tenths of what an Indian would call the Doab, 
or a Portuguese the Eutre Rios, t. e. the parts between the two 
rivers Gila and Colorado. Great as has been the activity of the 
American surveyors, the exploration is still incomplete. This makes 
it convenient to pass at once to the head of the Gulf of California. 
A fresh language now presents itself, spoken at the head of the 
peninsula (or Acte) of Old California. The vocabulary that has 
longest represented this tongue is that of the Mission of Saint Diego 
on the Pacific ; but the language itself, extended across the head of 
the Acte, reaches the mouth of the Colorado, and is prolonged, to 
some distance at least, beyond the junction of the Gila. 

Of the Dieguno language -- for such seems to be the Spanish 
name for it — Dr. Coulter has given one vocabulary, and Lieut. 
Whipple (U.S.A.) another. The first is to be found in the Journal of 
the Geographical Society, the second in the second part of School- 
craft's •* History, &c. of Indian Tribes." A short but unique voca- 
bulary of Lieutenant Emory, of the language of the Cocomaricopas 
Indians, was known to Gallatin. This is closely allied to the Dieguno. 

A Paternoster in Mofras belongs to the Mission of San Diego. 
It has not been collated with the vocabularies, which are, probably, 
too scanty to give definite results ; there is no reason, however, to 
doubt its accuracy : — 

Nagua anall amai tacaguach naguanetuuxp mamamulpo cayuca 
amaibo mamatam meyayam canaao amat amaibo quexuic echasau na- 
guagui iiaiiacachon iiaguin iiipil meneque pachis echeyuchap onagua 
quexuic naguaich iiacaquaihpo namechamec anipuchuch-guelich- 
culapo. Naculuch-pambocuchlich-culatpo-namat. Napuija. 

A third branch, however, of this division, constituted by a language 
called the Cuchan, of which a specimen is given by Lieut. Whipple 
{vide supra), is still nearer to the latter of those two forms of speech. 

There can be but little doubt that a combination of sounds ex- 
pressed by the letters fhl in the Dieguno tongue, represents the 
sound of the Mexican tl ; a sound of which the distribution has long 
drawn the attention of investigators. Common in the languages of 
Mexican, common iu the languages of the northern parts of Oregon, 
sought for amongst the languages of Siberia, it here appears^ what- 
ever may be its value as a characteristic — as Califomian. The names 
of the Indians whose language is represented by the specimens just 
given are not ascertained with absolute exactitude. Mofras men- 
tions the Yumas and Amaquaquas. 

llie Mission of San Luis Rey de Francia (to be distinguished from 
that of San Luis Obispo) comes next as we proceed northwards. 

Between 33^^ and 34°, a new language makes its appearance 
Thb is represented by four vocabularies, two of which take the 


designation from the name of the trihe, and two from the MlBsion in 
which it is spoken. Thus, the Netela language of the United States 
Exploring Expedition is the same as the San Juan Capistrano of 
Dr. Coulter, and the San Gabriel of Dr. Coulter the same as the Kij 
of the United States Exploring Expedition. 

The exact relation of these two languages to each other is some- 
what uncertain, lliey are certainly languages of the same group, 
if not dialects of the same language. In the case of r and /, a 
regular letter-change exists between them. Thus Dr. Coulter's 
tables give us 


moon muarr mioil. 

water paara pal. 

earth ungkhur ekhel. 

salt ungurr engel. 

hot oro khalek. 

whilst in the United States Exploring Expedition we find — 


moon moar moil. 

star suot suol. 

water bar pal. 

hear hunar hunot. 

Of these forms of speech the San Gabriel or Kij is the more northern; 
the San Juan Capistrano or Netela being the nearest to the Dieguno 
localities. The difference between the two groups is pretty palpable. 
The San Gabriel and San Juan numerals of Mofras represent the 
Netela- Kij language. 

It is remarked in Gallatin's paper that there were certain coin- 
cidences between the Netela and the Shoshoni. There is no doubt 
as to the existence of a certain amount of likeness between the two 

Jujubit, Caqullas, and Sibapot are the names of San Gabriel tribes 
mentioned by Mofras. The Paternoster of the three last-named 
missions are as follows : — 

Langue de la Mission de San Gabriel, — Y Yonac y yogin tucu 
pugnaisa sujucoy motuanian masarml magin tucupra malman6 
muisme miU^osar y ya tucupar jiman bxi y yon6 masaxml mitema 
coy aboxmi y yo mamalnatar momojalch milli y yaxma abonac y yo 
no y yo ocaihuc coy jaxmea main itan momosalch coy jama juexme 
huememes alch. Amen. Jesus. 

Langue de la Mission de San Juan Capistrano. — Chana ech tupana 
ave onench, otune a cuachin, chame om reino, libi yb chosonec esna 
tupana cham nechetepe, micate tom cha chaom, pepsum yg cai 
caychame y i julugcalme cai ech. Depupnn opco chame chum 
oyote. Amen. Jesus. 

Langue de la Mission de San Luiz Rey de Francia. — Cham na cham 
meg tu panga auc onan mo quiz cham to qai ha cua che nag omreina 


h vi hiche ca noc ybd heg gd y vi an qui gd topanga. Cham na 
cholane mim cha pan pitu mag ma jan pohi cala cai qui cha me 
hoUoto gai tom chama o gui chag cay ne che cal me tus so Hi olo 
calme alia linoc chame cham cho sivo. Amen. J^us. 

The following is the Paternoster of the Mission of San Fernando. 
It is taken from Mofras : — 

Yyorac yona taray tuedpuma sagoucd motoanian majarmi moin 
main mon6 muismi miojor y iactucupar. Pan yyogin gimiarnerin 
majarmi mi fema coy6 ogomd yio m&marimy mii» yiarm^ ogonug y 
yoni, y yo ocaynen coijarmea main ytomo mojay coiyamd huerml. 

The Mission of San Fernando lies between that of San Gabriel 
and Santa Barbara. Santa Barbara's channel (between 34° and 34 j-° 
N. L.) runs between the mainland and some small islands. From 
these parts we have two vocabularies, Revely's and Dr. Coulter's. 
The former is known to me only through the Mithridates, and has 
only three words that can be compared with the other : — 


, pack paka. 

ezc6 thkoho. 

, mapja mosekh. 

The Mission of Santa Ines lies between that of Santa Barbara and 
that of San Luis Obispo, in 35^^ N. L., and supplies a vocabulary, 
one of Dr. Coulter's : — 

one . . 
two . . 





., to 




• . tkeup 


. kheup. 


. . takha 

. akha. 


. . tepu 

. tipi. 

This is the amount of likeness between the two forms of speech — 
greater^ than that between the Netela and Dieguno, but less than that 
between the Netela and Kij. 

Dr. Coulter gives us a vocabulary for the Mission of San Antonio, 
and the United States Exploring Expedition one from San Miguel, 
the latter being very short : — 





man .... 

luai, loai, logua. 



woman . . 


hair . . 


father .. 


ears .. 


mother . . 


nose . . 


son .... 

paser, pasel. 

eyes .. 


daughter . 

paser, pasel. 


t-r-eliko (lak-um, St.Raph.) 

With the San Antonio it has six words in.common, of which two 
coincide : e. g. in San Antonio man^^luah, mother=.epjo. Besides 
which, the combination tr, and the preponderance of initials in t, are 


common to the two vocabularies. San Antonio is spoken about d6|^ 
N. L. The numerals, too, are very similar, since the ki- and ka- in 
the San Antonio numeration for one, two, seems non-radical : — 


one tohi ki-tol. 

two kugsu ka-kishe. 

three tlubahi klap'hai. 

/our kesa kisha. 

/ive oldrato ultraoh. 

six paiate painel. 

seven tepa te'h. 

eight sratel shaanel. 

nine tedi-trup teta-tsoi. 

ten trupa tsoeh. 

It is safe to say that these two vocabularies represent one and the 
same language. 

About fifty miles to the north-west of St. Miguel lies La Soledad> 
for which we have a short vocabulary of Mr. Hale's : — 





man .... 



. tsop. 

woman ,. 


hair . . . 

. worokh. 

father .. 


ears . . . 

. otsho. 

mother . . 


nose . . . 

. us (oos, Costano), 

son .... 


ei^es ... 

. hiin (hin, Talatui). 

daughter . 


mouth . 

. hai. 

The word nika, which alone denotes daughter, makes the power of 
the syllable ka doubtful. Nevertheless, it is probably non-radical. 
In ni-kt-nish, as opposed to ni-ka-na, we have an apparent accom- 
modation (umlaut) ; a phenomenon not wholly strange to the 
American form of speech. 

Is this the only language of these parts ? Probably not. The 
numerals of language from this Mission are given by Mofras, and the 
difference between them and those of Mr. Hale is as follows : — 


one enkala himitsa. 

two oultes ulshe. 

three kappes kap-kha. 

four oultezim utjit. 

Jive haliizon paruash. 

six hali-skakem iminuksha. 

seven kapka-mai uduksha. 

eight oulton-mai taitemi. 

nine ])akke watso. 

ten tam-chakt matsoso. 

There is some affinity, but it is not so close as one in another 
quarter ; t. e. one with the Achastli and Ruslen. 

Between 36° and 37° N. L. lies the town of Monterey. For 


this neighbourhood we have the Rumsen east, and the Eslen west, 
the latter being called also Ecclemachs. Bourgoing and Pe La 
Manon are the authorities for the scanty vocabularies of these two 
forms of speech, to which is added one of the Achastli. The 
Achastli, the Runsen, and the Soledad of Mofras seenr to represent 
one and the same language. The converse, however, does not hold 
good, t. e, the Soledad of Hale is not the Eslenes of Bourgoing and 
the Ecclemachs of De La Manon. This gives us four languages for 
these parts : — 

1. The one represented by the San Miguel and San Antonio 

2. The one represented by the Soledad of Hale. 

3. The one represented by the Soledad of Mofras, the Achastli 
of De La Manon, and the Ruslen of Bourgoing. 

4. The one represented by the Eslen of Bourgoing and the Eccle- 
machs of De La Manon, and also by a vocabulary yet to be noticed, 
viz. that of the Mission of Car m el of Mofras. 

ESLEN. 90LEDAV (of Mofras). RUSLEN. 












one. . pek pek j enkala. . . . 

two oulhuj .... ulhaj \ oultes .... 

three koulep .... julep ' kappes . . 

/our kamakous. . jamajus ' oultizim . . 

five pemakala . . pemajala .... haliizon . . 

«tjr . . pegualanai peguatanoi. . . . haHshakem 

seven kulukulanai julajualanei . . kapkamai 

eight kounailepla julep jualanei. . oultonmai 

nine kakouslanai jamajas jualanei pakke .... 

ten. . tomoila. ... tomoila tamchakt 

We now approach the parts of California which are best known—* 
the Bay of San Francisco in 38^ N. L. For these parts the Mis- 
sion of Dolores gives us the names of the following populations : — 
1. Ahwastes. 2. Olhones (Costanos or Coastmen). 3. Altahmos. 
4. Romonans. 5. Tulomos. 

For the same parts we have vocabularies of four languages which 
are almost certainly mutually unintelligible. Two are from Baer's 
Beitriige ; they were collected during the time of the Russian settle- 
ment at Ross. One represents the language of certain Indians called 
Olamentke, the other that of certain Indians called Khwakhamagu. 
The other two are from the second part of Schoolcraft. One is 
headed Costano = the language of the Indians of the coast ; the 
other Cushna. The language represented by the Cushna vocabulary 
can be traced as far inland as the Lower Sacramiento. Here we find 
the Bushumitt (or Pujuni), the Sectmsitt, the Yasumnt, the Yale8« 
umni, the Nemshaw, the Kiski, the Huk, and the Yukae tribes, 
whose languages, or dialects, are represented by three short vocabu-> 
laries, collected by Mr. Dana, viz. the Pujuni, the Sekumne, and the 

The following extract shows the extent to which these three forms 
of speech agree and differ : — 



woman . . 
head .... 
hair . . . . 
ear . . . . 


eye .. 
nose .. 
neck , . 
arm . . 
leg .. 
/oo/ .. 
toe .. 
^ot»e. . 
how .. 

kele . 

t^utftil . . 


on6 . . . , 
WBt9a . . 
henka . . 
mol6. . .. 
tokot6k. . 
ma • . . , 

arrow . . 
shoes, . . . 
beads, . . . 
sky . . . . 
sun . . . . 
day . . . . 
night, . . . 
/ire .... 
flpa^^ . . 
river . . , . 

tree . , . . 
grapes •• 
dwr .... 
Wrrf . . . . 
fish .... 

t9apai .. 
pai . • . . 
kattfp .. 
tap . . .. 







moini, mop 

16kol6k. . . . 




bad . 
old . 
new • 




n^ftililf .... , . 





















tamsult or tamt9ut. 









sa . . . • 


swim • 
talk . 
sing . 

iye .... 

mop . . . 

mumdi . 




kut . . , 





wemie . 

1909 ... 
















dance paio. 

one ....^, . ti wikte. 

two teene .... pen. 

three shupui .... sapui. 

/our pehel .... tsi. 

Jive mustik .... mauk. 

six tini, o (sic) . tini, a (sic), 

seven tapui pensi (?) sic. 

eight petshei . . • . tapau (?) sic. 

nine . . .... matshum . • mutsum. 

ten tfihapanaka aduk. 

On the Kassima River, a tributary of the Sacramiento, about 

eighty miles from its mouth lives a tribe whose language is called the 
Talatui, and is represented by a vocabulary of Mr. Dana's. It be- 
longs, as Gallatin has suggested, to the same class witli the lan- 
guage of San Raphael, as given in a vocabulary of Mr. Hale's : — 


man sawe lamantiya. 

woman esuu kulaish. 

father tata api. 

daughter tele ai. 

head tikit molu. 

ear alok alokh. 

eye wilai shuta. 

nose uk huke. 

mouth hube lakum. 

hand f^ti . . . . akue, 

foot subei koio. 

sun ^ hi hi. . 

day Ai-umu ^t. 

night ka-tc7t/ ie^a/a3ruta. 

fire wike waik. 

water kik kiik. 

stone sawa lupoiL 

bird lune, ti kakalis. 

house kodja koitoya. 

one kenate kenai. 

two oyo-ko oza, 

three teli-ko fti/o-ka. 

four ' oi^u-ko , . . . wiag. 

five kassa-ko /. . . . kenekus. * 

six temebo / patirak. 

seven ' kanikuk(?) sic .... semlawi. 

eight kauinda wusuya. 

nine ooi umarask. 

ten ekuye kitshish. 

North of San Francisco, at least along the coast, we have no vo- 


cabularies of any language undoubtedly and exclusively Californian. 
Thus, the Lutuami, the Shastj and Palaiks are, m all probability, 
common to California and Oregon. Of each of these languages 
Mr. Hale has given us a vocabulary. The Lutuami live on the head- 
waters of the river and lake Tlamatl, or Clamet, conterminous on 
the south-east with the Palaiks, and on the south-west with the 
Shasti. The affinity between the Palaik and Lutuami seems to be 
somewhat greater than that between the Lutuami and Shasti. 

And now we have gcme round California ; for, conterminous, on the 
east, with the Lutuami and Shasti are the Wihinast and Paduca with 
whom we began, and it is only by the comparatively narrow strip of 
country occupied by the three tribes just enumerated that the great 
Paduca area is separated from the Pacific. How far the Shasti and 
Palaik area extend in the direction of the head-waters of the Sacra- 
miento is uncertain. A separate language, however, seems to be 
represented by a vocabulary, collected by Mr. Dana from the Indians 
who lie about 25^ from its mouth. From the Lutuami, the Shasti, 
the Palaik, and Jakon, northwards, and from the Pujuni, Talatui 
and other dialects lower down the river, it seems distinct. It is just 
more like the Jakon than any other form of speech equally distant. 
Neither is it Shoshoni : — 




U. 8ACR. 



nose . . . 

, tsono. tusina Jakon, 



suma Sek, 


meim. momi Puj. 

mouth. . . 

, kal. khai Jakon, hai 

Tsam. mop Sek, 


hair . . . . 


chin . . . 

, kentikut. 




. tei. 

am .... 


knife . . . 


finger, . . . 

tsemut. tamt9ut as 

iron . . . . 


hand Tsam. 

grape . . 



tole. kolo Talat. 





eat .... 

ba, has. 

knee .... 




deer .... 




salmon .. 


Slight as is this preponderance of affinity with the Jakon, it is 
not to be ignored altogether. The displacements between the two 
areas have been considerable ; and though the names of as many as 
five intermediate tribes are known, we have no specimens of their 
languages? These tribes are — 

1. Tbe Kaus, between the rivers Umkwa and Clamet, and conse- 
quently not far from the head-waters of the Sacramiento. 

2. 3. The Tsalel and Killiwashat, on the Umkwa. 

4. The Saintskla between these and the Jakon, the Jakon being 
between the Tlatskanai and Umkwa. 

Now as these last are Athabaskan, there must have been displace- 
ment. But there are further proofs. North of the isolated and 

apparently intrusive Tlatskanai lie the Nsietshawas — isolated and 
apparently intrusive also; since they belong to the great Atna stock 
of Frazer's River. 

The Jakon, then, and the Indians of the Upper Sacramiento may 
belong to the same stock — a stock which will be continuous in its 
area in case the intermediate tribes prove referable to it, and inter- 
rupted in its area if they do not. At. any rate, the direction of the 
Jakons is important. 

The following Paternosters from Mofras, referable to the parts 
about San Francisco, require fixing. They can probably be distri- 
buted among the languages ascribed to that district — not, however, 
by the present writer : — 

Langue de la Mission de Santa Clara, — Appa macr^ne m^ saura 
saraahtiga elecpuhmem imragat, sacan macr^ne mensaraah assuevy 
nouman ourun macari pireca numa ban saraathtiga poluma macr6ne 
souhaii naltis anat macr6ne ne6na, ia annanet macr^ne meena, ia 
annanet macr6ne macrec dquetr maccari noumbasi macre annan, 
non marot6 jessemper macrene in eckou^ tamouniri innam tattahn6, 
icatrarca oniet macr6ne equets naccaritkoun och 4 J^sus. 

Langue de la Mission de Santa Ines, — Dios caquicoco upalequen 
alapa, quiaenicho opte; paquininigug quique eccuet upalacs 
huatahuc itimisshup caneche alapa. Ulamuhu ilahulalisahue. 
Picsiyug equepe ginsucutaniyug uquiyagmagin, canechequique quia- 
agin sucutanagun utiyagmayiyug peux hoyug quie utie lex ulechop 
8antequi]rug ilautechop. Amen. Jesus. 

Langue de la ValUe de Los TV/are^.— Appa macquen erignimo, 
tasunimac emracat, jinnin eccey macquen unisinmac macquen quitti 
6n6 soteyma erinigmo : sumimac macquen hamjamd jinnan guara 
ayei; sunun macquen quit ti enesunumac ayacma; aquectsem 
unisimtac nininti equetmini : junnii macquen equetmini em men. 

Langue Giuluco de la Mission de San Francisco. — Alld-igam6 mutry- 
OCU86 mi zahu4 om mi yahuatail cha usqui etra shon mur tzecali 
Ziam pac onjinta mul zhailge Nasoyate chelegua mul znatzoitz^ 
tzecali zicmatan zchiitiilaa chalehua mesqui pihuatzite yteima oma- 
hua. Emqui. Jesus. 

Langue Chocouyem du Rio del Sacramento. — Api maco su lileco 
ma n6na8 mi au^s omai macono mi taucuchs oy6pa mi tauco cha^ 
quenit opd neyatto chequenit opu liletto. Tu maco muye genum ji 
naya macono sucuji sulia m&cono m&cocte, chaue mat opu ma suli 
mayaco. Macoi yangia ume omutto, ul^mi mdcono omu incapo. 
Nette esa Jesus. 

Langue Joukiousmi de la Mission de San Raphael. — Api maco sa 
llleto man^nas mi dues onia macono michauka oiopa mitauka cha- 
kenit opu negata chkkenit opu lil^to, tumako muye quenunje 
naya macono sucuji sulia mac6no masojte chake mat opu ma suli 
mayaco maco yangia ume omut ulemi macono omu in capo. Netenti 


The numerals given by Mofras are as folloivB : — 


one . . 
two . . 
three. • 
four ,, 
Jive .. 
six .. 
seven . 
eipht. , 
nine . . 
ten .. 


tcboumou. . 
eschiou. . . . 
micha .... 
paksi .... 
tizeoui .... 
ksoukouia • 
scomo .... 
toaymile . . 


soupoube. . 
bouab .... 


nouaflah . . 
maba .... 
pomkalilo . 
cboucboui . 











ADDENDUM— (Oct. 14. 1853.) 

Since the previous paper was read, " Observations on some of the 
Indian dialects of Northern California, by G. Gibbs/' have appeared 
in the 3rd Part of Schoolcraft (published 1853) {vide pp. 420-445). 

The vocabularies, which are given in a tabulated form, are for the 
following twelve languages : — 

1. Tcbokoyem. 2. Copeh. 3. Kulanapo. 4. Yukai. 5. Chowe- 
shak. G. Batemdakaiee. 7. Weeyot. 8. Wishok. 9. Weitspek. 
10. Hoopah. 11. Tahlewah. 12. Ehnek. 

Besides which three others have been collected, but do not appear 
in print, viz. : — 

1. The Watsa-he-wa, spoken by one of the bands of the Shasti 

2. The Howteteoh. 

3. The Nabittse. 

Of these the Tcbokoyem = the Chocouyem of the Sacramiento, and 
Joukiousme of San Raphael of Mofras ; also Gallatin's San Raphael, 
and (more or less) the Talatui. 

The Copeh is something (though less) like the short Upper Sa- 
cramiento specimen of the preceding paper. 

The Yukai is, perhaps, less like the Pujuni, Sekumne, and Tsamak 
vocabularies than the Copeh is to the Upper Sacramiento. Still, it 
probably belongs to the same class, since it will be seen that the Huk 
and Yukai languages are members of the group that Mr. Dana's lists 
represent. The Kulanapo has a clear preponderance of affinities 
with the Yukae. 

The Choweshak and Batemdakaiee are allied. So are — 

The Weeyot and the Wishok ; in each of which the sound ex- 
pressed by 'tt occurs. These along with the Weitspek take m as 
the possessive prefix to the parts of the human body, and have 
other points of similarity. 


hair pah'tl. . . 

foot welhh'tl. 



The Hoopah is more interesting than any. The names of the 
parts of the human body, vfhen compared with the Navaho and 
Jecorilla, are as follows : — 


head dkheh hut-se it-se. 

forehead . . hotsintah .... hut-tah pin- nay. 

face haanith .... hun-ne .... 

eye ...... huanah hunnah pindah. 

nose huntchu .... hutchin .... witchess. 

teeth howwa howgo' egho. 

tongue .... sastha hotso . . ezahte. 

ear hotcheweh . . hutchah .... wickyah. 

hair tsewok hotse. itse. 

neck hosewatl .... huckquoss . . wickcost. 

arm hoithlani .... hutcon witse. 

ha$u[ hollah hullah wislah. 

Here the initial combination of h and some other letter is (after 
the manner of so many American tongues) the possessive pronoun 
— alike in both the Navaho and HoopaL ; many of the roots being 
also alike. Now the Navaho and Jecorilla are Athabaskan, and 
the Hoopah is probably Athabaskan also. 

The Tahlewah and Ehnek are but little like each other, and little 
like any other language. 

Although not connected with the languages of California, there is 
a specimen in the volume before us of a form of speech which has been 
already noticed in these Transactions, and which is by no means 
clearly defined. In the 28th Number, a vocabulary of the Ahnenin 
language is shown to be the same as that of the Falhlndians of Um- 
freville. In Gallatin this Ahnenin vocabulary is quoted as Arapaho, or 
Atsina, Now it is specially stated that these Arapaho or .^/Wna Indians 
are those who are also (though inconveniently or erroneously) called 
the Gros Ventres, the Big Bellies and the Minitares of the Prairie- 
all names for the Indians about the Falls of the Saskachewan ; and 
consequently of Indians far north. 

But this was only one of the populations named Arapaho. Other 
Arapahos are found on the head-waters of the Platte and Arkansas. 
Who were these ? Gallatin connected them at once with those of 
the Saskachewan — ^but it is doubtful whether he went on better 
grounds than the name. A vocabulary was wanted. 

llie volume in question supplies one — collected by Mr. J. S. Smith. 
It shows that the two Arapahos are really members of one and the 
same class — in language as well as in name. 

Upon the name itself more light requires to be thrown. In an 
alphabetical list of Indian populations in the same volume with the 
vocabulary, from which we learn that the new specimen is one of 
the southern (and not the northern) Arapaho, it is stated that the 
word means "pricked '* or " tattooed," In what language ? Perhaps 
in that of the Arapaho themselves ; perhaps in that of the Sioux — 


since it is a population of the Sioux class which is in contact with 
both the Arapahos. 

Again — if the name be native, which of the two divisions uses it ? 
the northern or the southern ? or both ? If both use it, how comes 
the synonym Ahnenin ? How, too, comes the form Atsina ? Is it 
a typographical error ? The present writer used the same MS. with 
Grallatin and found the name to be Ahnenin. 

To throw the two Arapahos into one and the same class is only 
one step in our classification. Can they be referred to any wider 
and more general division ? A Shyenne vocabulary is to be found 
in the same table ; and Schoolcraft remarks that the two languages 
are allied. So they are. Now reasons have been given for placing 
the Shyenne in the great Algonkin class (Philolo^. Trans,, and 
Transactions of the American Ethnological Society, vol, ii. p. cxi.). 

There are similar affinities with the Black/oot. Now, in the paper 
of these Transactions already referred to, it is stated that the affi- 
nities of the Blackfoot " are miscellaneous ; more, however, with the 
Algonkin tongues than with those of any recognized group*." 
Gallatin takes the same view (Transactions of American EthnoL Soc. 
vol. ii. p. cxiii.). 

This gives a recent addition to the class in question, the Black- 
foot — the Shyenne — the Arapaho. 

The southern Arapaho are immigrants, rather than indigeme, in 
their present localities. So are the Shyennes, with whom they are 

The original locality of the southern Arapahos was on the Saska- 
chewan; that of the Shyennes on the Red River. HenceT the 
affinity^between their tongues represents an affinity arising out of 
their relations anterior to their migration southward. 
* No. 28. voL ii. p. 34. Jan. 24, 1845. 

At the Council-meeting this evening it was resolved — "That as 
often as a volume of the Transactions is completed, a bound copy 
shall be sent to every Member." 


Vol. VI. MAY 27, 1853. No. 135. 

The Rev.T. Oswald Cockayne, M.A., in the Chair. 

Anniversary Meeting, 
In addition to the ordinary routine business, the resignation of 
the office of Honorary Secretary to the Society was sent in by 
Edwin Guest, Esq. LL.D., Master of Caius and Gonville College, 
Cambridge. Dr. Guest had been Honorary Secretary to the Society 
since its foundation in 1842. It was unanimously resolved, " That 
the thanks of the Society be given to the Master of Caius College, 
Cambridge, for his invaluable labours during so many years as 
Secretary of the Society." Dr. Guest was also elected one of the 
Vice-Presidents of the Society. Professor Key, M.A. and F. J. 
Fumivall, Esq., M.A., were elected Honorary Secretaries. 

The following paper was read — 

•• On English Etymologies ."-—Continued. By Hensleigh Wedg- 
wood, Esq., M.A. 

Wig, Pbriwio. — Of these the latter is commonly understood to 
be the original, the shorter wig being formed like bus from omnibus, 
or cab from cabriolet ; while periwig itself is supposed to be a cor- 
ruption of the Fr. peruqUe ; but possibly it may be an instance of 
those false etymologies in which the writing of an imported term has 
been adapted to agree with a native root not really connected with it. 
It is aingular at least that we find in Bavarian wickel, a handful of tow 
or flax, so much as is put on the distaff at once, from wickeln, to wrap, 
api^ied jocularly to a wig, or the person wearing one. Wuckel, a 
curl. Wicke, a head of hair ; einen beg der^ wicke nee, to take one by 
the hair. — Schmeller. 

Ballast. — Dan. bag-last, literally back- load, because (according 
to Adelung) the ballast is placed at the back of the other cargo. 
But when once the cargo is stowed the sailor has no occasion to 
meddle with the ballast until the end of the voyage. It would hardly 
occur to him, therefore, to speak of the ballast as lying at the back of 
the ordinary cargo ; and if it were named from its position in the ship, 
it would be called the bottom, and not the back-load. The provincial 
Dan. bag-Uds, the load which one brings back from a place with an 
empty waggon, affords a better explanation. When a waggon has dis- 
chturged its load, it will take manure or other attainable load of com- 
paratively small value rather than return empty ; but when a ship has 
discharged* if it cannot obtain a home freight of merchandise of one 
kind or another, it is forced to take in an absolutely worthless load 
of sand or stones to steady the vessel. This is the back-load, kut 



ciox^l^f the inutilis sarcina (as the word is interpreted by Kilian), 
intended when it is said that a vessel is returning in ballast. In a 
secondary sense, the word is applied to the portion of heavy materials 
placed at the bottom to keep the balance of a regular cargo. 

To Box. — Dan. bask, a sounding blow, a smack, identical with 
O.-E. posh ; to posh one on the face. Dan. baske, to strike with the 
flat hand ; at baske eens 6ren, to box one's ears. The correspondence 
with E. boa is merely the converse of the interchange between the 
A.-S. acsian, axian, and E. ask, still in some parts pronounced ax. 

To Gnarl, Snarl. — A gnarled oak is a knotted, twisted oak ; 
while a string or thread \s said to be in a snarl when it twists up of 
itself into an entangled mass. The radical notion in both cases is 
that of twisting or turning, a notion very generally expressed by 
words derived ^m an imitation of the whirring noise made by rapid 
motion through the air. Thus we have W. chwym, a whizz, a 
whirl ; chvjymUf to snore, snarl like a dog, to turn rapidly. The 
Du. knorren (fremere, frendere, Kil.) is explained by Wilcocke ' to 
gnarl, snarl, grumble,' and to gnar or gnarl, to snarl or growls are 
given as synonyms by Johnson. The simple verb knorra in Swed. 
signifies to murmur, whence the derivative knorla (as whirl from 
whirr}, to curl, to twist; agreeing exactly with the E. gnarl as 
applied to a knotted tree. 

Again, the Pl.-D. has snirren, snarren, snurren, to whirr, and 
thence snarre, a spinning-wheel, as in Fr. by a converse application 
the purring of a cat is expressed by the term rouer, because it 
resembles the sound of a Spinning-wheel. The entire series of 
meanings is well exhibited in the Sw. snorra, to hum like a top, to 
purr, to sound the r strongly, and secondarily, to whirl, to turn. 

Fbtch-cakulr, Fetch, — Fetch lights or Fetch-candles,, Corpse- 
candles, or Dead -men's- candles are, according to Grose, of very com- 
mon occurrence in the counties of Cardigan, Carmarthen and Pembroke. 
They are appearances seen at night as of candles in motion, supposed 
to be in attendance on a ghostly funeral and to portend the death 
of some one in the neighbourhood (Brand's Popular Superstitions). 
The superstition is obviously founded on the WiU-o'-the-Wisp or 
Ignis fatuus, which is known in Holland by the name of Dood- 
k^erse, death candle or dead-man's-candle. 

The name might plausibly be explained as if the apparition were 
sent to fetch the fated person to the other world, but probatjly it is 
of more ancient origin than would be indicated by such a derivation. 
The ignis fatuus is called in Norway Vatte-lys, the Vsett's candle, 
the Vaett being a kind of goblin supposed to dwell in mounds and 
desert places. The identity of this with the Pembrokeshire Fetch- 
candle can hardly be doubted. 

To Sbw, Sbwer. — It was shown in a former paper (Philolog. 
Trans, vol. v. p. 81) that shore and sewer are radically distinct, the 
origin of the former being the G. scharren, to scrape. The ob- 
solete to sew is to let the water off a pond, and the primitive meaning 
of sewer is simply a watercourse. The word seems to have come 
to us from the Low Countries, from whence the examples given by 


Ducange are chiefly taken. He explains seware — rigare, aquam 
deducere ad irrigationem, quoting a charter of a Seigneur de Basing- 
hem of the year 1220, ' cum prohibuissem ne ecclesia eancti Bertini 
pratum suum per terram meam sewaret.' In the same place sewaria 
is explained, ' canalis per quem aquae ad molendinum decumint ; a 
voce Gallo Belgico seuwiere.* 

The true etymology of the word may, I believe, be seen in the 
Sp. desaguar, to let the water off or to flow off, whence deaaguadero, 
an outlet or sewer ; or in the Proven9al compound with ad instead 
of di8, adaigar, azaigar, to irrigate. The wearing down of such 
forms aa these into one 'closely resembling the E. sew, may be seen 
within the actual compass of the Romaunch or Romance of the 
Ghisons, in which we have saguar, assaver, achuar, to irrigate, cor- 
responding to the forms agua, ava, aua, of the Lat. aqua. In like 
manner we have ewer, a water jug, from Fr. aigui&e, differing from 
sewer only by the initial s, the representative of the preposition ad 
or dis, 

Whabf. — ' A broad plain place near a creek or hyth to land or 
lay wares on that are brought from or to the water/ Bayley. The 
Dan. hverve (corresponding to A.-S. hweorfian), to turn, is pro- 
vincially pronounced hverre, hvarre. Hence hvarre is applied to the 
portion of the shore comprised within the turn of the fide, and this 
appears to be the original sense of the £. wharf, as in Shakespear's 

'* And duller must thou be 
Than the fat weed which rots on Lethe's wharf." 

Now a ship in taking in or discharging cargo would lie on the wharf 
(in the foregoing sense) of the creeks which formed the only har- 
bours in the early periods of commerce, and the term would easily 
be transferred to the adjoining bank on which the goods are depo- 
sited in the process of loading and unloading. It would only involve 
the slight variation of speaking of the ship as lying at the wharf 
instead of on it. 

Light, Lift. — ^The connection between light and air is a very 
close one, they are both admitted by the same inlet, and before the 
use of glass must have been far more inseparable companions than 
now. To take a thing to the light would be to take it into the air. 
It is not surprising then that the name of the former should have 
extended to signify the latter also, and thus in Piatt Deutsch licht, 
iucht, IB the air as well as light. In other dialects the ch has passed 
into an/, as in the Mceso-Guth. luftus. Germ, luft, A.-S. lift, the air, 
of which the latter in modem Scotch has come to signify the sky. 
It is probably from this application of the word light to signify the 
air, the most striking type of lightness, that the adjective light (levis) 
is derived; while the verb to lift, in Du. lichten, may be either 
from the adjective light, as levare from levis, in the sense of making 
a thing light, or it may be directly from lift, the air, as signifying to 
raise an object in the air. Doubtless such a development as the 
foregoing would seem to connect lux with levis, the relationship of 
which would not otherwise be suspected and will perhaps hardly be 



admitted, notwithBtanding the analogy of nix, nivis ; but when a wide 
prospect is taken of the sister tongues, the offshoots of a common 
stock are often found in so disjointed a condition in different mem- 
bers of the great European family, that we should not lightly give 
up an etymology well supported in one group of languages because 
it would entail the connection of words apparently widely separated 
in another. 

Pageant. — Of this word no plausible explanation has been offered, 
as Johnson's payen g4ant, besides being very bad French, would give 
too restricted a meaning. The primary signification seems to have 
been a scenic representation in general. In a poem published by 
the Camden Society, the ghost of Edward the Fourth is made to 
say, ' I have played my pageyonde' — I have acted my part in life. 
We have here the participial form of a verb which was probably the 
representative of the Dutch boetsen, bootaen, gesticulari ; na-boeisen, 
imitari, Kil. ; whence boetse, bootse, facetiae, res ludicra, gesticulatio; 
boetsefi'tnaecker. Germ, possen-macher (the origin of our posture-' 
maker by one of those false etymologies of which so many instances 
have been pointed out), scenicus, gesticulator, mimus, ludio. Kil. — 

" With him Patroclus 

Upon a lazy bed the livelong day 
* Breaks scurril jests, 

And with ridiculous and awkward action, 

(Which slanderer be imitation calls) 

He pageants us." — Troilus and Cressida. 

We may remark the singular fate of a word which has been appro- 
priated to signify the solemn shows of state in the E. pageant, and 
low farce in the G. posse. 

To GIVE THE SACK. — The force of this expression is better pre- 
served in the corresponding French expression than in English. To 
tell a person in English to pack up his orts, is to send him about 
his business, to take even his orts or leavings with him and to leave 
no traces of himself behind. In French the word quilles or ninepins, 
probably taken as an instance of the most worthless property a 
person can have, takes the place of our orts, and trousser leurs 
quilles, to pack up one's ninepins, is explained by Cotgrave ' to pack 
up, or prepare for their departure.' Hence 'donner son sac et sea 
quilles,' or in E. to give him the sack (equivalent to the G. sein 
bundel schniiren), is to hand a servant his baggage, to send him 
about his business, to discharge a workman. 

To Rack. — ' To draw off wines from the lees.* Bay ley. In seeking 
for the derivation of a word relating to the manufacture of wine, we 
should naturally look to the Romance countries, in which that ma- 
nufacture is of native growth. We accordingly find in Languedoc 
araca le bi, — transvaser le vin, and rdco or drdco, the dregs of 
grapes or olives in the manufacture of wine or oil. Hence to rack 
is properly to decant the liquor from the dregs, and secondarily to 
pour it from one vessel into another. 

So from the Venetian morga, lees of oil, morgante, travasatore di 
olio, one who racks oil. 


Gizzard. — Formerly written gitier, gysar or giseme ; immediately 
from Fr. gMer, the derivation of which seems to be obscured by the 
loss of an r. The Languedocian dialect has grizU, a gizzard* from 
gr}:8, grisil, the gravel or little stones with which the gizzard is 
supplied. For the same reason it is also called p6ri( or piirie in the 
same dialect, from peiro, a stone. 

To Pout. — ^To push out the lips as a child in bad temper. From 
the Romance /?o^ or pout (Languedoc), /70/0 (Limousin), a lip, whence 
poutout a kiss ; fa las potas, or fa lou poutou, to sulk, to pout. 

GoRSB. — One of the principal growths of uncultivated land in 
England. We are led to the derivation of the name by the prov. Fr. 
gorsso or gorssas, signifying ground covered with stones and bram- 
bles (Beronie, Diet. Bas-Limousin), whence degourssa, defricher, to 
clear land of thorns and waste growth. The root lies in the W. gores, 
gorest, waste, open, unenclosed, whence also apparently the G. horst 
and E. forest. In Staffordshire a piece of land covered with gorse 
is called a gorsty bit, in which the / of the W. gorest seems to be 
preserved. The same connection between the name of the shrub and 
that of the waste land on which it grows holds good in Breton, in 
which language lannou (the plural of lann, gorse or furze) is applied to 
uncultivated tracts of ground, giving rise apparently to the Landes of 
Southern France. 

Habsrdashbb. — ^The guesses at the etymology of tliis singular 
word have failed so entirely in throwing any light on the subject, 
that it may be worth while to add one that has at least a solid 
foundation, though it certainly leaves a considerable step to be 
cleared by conjecture at the conclusion. 

A word of so complex a structure, not apparently reducible to sig- 
nificant elements, must be largely suspected of corruption, and the 
origin would most naturally be looked for in France, which has fur- 
nished us with the names of so many of our trades, such as butchers, 
tailors, cutlers, chandlers, mercers, grocers, &c. 

Now the Diet, de Languedoc has Dehassaire^houne^er, chaussetier, 
fabricant de has, from debasses, stockings. When the dealer in these 
articles set up in England, he seems to have been principally known 
as a vendor of hats — ' The Haberdasher heapeth wealth by hats.* 
Gascoigne; and the term dehassaire not being understood in this 
country, the name of the article dealt in might be added to give sig- 
nificance. Thus might be formed Hat-debasser or Hat-debasher, 


Vol. VI. JUNE 10, 1853. No. 136. 

Thomas Watts, Esq., in the Chair. 

The following paper was read — 

" Miscellaneous Remarks on some Latin Words." By Professor 

Although etymology is the foundation upon which all dictionaries 
should he constructed, yet it must he admitted that in not a few in- 
stances damage has heen done hy allowing a spurious derivation to 
affect the meaning assigned to words. Thus the suh. armentum, in 
a lexicon of considerable repute, has for the first meaning assigned 
to it 'cattle for ploughing,' with the appended note that it is 
' contracted ^m arimentum from aro.' The form of the noun ' an- 
mentum' seems to imply that the writer supposed a verb ' arere' of 
the third conjugation to have preceded the ordinary verb arare. To 
such a supposition we offer no objection, as it would be in harmony 
with the admitted examples of lavare and lavere, sonare and sonere, 
cubare and cumbere ; and of course the loss of the i in the alleged 
arimentum, is a more probable doctrine than the loss of a long vowel 
from aramentum. We are aware that the derivation from the verb 
signifying ' to plough' has the authority of Varro, and we are also 
ready to admit that such derivation is more satisfactory than that 
found in Servius and Festus, which deduces it from arma, on the 
ground that as horses are immediately serviceable in war, so oxen 
supply material for making shields ; more satisfactory we say, be- 
cause the termination mentum implies a derivation from a verb. The 
objection which leads us to reject the view of Varro, is that the word 
armentum is never found in connexion with the idea of ploughing. 
Forcellini is right when he says, ' Proprie dicitur de grege equorum 
et boum qui simul aluntur.' Why then should we hesitate to 
deduce the word horn this very verb alere, and regard armenta as a 
corruption, no very violent one, of nlimenta ? The fact that the lan- 
guage already possesses this sub. aUmentum in a different sense is no 
impediment, as it is far from being a rare occurrence for duplicate 
or even triplicate varieties of the same word to coexist. Thus our 
own tongue has in the three substantives hag, bay, and bow, words 
with marked differences of meaning and yet one in origin. So again 
the transitive verbs subrigere and porrigere are by formation identical 
with the intransitive verbs surgere and pergere. Similarly Bapoos 
and dpaao$ are held to be only dialectic varieties of the same word, 
and at one time appear to have had no distinction of meaning, though 
there finally grew up a difference of usage which confined the former 
to a eulogistic, the latter to a dyslogistic sense. We have passed 
over the interchange of the two liquids in alimenta and armenta as 



scarcely deserving notice ; but it may be as well to observe that aipw 
and ah are probably equivalent forms ; nor is the longer form a€if>fai, 
t. e. the crude form aep-, sufficient to overturn this doctrine, for the 
Gbreek language abounds in verbs which prefix a vowel foreign to 
the root. Besides, the Latin itself in arduu8, ' lofty, steep,' is a deri- 
vative from alere possessed of the desired liquid. To prevent mis- 
conception we add, that the first signification we would assign to 
a/- is ' raise' or ' rear,' in the mere physical sense ; a second, ' raise ' 
or ' rear,' as we say raise or rear cattle, vegetables, &c., i. e. cause 
them to grow. 

Another instance of a familiar word where a mere change from 
one liquid to another has tended to obscure the origin, is seen in the 
substantive annus. It is generally admitted that this word denoted 
simply a circle, and that it was immediately related to the diminu- 
tivflJ annulus and annellus, ' a ring' ; also to the noun anus =podeXt in- 
asmuch as a single nasal is found in the word anulus itself. But the 
origin of annus is still a problem for solution. We find in a die-' 
tionary published within the last few years, what is probably taken 
from Dr. Freund's work, — *' kindred with an = a/i^i," &c. The 
writer probably means the particle am, and if so, his view is 
established by the Oscan form of annus, viz. amnus (see Mommsen's 
Unteritalische Dialecte, where the word repeatedly occurs as the 
equivalent of annus). The Latin inseparable preposition is of course 
familiar in the compound am'icio. But in several verbs to which it 
attaches itself there has been, as we have elsewhere noticed, a natural 
but undue tendency to give to the prefix something more than it can 
justly claim. Thus ambire, amburere, ambedere, should probably be 
divided immediately after the liquid, so as to give the 6 to the stem 
of the verb. But when we deduce annus through amnus from the 
stem am, we are disposed to consider the latter as an obsolete verb, 
rather than as an ignoble particle, and standing to ama-, the essen- 
tial part of amare, precisely as son- of the above-mentioned sanere 
to sona- of the more familiar sonare. If our view be correct, the first 
signification of amare will be ' to embrace,' a physical idea from 
which readily flows the ordinary meaning of the verb. It is true 
that the Latin verb amare is held to be represented by the Sanscrit 
kam-t * love' ; but this is perfectly consistent with all that has been 
said, and even the Latin language seems to present the same root 
with an initial guttural, if we may believe the interpretation which 
Servius gives to hamus in Virgil : — Loricam consertam bamia au- 
roque trUicem, Aen. iii. 467, " t. e, catenis vel circulis." Be this 
as it may, the appearance of an m in the Otcan amnus accounts for 
. the variety in the form of solemnis, solennis. 

The same stem am is seen in the substantive ames, amitis, ' the 
fowler's pole,* a word that stands without etymological remark in 
the dictionaries. In Mr. Rich's work the precise character and use 
of the tool is explained, and the origin of the word becomes then 
one of easy discovery, if we follow the simple and safe rule of placing 
it by the side of words which possess a similar ending, such as pedes, 
eques, comes, ales. Our dictionaries are commonly satisfied with a 


half-performance of their etymological duties. Thus we are told 
that equeSf pedes and ales are respectively from the substantives equus, 
pes and ala, while of the second element which enters into them not 
one word is said. Fortunately the deficiency is supplied under 
comes, which is justly deduced from eo, * I go/ though it would be 
more precise to say that it in commit' is only a fuller form of the t 
seen in ure, as is also the case in it-er, ex-it-ium, in-it-ium, &c. 
llius ames is an adjective and might be translated by ' going round/ 
with some such word as pertica understood. In the working of the 
clap-net, the action of the ames is exactly what the word denotes ; 
it revolves, and carrying the net with it, deposits it on the surprised 

Alec or Halec. — ^This word is probably nothing more than the 
southern equivalent for what is written in French hareng, our herring. 
On the interchange of the two liquids in question we have already 
had occasion to speak, and as the herring is a fish belonging to the 
northern seas of Europe, we have an explanation of the Sict that it 
was known to the Romans only in the form of a pickled fish, or 

Adulari. — ^The current doctrines about this word are various. 
We will give them as summarily noticed in Dr. Andrews's lexicon : 
" Ace. to Fest. p. 18, this word is formed by metathesis fr. adludo, 
to play with one, to wag the tail, as orig. used of dogs : Karcher 
compares with it, etymologically, the Germ, wedeln and the Eng. 
wheedle, Beier, Lael. 25, 91, uhdo, to howl. Doederl. deriv. is most 
correct, Syn. 2, 175, fr. aula, the court-yard where the dog stands 
guard, serves or waits : thus adulor is, as it were, ad aliquem aulor.'* 

The connexion with the Gterm. wedeln, Eng. wheedle, is upset, to 
say nothing of other matters, by the mere quantity of the u in 
adulor, for the sufiix el of German words is represented in Latin by 
ill with a short u : tafel, tabula ; wandeln^ amhulare. But a more 
satisfactory explanation of the Latin verb will present itself, if we 
keep steadily in view what the usage of the classical writers, as well 
as the direct testimony of ancient commentators, places before us, 
that the word was originally applied to dogs wagging their tail at a 
favourite master. Such a meaning well agrees with the reflective 
form of the verb, as expressing an act of the animal upon its own 
body, and also with the ordinary power of the preposition ad. All 
we have to look for is the tail, and this we find in the three letters 
via. Here again the interchange between the liquids r and / must 
be called in aid. and as the Greek equivalent for a ft is ov, we have 
before us the word ovpa, ' a tail.' But it will not be satisfactory 
unless we also find the word within the Latin domain. Now the 
word Cauda has in Varro the form coda, just as caudex, caulis, Clau- 
dius, plaudo, also take the forms of codex, colis, Clodius, plodo. In 
modem Spanish we find duplicate forms as regards the second con- 
sonant, both cola and coda. But an initial c is far from being a 
stable letter. It is now commonly admitted that ubi, unde, uter, 
umquam, are later forms of cubi, cunde, cuter, cumquam, and so stand 
in imm^iate relation to the cases cnjus, cui, &c. of the relative. In 



the north of Italy Etruria was aa fond in ancient times of initial 
gutturals as Florence is now, while Rome and Naples preferred and 
still prefer softer sounds. Thus, for example, the pronoun tile or 
d//e (to follow the guidance of Virgil's olli) began with a vowel, but 
the modem Italian, forced by fashion to give a preference to the 
language in favour at Rorence, has been compelled to substitute 
quello. On these grounds we regard ula in adulari as but a cor- 
ruption of an older form cola, * a tul,' and the equivalent of the Greek 

The matter of the last argument in reference to the origin of tibi, 
unde, &c., brings to mind a prevalent error that still disfigures some, 
it not all, our best dictionaries. Of course if ubi (i. e. cubi) be a 
mere dative of the relative, as most scholars (lexicographers ex- 
cepted) admit, then alicubi, alibi and aliubi are but datives corre- 
sponding to the nominatives aliquis, alia (Lucr.), o/tW. So again 
Dr. Andrews's lexicon is not far from the truth when under inde it 
tells us that this particle is formed from the pronoun is with an 
adverbial ending. We have said that he is not far from the truth, 
for in fact there is strong reason for believing that the liquid n be- 
longs to the pronoun and not to the adverbial suffix. In a paper on 
the Pronouns, read some years ago before the Society, reasons were 
assigned at length for the doctrine that the pronouns of the third 
person ended in ». To what was then said we will add an argument 
drawn from the Greek language. The adverb ei^&er, ' thence,' con- 
tains in its last three letters a well-known suffix which can lay no 
claim to the preceding liquid. Gomp. ovpavo-Qev^ efie-dey, &c. The 
pronominal stem we contended had for its original form icer, which 
was readily subject to the loss of the initial guttural. Thus e^dev is 
only an archaic genitive of the pronoun, signifying from this. But 
as oinaOey also takes the form omtrOe, so erOey might well lose its 
final liquid ; and as the Latin language commonly substitutes a me- 
dial consonant in place of a Greek aspirated consonant '", inde is the 
very form which might be expected to correspond to the Ghreek eyOer, 
In the same way we hold un-de, aliun-de, alicun-de, to be correctly 
divided, when de alone is treated as the suffix denoting /rotn. But 
this is not material for the present argument. If unde (i. e. cunde) 
be only an archaic genitive of the relative, and inde of is, so aliunde, 
alicunde, are archaic genitives of alius and aliquis. It is now more 
than twenty years ago that the writer urged similar arguments in a 
review of an early edition of Zumpt's Latin Grammar, but he still 
finds in what are deemed some of our best lexicons such explanations 
as: "alibi [alius- ibi], alicubi [aliquo-ubi], alicunde [aliquo-unde], 
aliubi [alius-ubi], aliunde [alius-undej ." A similar error, exposed 
on the same occasion, is still repeated from year to year in this form: 
•* istic (also written isthic) [iste-hic]." Surely the writer of this, on a 
little reflection, will perceive that ille and iste, like nutn (now) and 
turn (then), may take the demonstrative suffix ce or c, so as to 
make illic, istic, nunc, and tunc, without dragging in the whole of 
the pronoun hie, especially as the non- admission of such a suffix as 
* Ag in unguis by the side of ovux-i nebula ve^eXij, umbUieo^ ofA^aXo'. 


ce or c leaves him in an awkward position when he endeavours to 
analyse Ate itself. 

Abstemiuf, — ^A favourite derivation of this word is from a hypo- 
thetical substantive temum, whence it is said proceed temulentus and 
temetum ; and further, we are sometimes told that temum is by me- 
tathesis from fi€dv. This doctrine of metathesis is most fatal to the 
fair progress of et3rmological studies. One writer, for example, tells 
us that vinco is a metathetical variety of vicaFof, another that et 
is the Greek re transposed, a third Xhtii forma is only a transforma- 
tion of fiop^fiy a fourth that abdomen is a corruption of adipomen from 
adeps ; and it is to be regretted that the Oerman scholar Bopp has 
too often encouraged such assumptions. But while we reject with- 
out hesitation the derivation of the supposed temum, we also doubt 
there being any connexion between abstemius and the word which is 
at the base of temetum and temulentus, and this partly because the 
termination ius seems rather to point to a verb, while we see no 
sufficient objection to the derivation from abstinere. The liquids m 
and n are frequently convertible, especially in this part of a root. 
Thus mem-or must be connected with the fsunily of words derived 
from men-, as mens, re-min-iscor, me-mm-t. Again, if we direct our 
thoughts to x^^^' ^^ ^^^ Greek x^^^'* ^^^ compare it with the 
similar combination of consonants in xOes, we shall see reason for 
expecting the Latin correlative to begin with a simple h. Hence as 
her-i, hes-temus are immediately related to xQts, so x^v- may be 
regarded as the analogue of himiO' ; and the little doubt that may 
linger in the mind disappears on seeing xafiat by the side of humi. 
The adjective aequali- we have long regarded as formed from aevo-, 
* age,' and a suffix It, represented in our own language by the ter- 
mination ly, i. e. likej for manly (Germ, mannlich) is well known to 
be only a corruption of manlike. Thus aequalis would signify ' of the 
same age,' and such is the sole meaning of the word in the writers 
who preceded Cicero, so that the subsequent use of the word with 
the mere meaning of equality, independently of age, ought not to 
outweigh its early signification. Our theory presupposes that aevo- 
had once a guttural consonant after the diphthong ; and had any 
ancient works written in that Italian dialect which prevailed in Flo- 
rence in ancient times come down to us, we should probably have 
found in them a dialectic variety, aequum, * age.' Thus the Latin 
verb vivere must assuredly have had a guttural at one time, or the 
perfect would never have taken the form vixsi {vixi) ; of such gut- 
tural the French language has retained a trace in its participle vecu. 
So also have the Latin vigeo and vigor. Again, the Latin adjective 
vivus is represented in our northern tongue by quick, where two 
gutturals replace the lip-letters of vivus, and conversely our adjective 
quick in Lancashire has retaken the softer form wick. A parallel 
case is seen in the first element of aequus, * level,' compared with the 
first element of our own ev-en. But aevum itself is perhaps to be 
deduced from the Latin verb aug-eo, for growth and age are often 
represented by a common term, by grandis for example, which in 
the Latin language generally expresses age quite as much as size ; 


and we know that young children are constantly assuming that the 
taller people are, the older they are. Then as to form, since the 
Greek wrote both av(w and ae^io, we may assume that aeg might be 
an equivalent for aug of augeoy and so aevo- might be a legitimate 
child of such a verb. The Greek adjective 4Xi( we would abo claim 
as of similar formation with aeqwUis, only that the second half 
exhibits greater purity, having preserved the k of like ; while on the 
other hand the first syllable has undergone violent compression, but 
not more than was to be expected in a Greek word, which com- 
monly annihilates a F between vowels, and indeed has so dealt with 
aiwy, which is acknowledged to be related to aevum. In claiming 
ffXi^ and fikiKia, we would not disturb IiXikos, ttiXikos, miXiKos, in 
their relation to each other and to the pronominal forms 6, ^, to- and 
wo-. Nay, as aequalis in the minds of the Romans got confounded 
with the derivatives of aequus and aequare, so also it is probable that 
a similar confusion found its way among the Greeks between ffXi^ 
and iiXiKos, and hence perhaps arose the aspirate of the first word. 
Though this also admits of independent explanation, for the root of 
augeo, av^ayw, avfoi, seems identical with our own verb wax. Germ. 
wachsen, and so to have been once possessed of an initial digamma, 
which we know was often replaced by an aspirate. 

Aestivus. — ^The carelessness of et3rmologists is distinctly exhibited 
when we find an adjective of this form deduced from the substantive 
aestas, the evident connexion of sense being allowed to cover all the 
iniquities of disregarding the two suffixes of the words. A fault not 
less serious to the cause of et3rmology occurs when the substantive 
aestus is deduced from the verb aestuare, Liet such proceedings be 
contrasted with the analogical steps which are requisite. As aestwus 
has a suffix in common with captivus, suhditwus, stativus, &c. ; and 
these come through perfect participles captus, subditus, 8iatu9, from 
verbs ; so must aestivus come eventually from a verb containing the 
element aes or something like it. So again, as nobiliias, cariias, 
honitas, are deduced from adjectives, aestas likewise points to an 
adjective aesi- or aeso-. Thirdly, aestus (aestu-), a masculine noun in 
tUt must be placed alongside of such words as factu-, actu-, dictu-, 
and we again infer the existence of some such verb as aes-. It is 
true that we do not at first find one, but tiro, usfi^ usfus^ contains in 
the syllable us, the consonant desired, and we know that wherever 
a root contained a long Uy the older language had a diphthong oe, as 
coerare, comoenis, moenera^ oeti, oenus, for curare, communis, munera, 
uti, unus. Hence we must assume a form oes- in the sense of bum ; 
whence indeed oes-trum, * the gadfly,' and probably by a very slight 
interchange of o and u, Vesta and Vesevus, the goddess and mountain 
of fire. Then again, as parcus, fidus, vivus, are adjectives imme- 
diately formed from verbs, we may assume an adjective aesus, whence 
the substantive aestas. Thus we admit aestas and aestivus to be 
closely related words, but not that they stand to each other as 
mother and daughter. To what we have here said it may well be ob- 
jected that a change between ae and o« is a hasty assumption, not easy 
to defend by precedents. Perhaps then we should look to the Greek 


verb aid-w, for the diphthong ai of the Greek would of course become 
ae with the Romans, and the 6, so unpronounceable to a Roman, 
might well take the form of the sibilant. Yet, in favouring this 
et3rmology, we do not mean that the Romans derived aestas, aestus, 
aestivuSf from the Greek, but that these words were still of native 
growth, deduced from an obsolete verb aes-, the Latin analogue of 

We have just assumed the existence of some words which are no 
longer found in the Latin language. The fear to make such as- 
sumptions has done much harm to etymology. But for it we should 
not find our lexicons dealing with a word like adoption- as a con- 
densation of adoptaiion-. The substantive optio and the frequentative 
opt are alike point to a fossil verb (so to say) opere ; and adoptio, as 
well as the adjective adoptwus, both bear evidence to the quondam 
existence of their parent adopere. In fact it should ever be borne 
in mind by the etjrmolo^st, that we possess after all but a fragment 
of the Latin language. When we look at all the existing Latin 
authors of classical repute as they appear in the simplicity of a 
Tauchnitz edition, apart from all commentary, we are at once struck 
with the smallness of an inheritance, which does not exceed thirty 
duodecimo volumes. This being so, let us put a case of a parallel 
nature. Suppose that thirty volumes be taken hap-hazard from the 
shelves of the British Museum, and all the words found therein be 
carefully arranged in an alphabetical index, what proportion would 
such index bear to the whole vocabulary of our language ? Surely 
it would be no exaggeration to suppose that a good half of our 
native tongue would be absent from its pages. 


Vol. VI. JUNE 24, 1853. No. 137. 

Hknslbioh Wkdgwooo, Esq., in the Chair. 

A paper was read — 

" On the Position and Tactics of the Contending Fleets in the 
Battle of Salamis." By the Rev. J. W. Blakesley, late Fellow and 
Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

In describing the details of the battle of Salamis, modem writers 
have, without any exception so far as I am aware, been exclusively 
guided by the narrative of Herodotus ; and have paid little or no 
attention to those features of the transaction which appear in other 
writers, and which are in some cases, as I shall endeavour to show, 
quite incompatible with the details of the historian's account. This is 
the more to be wondered at, as Herodotus himself plainly intimates, 
that there were many particulars about which he was unable to speak 
positively* ; and that about some there was a very great disagree- 
ment at the time he wrotef Indeed Colonel Leake, whose view 
of the matter appears to have been adopted unhesitatingly by the 
modem historians of Greece, remarks " that, instead of giving a 
consecutive narrative of the battle, Herodotus has related only a few 
of the most interesting occurrences : consistently with that deter- 
mination not to be responsible for any but ascertained facts, which 
is observable in every part of his history of the Persian invasion t." 

No person can have a higher opinion of the truthfulness of the 
so-called Father of History than myself, if by this is meant no more 
than an honest desire to relate such accounts as he received, in the 
form in which he received them, — to judge on principles of common 
sense between conflicting statements, — ^and to avoid the appearance 
of bestowing credence upon such stories as seemed to him manifestly 
not to merit it. For this, and for the clear eye of an observer, he 
deserves entire credit. But neither the character of Herodotus's 
work, nor anything which has been related of himself by the 
ancients, warrant us in attributing to him that searching criticism 
which should lead us (as it might in the case of Thucydides or 
Aristotle) to prefer his statements to those of a contemporary wit- 
ness of the events described, — especially if such a one's position 
had made him an active participator in them. 

Now in the case of the battle of Salamis we have the account of 
a contemporary, deserving of the closest attention, — which, if it had 
proceeded from a prose- writer, it would probably have received. But 
the unconscious association in modem minds between the ideas of 
poetry Bnd fiction has, I believe, deprived the great Ghreek dramatist 
of his due weight with our historians. iEschylus, who, even if he did 

* viil. 87. t riii. 94. 

t Atheni and the Demi of Attica, Appendii II. p. 264. 


not himself take a part in the action *, most undoubtedly was perfectly 
familiar with it under the aspect which it must have borne to those 
who did take part in it, produced his play T%e Persians, of which 
it constitutes the main feature, only seven years afterwards, before 
an audience chiefly made up of the very men who had manned the 
victorious gallies ; to whom consequently every line of his descrip- 
tion must have vividly recalled circumstances with which they were 
perfectly familiar. If his availableness for the purpose of the modem 
historian is somewhat curtailed in one respect, that before such an 
audience he could not enter into details with which they were well 
acquainted, although it would be most interesting for us to know them, 
— details most appropriate to the historian, and which we are most 
thankful to Herodotus for preservingf. — there is on the other hand 
an advantage which he possesses without a rival. It was perfectly 
impossible for him, without the certainty of disapproval, to present 
any view of the transaction which did not commend itself to Athe- 
nian eye-witnesses, — full, we may allow, of national prejudices and 
personal vanity, and quite ready to accept any grouping of the facts 
which actually occurred that might most flatter themselves, but still 
eye-witnesses, who would be at once revolted by any picture which 
contradicted their actual experience. Herodotus, it should be re- 
membered, whatever weight we may please to attach to his indi- 
vidual judgement, is exempted horn this corrective influence. Sup- 
posing him to have been actuated by even a critical spirit, in the 
modem sense of the word,— of which however there is not the 
slightest trace^ — his facts were a generation old : the Athenians of 
his time were the sons and grandsons of those before whom the 
Persians was acted ; and in the forty years or more that had elapsed 
since the battle, its story had been told over and over again in every 
fomily, as the twentieth day of Boedromion returned, and the school- 
boys had a holiday to go and see the procession of lacchus. It is 
not at all necessary to suppose wilful misrepresentation on the part 
of those who fought their battles over again to their children and 
grandchildren on their knees, in order to believe that the gallant 
bearing of the Athenian sailors, and the brilliant acts of individual 
commanders, together with such exciting incidents as the device of 
Artemisia to escape destmction, were more interesting both to tell 
and hear, than the accurate notice of times and places and other 
circumstances attending the movements of the forces engaged; 
although these were of far more vital importance to success, and by 
the actual combatants would at the time be felt to be so. 

I assume it, therefore, as an axiom, that when ^schylus does 

* Late writera assert, or asiume, that he did (Pausanias, i. 14. S). But though 
it is Tery possible that he did, such writers are little to be depended upon for a 
fact, MX centuries old if true, unless it appears that there is some intermediate au- 
thority to which they had access. 

f It is only by an indirect allusion that we can at all infer from Aschylns, that 
Athans had been burnt, and that the whole hopes of the dtisens lay in the fleet at 

ir ip* 'AOtivHv ktrr' Aw6pBfiro9 w6\u, 

dvdptiv ydp 6vrmv, l^iroc iffrlv dvfaXh. — ▼. S4S. 9. 


relate any particulars of the action of such a kind as mu»t have 
come under the notice of eye-witnesses, his narrative possesses 
paramount authority ; and that if any incident, or any special notice 
of time or place appears in Herodotus irreconcilable with these, it 
must be regarded as erroneous. On the other hand, if any circum- 
stance recorded by the historian, of difficult explanation when we 
merely regard its agreement with his main story, be yet found to har- 
monize well with the course of events contemplated in the dramatic 
narrative, it is to be received without hesitation. 

Now, in the description of Herodotus there is an instance of the 
application of each of these principles. It is, I believe, quite incom- 
patible with the view of the battle taken by iEschylus, that the 
engagement should have commenced — which Herodotus implies it 
to have done — with the Persian fleet formed in line along the strait 
between Salamis and the main. This is the position assigned to it 
by Leake, and it is a view in which he has been unhesitatingly fol- 
lowed. Assuming thb position to be the true one, Leake naturally 
finds a difficulty in another notice of Herodotus*, in which it is 
stated that with a view of enclosing the Greeks between the island 
Salamis and the main, the Persians caused a squadron of ships at 
Ceos and another at Cyno9ura to close up. Cynosura was the name of 
the cape forming the northern headland of the bay of Marathon t» and 
as this was more than sixty geographical miles from Salamis, — a di- 
stance which could not be completed in the time required — and as 
Hesychius adds that it was a generic name given to everything like a 
peninsula, Leake identifies it with the cape of Saint Barbara (Aghla 
Varv^) , in the island Salamis . But independen tly of there being no 
foundation in flincient writers for this arbitrary allocation, Ceos, the 
island to the S.W. of Sunium, is more than forty geographical miles 
from Salamis ; — « distance almost equally unmanageable in the time 
which Herodotus allows for the operation. Leake is therefore 
driven to the necessity of supposing "it is possible that Ceos may 
have been a place in Salamis, or on the Attic coast opposite to Cape 
Cynosura : it is also possible that there is some error in the textt." 
I will endeavour to show in the sequel that Ceos and Cynosura are 
the well-known island and promontory, and that the real difficulty 
is occasioned, not by their distance, but by the erroneous notion 
conceived by Herodotus of the operations of the Persian fleet, which 
is to be corrected by the help of the description of iEschylus. 

Before, however, proceeding to contrast the narrative of the two 
writers who come near to the time of the events they describe, it 
will be well to turn for a while to that of Diodorus. Of course no 
one would wish to compare so vague and modem a compiler with 
Herodotus, if the question were merely between the judgement of the 
one and the other *, but here our attention is attracted by the fact that 
in his account of this celebrated action, he is not epitomizing from 
Herodotus and superadding further facts from his various collections, 
but is undoubtedly following an entirely different authority ; — a cir- 
cumstance the more remarkable, as a very short time before, he had 
* viiL 76. t Henychiut, tub v. % Appendix 11. p. 260, note. 



been taking Herodotus as his text-book. According to the latter, 
after the Persian fleet had been collected in the bay of Phalerum, 
the army having in the meantime overrun the whole of Attica and 
burnt Athens, a council of war is held, and the result of this is, that 
on the day before the great engagement, it having been determined 
to fight by sea in the presence of the king, the fleet (or at least the 
main portion of it) advances to Salamis, and makes dispositions at 
its leisure with the intention of engaging the next day ; while the 
vanguard of the army marches the same evening upon the isthmus 
of the Peloponnese, where the Greeks were assembled to oppose it. 
Diodorus, for his part, makes the Persian fleet proceed at once from 
the open sea, to attack the Greeks who are drawn up across the 
strait of Salamis, their line occupying the ferry between the island 
and the Heracleum on the main*. Other circumstances in which 
he differs from Herodotus will be mentioned in the sequel ; but here 
it is suflicient to observe the important fact, that according to the 
authority he followed, whatever it may have been, the great engage- 
ment begins by the Persians attempting to force their way into the 
eastern entrance of the strait of Salamis, the Greek line being drawn 
up across it to oppose them, while in Herodotus they are supposed to 
be already within the strait and drawn up in line along it, the Greeks 
being ranged opposite to them along the northern coast of Salamis. 

Now if we turn to iEschylus, we find another important variation. 
His description makes the Persians completely taken by surprise, the 
Gh^eks advancing upon them at daybreak quite unexpectedly, and 
they themselves having made preparations, not for fighting, but only 
for intercepting an enemy which they imagine to be dispersing 
stealthily. The narrator attributes the whole calamity which has 
befallen his countrymen to the fedse intelligence sent by Themistocles. 
So indeed do Herodotus and Diodorus. But in those two writers 
the only benefit resulting to the Greeks from the movements which 
that intelligence occasioned is, that they are compelled to give up 
all thoughts of retreating, and to put confidence in themselves. Far 
different is it in the view of the dramatic poet. With him the intel- 
ligence becomes the cause of the Persians altering a disposition 
which was favourable for fighting, taking up one in which they were 
quite -disqualified for engaging, and, while in this, being brought 
unexpectedly to an action, lliis will be plain if attention be given 
to the several features brought prominently forward in his descrip- 
tion, although the very fact of his audience having been engaged in 
the battle would necessarily (as observed above) prevent lum from 
detailing the manoeuvres in the way that would be proper for an 

Taking Herodotus as our guide up to the point where iEschylus's 
description commences, we have the great bulk of the Persian war 
gallies, on the day before the action, advanced from Phalerum to 
Salamis, too late in the day to render it desirable to fight ; so that 
all they do is to make arrangements at their leisure for engaging the 
next day. There is every reason to believe that their disposition 

• xi. 19. 


was within the strait of Salamis, along the coast of the main, from 
the roots of Mt. iEgaleos on the west to the headland opposite Cape 
St. Barbara on the east. This would indeed be a very advantageous 
position. The whole of the coast was lined with the flower of the 
Persian army, so that if in the approaching engagement the gallies 
should chance to be driven on shore, they would be secure of pro- 
tection. Their ships were high out of the water, so that a strong 
breeze was productive of much inconvenience to them by rendering 
them difficult to steer*. Here, being land-locked, they would be 
to a great extent protected from this evil. The great numbers of 
their vessels would enable them to extend their line beyond that of 
the enemy, without at the same time weakening it ; and the narrow 
channel being unfavourable to manoeuvring, there seemed every 
prospect of using with great effect the Sacau and Persian archers 
from the forecasUes of their vessels, — an arm in which they placed 
the greatest confidence t> and as the battle of Platsea showed t, with 
perfect reason. It is after this position has been taken up, opposite 
to the allied fleet of probably less than half the number of vessels, 
lying in the bight of Salamis to the west of the Silenian promontory * 
(Aghia Varvara), that the treacherous message of Themistocles is 
brought to the Persian commander. From this point the narrative of 
^schylus becomes most detailed ; and every single particular of it was 
doubtless intended to have weight. .The instant the Persian admiral 
receives the intelligence, he obviously dismisses all thoughts of a 
battle from his mind, and bends his whole attention to taking mea- 
sures for preventing the escape of the supposed fugitives. Orders 
are at once issued to all the captains for a movement to be carried 
out as soon as it should be dark § . In the meantime everything is done 
which could be done without attracting attention, to facilitate the 
intended operations. The men have their supper rations distributed 
to them, and make their oars fast to the pins || . As soon as it is dark, 
sailors and marines embark at once, and encouraging one another 
with cheers, repair to their respective stations^, the orders having 
been to block each entrance of the channel of Salamis with a triple 

* Plutarch, ThemUtoclet, $ 14. 

t In addition (it would seem) to the native marines, thirty Persians, Sacans, or 
Medes, were embarked in that capacity on each of the ships furnished by the 
foreign dependencies. (Herodotus, vii. 184.) These would probably be all archers. 
The Athenian ships at Salamis had only sixteen marines, of which four were 
archers, on board of each. (Plutarch, Themuiocles, $ 14.) Hence the appropriate- 
ness of the complaint of the Persian messenger in the play of ^schylus, that the 
course of events prevented this superiority from being made available : 
oidev ydp '^pK€i rS^a' fra9 8* dwwXkvro 
arparbt iafiaadeit vatoiviv ififioKaU. — Pert, 278. 

X Herodotus, ix. 61. 

$ 6^ eiiO^t MS fJKOvtreVtoif ^vvelt d6\ov 

"EXXifvos dvipbt, oM rbv OeQv ^96vovt 
waoiv irpo^wvec t6v^€ vavApxois \6yov. — ^vv. 361-3. 

I) ieiwvSv r* iiropff{nfopro, vav/3<irj|« r* Avi^p 

erpoirovro irwirffv acaX/idv dfi^* tviiperfiov.'-^^y. 375, 376^ 

Y iwel Sk ^iyyot riXiov Kari^Biro 

Kai vvK ^xpet, iras <iv^p MWfit dva^ 
h vavv •x<<^p«f ffdt 0' DirXitfv 6ir«rrarf}s« 


line of gallies and to post others all round the island*. If the Greeks 
escape, they ane to lose their headsf. All night long they are kept 
cruising : strange I time passes, and the Oreeks have never attempted 
to get away t. Morning breaks, and the first thing they hear is the 
clear sound of the Greek psean re-echoed from the island rocks. A 
panic comes over them : they have been deluded ! tl^at solemn paean 
means anything but flight § ! A trumpet sound kindles up all the 
region where the enemy is, and immediately there is the simul- 
taneous dash of oars in water, and he is plainly discovered advancing 
in full force II . First, the right wing led, in perfect order, and next 
the whole fleet advanced ; and at the same instant loud shouts were 
heard, '* On, children of Greece ! now have ye everything at stake ^Z' 
The cry of the Persians responds to the sound ; there is no time for 
delay, and ship at once turns upon ship with brazen beak**, the 
onset commencing by a Ghreek galley crippling a Phoenician one. 
Surprised however as the barbarians are, they do not fly. A stream 
of ships at first makes head against the assailants ; but their num- 
bers crowded together in a narrow space prevent mutual aid. They 
run into each other and sweep away each other's oars. In the 
mean time the Greeks with no' little skill surround them, keeping up 

rdtit ih rdtiv irapwAXei veit9 ftaxpas, 
wXeovffi d' in Ihcavrot ^v rerayfUvos.'^vy. S77-81. 
Herodotus, who makes the Persian movement begin at midnight, says that it was 
executed in silence, that the Oreeks might not perceive what was being done 
(▼iii. 76). But in the view of Aschylus, the only object was to get the start of 
the Oreeks in a race to the outlets of the channel. Accordingly, though prepara- 
tions for getting rapidly under weigh are made in secresy before sunset, yet when 
once off, there U no occasion for the observance of sUence, and the men encourage 
one another by cheers as they push for their several stations. The ouUets once 
blocked, the Oreeks were caught 

♦ rd^ai veQv (rrl^ fiiv h^ ^x®" rpiffiv 

iKirXow ^v\dff9€iv Kal vSpotn aXippSOovt, 
dWat ik K^ffX^ vrjffov ATovros wipi^. — vv. 366-8. 

t w8 el n6pov ^evIioiaO* "fiXXiyvee Kcucbv, 

vaveiv Kpv^aiiin dpaefibv evp6vre9 rtva, 

wdaip 9rep9ijOai Kparot ^v wpOKeifuvov. — ^vv, 369-71. 

X Kal irdwvxoi ^i) SidwXoov KaOioTatrav 

vatSv avacret irdvra vavrueov Xettv 

Kal v^K ^'iip^h Kob ii&K* 'EXX^vwv arparbie 

Kpv^aiov iKwXovv oifSafAfi KaOitrraro. — vv. 382-5. 
§ — ^6/3o« Sk wdtri Pappdpoit irapfiv 

yvwfAns dwoff^aXeiaiV oh ydp un ^vyy 

iraidv e^vfivovv vefivbv "EXXijves rSre, 

dXX' is iJidxflv bpixinrreK eu^vxt^ Opdvei, — vv. 391-4. 
U ffdXiriyl S* dvrp irdvr heetv* eire^Xeyev' 

eifOhs ik K&inii jio9idio% ^vvefipoXj 

itraitrav dXfiriv fipvx^ov ^k KeXevffiiaroe, 

9o&9 Sk iravret ^eav iK^veit ISeiv. — ^vv. 395-8. 
% rb SeKtbv fikv irowrov eOrdKTutt^ Kepat 

iqyeiTo Kdfffit^' oevrepov S* b «ra« <rr6Xo£ 

iirelexupei, xal iraprip bfiov cX^eiv 

iroXX^ pofiV ^ KaiSet 'EXXi^v, Ire, c. r. X.— vv. 399-405. 
— KovK ir hv neXXetv dKfAi^, 

ev9b9 H vav9 iv vrfi x^XK^py vrdXov 

69rai(rey.^vv. 407-9. Compare note f in p. J 05. 


a continued onset with their beaks*, till the whole sea is concealed 
from view by the wrecks of capsized gallies and the corpses of men. 
Finally, the whole fleet takes to flight in disorder, followed closely 
by the victors, who present the spectacle of fishermen pursuing a 
shoal of tunny fish and destroying them with broken oars- and fng" 
ments of wreck. The wail of despair spreads over t]|ie open seaf , 
until night puts an end to the pursuit. 

It appears to me perfectly impossible to reconcile this account 
with the view which Colonel Leake (justified as he certainly appears 
to be by the narrative of Herodotus {) takes of the relative positions 
of the two navies at the commencement of the battle. If the triple 
line of the Persians had been drawn up, as he imagines* along the 
strait which separates Salamis from the main, immediately opposite 
to the line of the Greeks, they could not have been attacked unex* 
pectedly ; the right wing of the enemy would not have been first 
seen leading the onset ; they themselves in their efforts to get into 
action would have presented nothing like the appearance of a stream 
of ships ; there is no reason why they should have run aboard of 
each other ; and least of all — their line extending from the entrance 
of the Piraeus to beyond the western extremity of Mount iEgaleos— r- 
would the enemy, who can have extended scarcely half the distance, 
have been able to surround them. It may be added, that when they 
began to retreat, none but the easternmost part of the line could by 
any possibility have escaped into the open sea; neither would it 
have occurred to them to attempt it, when in their immediate rear 
the whole coast was lined witii their own troops, who on their 
beaching their gallies would have furnished them with effectual pro- 
tection, — a course as natural in ancient warfare as running under the 
guns of a friendly battery would be in modem. Moreover the island 
Psyttalea would not have been in the middle of the line of collision§, 
but quite at the extremity ; and the wrecks would have been carried 
by the afternoon swell ratiier into the bay at the head of which stands 
the Heracleum, than^ as they actually were, on to Cape CoHas||. 

All these difficulties will be avoided if we take a different view of 
the object of Themistocles's stratagem, and suppose that his design 
was not merely to induce the enemy to surround the Oreeks and so 
compel them to fight, but also to bring him into such a position as, 
at the beginning of the engagement, to be just entering the narrow 

♦ rd wpiara fihv Si^ p9V/ia IIcpaiKov trrparov 

dpreixsv in Be fr\riOo9 kv ffrevtp v«Stv 
{fipoiffTf dpiayrj ^ ovris dXXriXoit irapfiv, 
airol B* v^* avrStv eupoKats xa\KO<rT6fiois 
rraiovT*, eBpavov iravra Ktairripfi 9r6\ov, 
'UWriviKai re vvev oifK d^padfUyun 
KvicXtfi wipi^ iOetvov, k, t, X. 

f — olfitayrj B* bfiov 

KiaKVfiafftv KaT€ix9 wekayiav tiXa, — ^vv. 426, 427. 
t ▼ill. TO, compared with $$ 76, 84 & 91. 

§ iv ydp ir^ irSptft Trjt yavfAaxiift Trjt /i«XAov(fi}s ecetrdai heetro tj vn<rof. — 
Herod, viii. 76. 

II Herodotus, viii. 96. 


channel where Leake supposes him to be already drawn up in fighting 
order. Supposing the invading fleet to have taken up the position 
which Leake assigns to them, the afternoon before the battle^ — a 
supposition which has the apparent sanction of Herodotus, and is 
not opposed to iEschylus — the movements which would follow the 
change of plan produced by Themistocles's message would naturally 
bring about this result. The westernmost squadron of the Persian 
line would move westward to block the narrow outlet between 
Salamis and the coast of Megaris. The squadron at Ceos might 
from the point of Sunium be signaled to close up near to iGgina, 
and that at Cynosura to make sail round Sunium ; and the remainder 
of the fleet in the channel, passing outwards by the eastern strait, 
would take their stations round the S.E. side of the island Salamis, the 
last of them (which we shall presently see would be the Phoenicians) 
blocking the narrow channel with a triple line of gallies. When 
morning broke the land breeze would be blowing ; and if they desired 
to re-enter the channel, the Phoenician ships, their crews fatigued with 
their labour throughout the night, would be obliged to puU against 
it round the head of the Silenian promontory (Aghia Varv4ra) and 
through the narrow channel between Psyttalea and the main. The 
Greeks (I apprehend) timed their movements so as to attack them 
just at this conjuncture. The right wing would thus be seen by 
the enemy apparently leading, but the object being to wheel into 
line by bringing forward the extreme left, the Atibenians (which 
were tiiere stationed) would be quite as likely as any others to be 
well up in front when the actual shock took place*. They would 
make this with the advantage of the wind, and success would be 
nearly certain. The headmost ships of the Persians would be 
crippled, and would drift back upon those who advanced to support 
them from the rear ; these as they pressed forward would enter a 
continually narrowing channel, and not only fall aboard of each 
other, but have their oars swept away by those which had been pre- 
viously crippled. The triple line would be thrown into disorder, 
and the crowd of advancing vessels, each pressing forward as it best 
might, would present the appearance so graphically described by 
^schylus as " a stream" of ships. As the head of the column got 
clear of the narrow passage, it would be "surrounded" by the 
Hellenic line and at once destroyed. This state of things would 
continue so long as the invaders continued their attempt to force the 
passage; but when they gave this up and retreated, the pursuit 
would continue on the open sea, over which (as iGschylus says) the 
cries of the enemy were heard as they were being destroyed. 
The description of the naval part of the engagement by the dra- 

* Athenian yanity, a generation aAerwards, would scarcely fail to turn this 
movement to account To effect the manceuvre it would be necessary for the 
extreme right of the allies to remain stationary or even back their gallies, while 
the speed of the others would be proportioned to their distance from the right, the 
pivot on which the whole wheeled. This is, I believe, the fact, which in a dis- 
torted form became the statement of Herodotus: ol ^^v ^i) dXXo("EXXi}ve9 ^iri 
wpvfivriv AvtKpovovTO, cat ^xeXKov rds vrjaf 'AfiBivirit H HaWfivevSi dvrjp 
*A9rivaio9t eliapaxOtit, vift ifipaWei, (viii. 84.) 


matic poet ceases here. The fonnidahle resistance made by the 
looians, of which Herodotus speaks*, finds no mention in him. 
This is exactly what might be expected. At the time the Persiang 
was acted, liberty had been restored to the Asiatic Greeks, and 
good taste forbade the mention of any passage of arms between them 
and their European brethren. But still the course of proceedings 
in the engagement which the description of ifischylus indicates, 
affords an explanation of what is related in Herodotus respecting 
the lonians. If the Persian fleet had, in the night before the battle, 
taken up the position I have supposed in the order which Diodorus's 
authority gives, the lonians would be the furthest removed from the 
narrow channel where the action commenced, and in fact so placed 
that they could not have acted until the Phoenicians were out of the 
way. If, too, the Athenians were the part of the Greek fleet which 
began the battle, the remainder of the allies could not have come 
into the front until after the enemy had been forced back through 
the eastern strait. Hence the Peloponnesian force would be the 
part of the fleet which came into collision with the Ionian contin- 
gent ; but this would not be until the channel was cleared and they 
had got out into the open sea, where naturally the efforts of the 
lonians would be more fruitful* But still at the time they were 
brought into action, they would have been rowing ever since sunset 
on the preceding day, and would be encouraged to the treason pre- 
viously suggested to them by Themistocles, by seeing the entire 
ruin that had fedlen upon the Phoenician squadron. It is not there- 
fore a matter of surprise that they too should have given way, 
although their resistance was beyond all comparison the most 
effective of any rendered by the several contingents that made up 
the navy of the invaders. 

Various insulated particulars which appear here and there in the 
narratives of Plutarch and Diodorus, as well as that of Herodotus, 
receive some illustration from the above remarks. Plutarch says 
that Themistocles did not begin the action until the usual breeze 
set in from the sea, causing a swell to set into the straits ; and that 
the effect of this was most detrimental to the Persian ships, which 
were high out of the water and top-heavy, and being caught by the 
wind could not be steered well ; so that they laid their flanks open 
to the beaks of the Hellenic galliesf. Here what Plutarch does is 
merely to confound the land breeze which is blowing at daybreak — 
4he time at which the engagement really commenced — and the sea 
breeze — ^which sets in late in the forenoon, and which doubtless had 
the effect he mentions, — not indeed upon ships engaged within the 
channel (where the island Salamis, as above observed, would have 
served as a breakwater), but upon vessels in the open sea, which, in 
the course of events I have sketched out. would naturally first come 
into action several hours after daybreak. 

Diodorus also, although here, as elsewhere, his notions of the 
course of proceeding are extremely vague, goes to confirm the view 
above taken. He makes (as I have observed) the Greek line of 
• viii. 85. t Thgmut. § 14. 


oattle to be formed aerois the strait between Salamis and the inahi. 
(roy vopoy fiera^v ^Xafiiyos kqI 'HpaKktlov xarecxoF)* not, as Leake 
makes it, (dong the same*. And he also supposes the advance of 
the Persians to be from the open sea into the narrow. " They held 
their course," he says, " at firet in good order, for they had plenty of 
sea-room ; but on entering the channel, they were obliged to with- 
draw some of the ships from the line, and made terrible confusion. 
The admiral too, who led, and began the action, was killed after a 
brilliant struggle, and when his ship was sunk, confusion spread over 
the barbarian fleet : for orders were given by many, and each one issued 
different commands ; so that they desisted from a forward course, and 
backing their gallies retired into the open sea ; upon which the Athe- 
nians, seeing the confusion of the barbarians, advanced upon them." 
.... It is obvious that this description is quite compatible with the 
view which I have taken, and agrees with the narrative of ^schylus 
as well as the vague account of a writer compiling his history hastily 
from books five hundred years after the event can be expected to 
agree with the vivid description of an eye-witness ; but that it is 
altogether incompatible with the notion of Leake. 

It is also to be observed that the naval force of the Persians was 
arranged, according to Diodorus, by nations, in order (he says) that 
the crews who understood one another's language might be near to 
each other, and able to express to one anotiber the need they 
might have for assistance. Arranged on this principle, he says, 
the Phcenicians occupied the right wing, and the Greeks in the 
Persian service the leftf. But if this idea was really acted upon, the 
most natural place for the Egyptians would be beyond the Phoe- 
nicians on the extreme right: for the great intercourse between 
Phcenicia and Egypt would certainly produce some facility of oral 
communication between the maritime and fluvial population of these 
two countries. Now if the Egyptians really did occupy the extreme 
right, when the Persian fleet took up the position along the strait of 
Salamis which Herodotus indicates, although Diodorus himself says 
nothing about it, the day before the battle, — and if the movements 
were such as I have above supposed t, — the Egyptian squadron would 
be exactly the one whose position rendered it desirable for it to 
move westward for the purpose of blocking the western channel ; 
and after it had been detached for this purpose, the Phoenicians 
would remain (as Diodorus places them) the extreme right of the 
Persian fleet. And it also happens that the especial service o^ 
blocking the western channel actually was, according to Diodorus's 
express statement, assigned to the Egyptians, although, by the way 
he mentions the matter, he does not imagine that at the time they 

• xi. 19. t xi. 17. 

X Herodotus says that the Persians surrounded their opponents by moving their 
right wing round to the island and closing up the eastern channel with the 
squadrons from Ceos and Cynosura : eireiSr^ kyivovro fieaai vvcres, dvrjyov nkv 
r6 Slit' eaviprit Kepat KVKXovfAevoi wpbs r^v ^aXauiva' dvfiyov Sh oi dfi^i rf)v 
Keov r« xai ri}v Kwdtrovpap rerayfiivoif Kartixov r« fiexpt Movvvx'V^ wdvra 
Tov wopOfAov rpffi vtivai. ($ 7C.) This, as Leake says, is an impossibility. 


were moved they were actually in line in the channel of Salamis, 
hut rather supposes them as despatched from Phalerum*. 

Again, Herodotus mentions that when the battle was over, the vic- 
torious Greeks towed in to Salamis "as much of the wreck of the de- 
stroyed vessels as remained still in that part," but that a large quantity 
was carried by the west wind on to Cape Coliasf. This is exactly the 
description of what would occur under the circumstances which hav^ 
been sketched out. The conflict beginning at the entrance of the 
channel of Salamis, just as the head of the Persian coliunn rounded 
the Silenian headland and the northern extremity of Psyttalea (the 
land breeze blowing at the time), part of the wrecks would be caught 
by the point and the island^, but a large portion would drift out 
into the open water tiU the sea breeze sprang up, which, as it took 
them, would carry them in the direction of which Herodotus 
speaks. Had the action taken place where Leake supposes, the 
wreck could not have been carried anything like so far along the 
coast of Attica. 

That eminent topographer appears to have been led in no small de- 
gree to form the view which he has taken of the position of the Persian 
fleet, from the interpretation which he has put upon an oracle, which 
Herodotus records and mentions as having been strikingly fulfilled 
by the course of events. Ruin is predicted in a prophecy of Bacis 
to the arrogant invaders " when they with their ships shall have 
made a bridge from the sacred shore of Artemis bearer of the sword of 
gold to sea-girt Cynosura§." Leake imagines this to refer to the 
Persian line of battle extending, as he supposes it to have done, from 
a cape of Salamis opposite to the Silenian promontory, on which he 
believes a temple of Artemis to have stood. As the Silenian head- 
land, which he identifies with Cynosura, would lie opposite to the 
centre of their assumed line, h^ argues that by taking up this posi- 
tion they fulfilled the conditions of the prophecy ; and that in fact 
this circumstance was the main cause of Herodotus mentioning Cy- 
nosura at all in the passage above quoted ||. This appears to me a 

* li. 17. t v"i- 96. 

X Af, for instance, the body of Artembarei was, which 

ffrif^Xow leap tUras Oeiverai DetXijviwv. — Pert, 303. 

The bodies would not float like the wrecks, and therefore it was the island Salamis 
and the immediate neighbourhood where they were chiefly found. 

wXfiOovai vtKpiiv dvandrfiun e^apfiev^v 

£aXaficvos dgrai xat re irp6ax*»fpw toww, — Pert, 273. 

( Tiii. 77. The words are » — 

5rav 'AprifiiSot xp^^^^P^^ lepbv acri^v 
vtivvl ye^vpuKTUin Kai elvaXitiv Kvydoovpav* 

Leake translates this erroneously, " when the barbarians shall e^ver with their thipt 
the sacred shore of Diana and that of Cynosura," and the erroneous translation 
masks the meaning of the oracle. 

II " Thus the point of Cynosura [by which he understands the Silenian headland] 
and the island of Psyttalea were opposite to the centre of the triple line of the 
Persians, and near their right was a cape of Salamis, upon or adjacent to which, as 
we have already seen from Pausanias, stood a temple of Diana; and hence the 


most unsatisfEictory explanation of the pasrage, to say nothing of 
the gratuitous assumptions which it involves. The way in which 
the prophecy was fulled will be plain enough, if we only consider 
the manner in which the armada of the invaders was moved, before 
the land and sea forces were united for the last time at Phalenim. It 
is obvious that with an enormous multitude like that under Xerxes 
(even allowing almost any amount of exaggeration as to its num- 
bers), the great difficulty must have been to move the forces and 
provide them with supplies. And the way in which this problem 
was attempted to be solved may be made out by the indirect notices 
of Herodotus, although he was (as may be proved from various pas- 
sages of his work) quite unable to comprehend the vast scale of 
oriental strategics*. The endeavour of the Persian commander was 
as much as possible to proceed pari passu with the army and the fleet. 
This was desirable, because wherever opposition was encountered, 
it was important they should be able to act together ; consequently, 
although great preparation had been made beforehand in forming 
magazines, it would be impossible to dispense with the attendance 
of vessels to carry supplies. An army of such magnitude as even to 
be reported able to drink considerable streams dry, could not by any 
possibility be moved except in bodies separated from each other by a 
considerable interval. The same would be the case with the fleet, 
the crews of which (as is notorious) were in ancient times compelled 
continually to land. A supply of food and water in a ship of war 
sufficient to render it able to keep the sea even for a very few days, 
is a thing unheard of in ancient history. And if we turn to Hero- 
dotus's account of the march from Doriscus (where the whole force 
was first assembled), to Acanthusf , we see that the mode of advance 
is obviously planned with a reference to the means of providing sup- 
plies. The army moved on three lines ; one considerably inland ; 
another along the coast, keeping up a communication with the fleet ; 
and a third between the two. This last was the line of march taken 
by the guards and the king in person. That the main force of the 
army was included in the second of these divisions can scarcely be 
questioned. The first having to pass through a mountainous region, 
would be as lightly equipped as possible, and thus would be more 

wordf of the oracle of Bads relating to the shore of Diana, which Herodotus has 
quoted." (Appendix ii. p. 261.) ** On the one nde of the city a temple of Diana, 
and on the other the trophy erected in honour of the victory gained over the Per- 
sians." (voL it p. 169.) All that Pausanias really says is, that there is at Salainis 
the temple and the trophy (i. 36. 1). Leake has apparently considered that the 
expression tovto ftlv—rovro de was intended to denote a position such as he has 
assigned to the two. ** Herodotus seems to have introduced the name of Cynosura 
[in ( 76, quoted in note %, p. 110] solely for the purpose of noticing thefulfiknent 
of the prophecy of an oracle." (Appendix ii. p. 259.) 

* For instance, Crcesus's design to organise a combined system of action by 
Egyptians, Babylonians, and Lacedaemonians, against Persia, is described as if a 
gathering of troops in one spot were intended, like the assemblages which used to 
take place at the isthmus under a Lacedaemonian general (i. 77). So again, Dariua 
in making his expedition against the Scythians is made to march his army from 
Suta (It. 83). f vii. 121. 


able to provide for its own subBistence by foraging, without depending 
upon the commissariat. The third, with the king in person, moving 
along the line of the inhabited towns, where stores would be forth- 
coming*, would also be provided for. But the second would be 
supplied through the medium of the fleet, with which it kept up a 
close communication. The extreme importance of maintaining this 
was perhaps the cause that this division advanced under the imme- 
diate command of Mardoniusf, the general of greatest reputation in 
the service. When the central division arrived at Acanthus, the 
nature of the shore necessitated a change of plan for a time. It was 
no longer possible to keep up a constant communication between 
the army and the fleet ; and accordingly the latter was ordered to 
make sail for that point at which the communication could be re- 
stored, viz. the bay of Therme^. There again a halt was made, and 
the land force encamped along a considerable line of coast, " from 
the city Therme and Mygdonia, as far as the river Lydias and the 
Haliacmon, which form the boundary between Bottisea and Mace- 
donia $." 

From Therme a second simultaneous move of both army and navy 
was made. And in fact here their difliculties really began. There 
was now a prospect of meeting an enemy in force : this involved 
the necessity of concentrating the war gallies to a considerable 
extent ; and when steps for securing this had been taken, the evil 
that had been foreseen occurred, — there was no port large enough 
to receive the whole in the event of foul weather ||. There can be 
no question that it was the expectation of resistance from the Greek 
fleet at Artemisium, that induced the Persians to bring on. the same 
day to Sepias, so large a force as to be obliged to anchor in eight lines 
oflT the shore^. The land forces were being pushed forward tb 
Thermopylae, and it was necessary to get the fleet into the bay of 
Pagasae to cooperate with them'"'". The enormous loss which was 
sustained on this occasion would undoubtedly prevent a similar risk 
from being unnecessarily incurred; and when the pass of Ther- 
mopylae was at last forced, and the Greek fleet retreated to Salamisff, 
the two arms of the invading force once more found themselves 
united, with nothing in the shape of an enemy to stop them until 
another concentration should be efiected in the ports of Attica. The 
army advanced without the least resistance, overrunning Attica and 
sacking Phocis ; and Xerxes had his head-quarters at Athens U* with 
a large force ready to be pushed on to the isthmus$§, at the time 
when the fleet entered the port of Phalerum. The question now is, 
what was the nature of their movements to reach this point : and 
common sense would suggest that squadrons were advanced in suc- 
cession, perhaps within signal distance of each other, but at any rate 
not so near as gratuitously to risk the safety of the ships, and in- 
crease the difliculty of procuring water and other necessaries for the 
crews. Wherever there was an extensive beach upon which the 

• nl 109 et seq. f vii. 121. % vii. 121. $ lil 127. 

U vii. 49. t ^»*- 183- ** ▼»>• *93. Compare viii. 66. 

ft Till. 40. tt viii. 66. §§ yiii. 71. 


gallies might be hauled up, there, in the nature of things, it would 
be arranged for a large number to assemble. This would doubtless 
be the case at Eretria in Eubcea, which lies most opportunely for 
re-assembling the fleet after its necessary delay in passing through 
the narrow channel between Aulis and Chalcis. After Eretria, the 
next beach of any capacity would be that of the bay of Marathon, 
some fifteen miles oflT, in running for which, the point Cynosura, its 
northern extremity, would be the natural landmark. And here, I 
apprehend, is to be found the solution of the problem offered by 
Bacis's prophecy. Seven stades only from Eretria, at the hamlet 
Amarynthus, was the temple of Artemis Amarusia*, a deity wor- 
shiped with the greatest pomp under this name by Athenians as 
well as Eretriansf. A fleet of 800 or 1000 ships crossing in the 
order in which they would have to take up their station on their 
arrival, when seen from the hills overhanging Rhamnus or Trico- 
rythus, could hardly fail to suggest to the imagination of a spectator 
the notion of bridging over the sea between the two points. Again, 
as between Marathon and Phalerum there is no facility for beaching 
any large number of ships, the advance from the one to the other 
would naturally be by detached squadrons, and the great bulk of the 
fleet might very well be reported at head-quarters while the rear still 
remained on the safe shore of Marathon (afi^c t9^v Kvy6aovpav)^ and 
while an intermediate squadron had been advanccKi only as far as Ceos 
in their course round the southern foreland of Attica. In such circum- 
' stances, the signaling them to close up, under the impression which 
the Persian admiral had formed of the intentions of the Greeks, 
would be exactly what we might look for. By so doing, the more 
advanced ships would be in a position to sweep the channel between 
the islands of Salamis and i£gina; and it is exactly here that if 
any Greek vessels had stolen out from Salamis in the night, they 
would have been found when day broke. 

I will conclude these remarks by a reference to one other passage 
of Herodotus, which confirms the view just taken of the movement 
of the squadron from Ceos. When Anstides, in the night before 
the engagement, arrived suddenly in Salamis and informed Themi- 
stocles that the enemy's fleet had surrounded the island, he said 
" that he had come from iEgina, and found great difficulty in get- 
ting out to sea without being seen by the squadron of observation t*" 
Herodotus indeed makes him add, by way of explanation, "that 
the whole Greek position was surrounded by Xerxes' vessels." But 
this circumstance would have been a hindrance to him, not in get* 
tmg out from iEgina, but in getting in to Salamis. If however the 
squadron of observation was the one which had been signaled to 
close up from Ceos, the difficulty is exactly what would have oc- 
curred. According to iGschylus's view, the false intelligence of 
Themistocles is conveyed to the Persian commander-in-chief a con- 

* Strabo, i. p. 324. f Paiuaniu, i. 31. 5. 

t Tiii. 81. H Alyivfit tm qccii^, cat fioyu ccirXwffai \a9uv ro^ cirop- 


siderable time before mnset*. Orders would instantly be tele- 
graphed to the squadrons at Ceos and C3mosura, and they would 
get under way with all speed: and this would easily bring the 
former into the neighbourhood of the island ^Egina before it was 
too dark to distinguish them. Thus spreading over the space be- 
tween the two islands, the difficulty of Aristides would be to get 
past them, which is exactly what appears to be indicated by the 
phrase (fioyis €Kir\w(rai). The vessels surrounding Salamis would 
occasion him comparatively little difficulty. He was probably only 
in a small boat, much more speedy, and less distinguishable at night- 
time than a trireme would be ; and when he approached the southern 
shore of Salamis, it would be easy for him to watch his moment, 
row in to land, and proceed over the hills to the Grecian camp on 

The battle of Salamis has so long been popularly considered as an 
example of what maybe effected by mere valour against enormous odds, 
that possibly some may experience a feeling of unwillingness to take 
any view of the subject which diminishes the disparity between the 
contending navies. But this is scarcely a reasonable way of looking 
at a matter of history. Bravery does much when directed by skill; 
but all experience leads us to doubt statements of any great results 
effected by it when without this guidance. If the foregoing views 
are well-founded, our wonder at the extraordinary success of the 
Greek fleet may perhaps be diminished ; but certainly in at least as 
great a degree must our admiration of the acuteness and resolution 
of its commander be increased. With an overwhelming force opposed 
to him actually drawn up in order of battle, a friendly coast lined 
with the flower of the Persian army in its rear, he succeeds, first of 
all in detaching a large portion of the ships opposed to him, and 
placing them in a quarter where it was out of the question that they 
should be active; secondly, in getting the remainder out of the 
position they occupied into one incomparably inferior ; thirdly, in 
exhausting the enemy's crews by keeping them in motion all nightf ; 
and, finally, in bringing them on a sudden to action in a way which 
rendered their peculiar armament unavailable, and under circum- 
stances which must have made them feel, not only that their estimate 
of their foes had been totally wrong, but that probably they had 
traitors in their own ranks. 

* This must have been the case ; for the time was sufficient to give orders to 
each of the captains, and for them in their turn to get their several gallies ready 
to start the instant it should be dark. The entirely different view of Herodotus is 
remarked above, note f, p. 115. 

t It should not be overlooked, that according to iEschylus's view the sailors of 
the Persian fleet get their suppers early, — not as they would under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, after nightfall. Hence, when day broke, they had not only been at 
the oar all night, but likewise fasting for a longer period than customary. 







l.>sl II 




Vol. VI. NOVEMBER 11, 1853. No. 138. 

Thomas Watts, Esq., in the Chair. 

The receipt of the following presents to the Society was an- 
nounced : — 

Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, vol. v, ; Vocabulary of 
the Jargon or Trade-Language of Oregon ; and some Pamphlets ; 
from the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S. Grammar of 
the Bornu or Kanuri Language (2 copies) ; Dialogues, and a small 
portion of the New Testament, in the English, Arabic, Haussa, and 
Bornu Languages (2 copies) ; from the Foreign Office. An Essay 
on the signification of the word *• E " used by the Chinese Govern- 
ment to designate Foreigners ; from T. Taylor Meadows, Esq. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to the above-named donors 
for their gifts. 

A letter from the Rev. John Davies (of Smallwood Parsonage, near 
Lawton, Cheshire), was read, stating that he had nearly completed an 
extensive Glossary of the Dialect of Lancashire, which he would place 
at the Society's disposal when, finished ; and that he would be glad to 
enter into correspondence with any Member who was investigating 
the affinities between the Semitic and ludo-European classes of lan- 
guages, as he had been for some time engaged in an inquiry into 
that subject. 

The following paper was then read — 

" On some alleged Distinctions in Languages believed to be with- 
out foundation." By Professor Key. 

There are many opinions current in the literary world with respect 
to differences of character between languages, which the writer 
believes to be founded in error, and as these opinions are not merely 
of common acceptation, but have been often made the basis upon 
which languages have been distributed into classes, it seems highly 
desirable that what error exists in these opinions should be made the 
subject of inquiry. 

In his Comparative Grammar (§ 108), the German scholar Bopp 
has quoted a passage from the writings of A. W. v. Schlegel, and 
given in his own abridged language a statement of the views of 
Fr. V. Schlegel, at the same time that he has put forward the 
doctrine which he himself deems to be the true one. According to 
A. W.v. Schlegel, languages divide themselves into three classes; 
languages without any grammatical structure, languages that make 
use of affixes, and inflectional languages. To the last of these he 
awards the palm of superiority, and bestows on them the honorary 
title of organic languages, "because," says he, " they contain a living 



principle of development and growth, and alone possess, so to say» 
an abundant vegetation ; in other words, they have the wonderful 
faculty of forming an endless variety of words, and of marking the 
connexion of ideas which these words denote by means of an incon- 
siderable {aasez petti) number of syllables, which separately con- 
sidered have no signification, but which precisely define the meaning 
of the word to which they are attached." 

Friedrich von Schlegel, in the second place, contends for two main 
genera of languages, dividing them into those which express second- 
ary ideas by an internal change of the root or inflection, and those 
which effect the same object by an added word which already in 
itself expresses the additional idea, whether of plurality, of past or 
future, or other relation. 

Again, Bopp in the same chapter gives his own views, where, like 
Aug. Wil. V, Schlegel, he contends for three classes: 1st, mono- 
syllabic languages, which are incapable of composition, and conse- 
quently without organism, without grammar, as the Chinese ; 2ndly, 
languages with monosyllabic roots which admit of composition, and 
to this power are almost exclusively indebted for their organic deve- 
lopment or grammar. The main principle of word-formation in this 
class of languages he thinks to consist in the union of verbal and 
pronominal roots, which together represent as it were the body and 
soul of language, e. g, the Sanscrit ; 3rdly, languages with disyllabic 
verbal roots, containing three essential consonants on which tlie 
fundamental meaning rests, as the Hebrew and Arabic. 

By many writers, Mr. Prichard for example, in his 'Eastern 
Origin of the Celtic Nations,' and Duponceau, to whom he refers^ 
the idioms of the American tribes are called polysynthetic or poly- 
syllabic, a term by which some marked difference from our European 
tongues seems to be implied, and a difference still greater from the 
so-called monosyllabic languages of South-eastern Asia. 

Again, we often find much contumely thrown on languages as 
being barbarous, uncultivated, mere provincial dialects, and so wholly 
unworthy the consideration of philologers. 

Now the writer has long satisfied himself that the distinctions here 
enumerated are nearly all, if not absolutely all, wholly unsubstantial, 
and so most injurious to the progress of philological science. He 
proposes then in the present paper to give briefly some of the reasons 
which have brought him to this conclusion, reserving for future op- 
portunity, or rather wishing others better qualified to take up, the 
more complete consideration of the question. 

To begin with the Chinese language. It is asserted of this, that 
it has a peculiar monosyllabic character and is devoid of grammatical 
formations. We are taught to believe that it is altogether like those 
one-syllable stories which are considerately placed before the eye of 
the child when it takes its first lessons in reading, or such as those 
with which Punch at times amuses older children. Unfortunately 
our knowledge of Chinese has been obtained through a medium 
which has led to much distortion. The distance of the country 
and the opposition of Chinese authorities to all intercourse with 


foreigners have been serious obstacles to the attainment cf accurate 
knowledge. Many of our Chinese scholars' have made their studies 
of the language at Singapore instead of China ; and of those who 
have had opportunities of a nearer view, too many have found, even 
at Macao, but very imperfect means of mixing with educated natives. 
Again, what we commonly call Chinese seems to stand to the lan- 
guages generally spoken in that country, much as Latin did some 
centuries ago to the vulgar tongue of Italy, France, or England ; in 
other words, it is rather a dead than a living tongu^e. But there has 
been a still greater hindrance in the medium through which Chinese 
is studied. Our scholars have learnt it, as scholars always love to 
do, through books rather than by oral communication. Thus they 
have allowed themselves to be led astray by what is merely an acci- 
dent of the written language. The characters being monosyllabic, 
they have hastily assumed the language to be the same ; and thus 
Europeans commonly believe that the Chinese have been contented 
with a form of speech which by its mere monotony would have dis- 
gusted any other race of human beings ; while some have thought 
that this painful monotony may be partially corrected by the 
mysterious influence of the four tones. Such views are upset by 
the simple testimony of one who had the best opportunities of 
obtaining exact knowledge, the late consul at Ningpo, Robert lliom. 
From him we learn that the Chinese, like our own tongue, though 
rich in monosyllabic words, has no scarcity of disyllables, trisyllables, 
and polysyllables. In the preface to his * Chinese Speaker*,' he 
directs one who would learn the language to try to get an intelligent 
native of Peking to read the Chinese and to follow him on the English 
side of the page (t. e. the side with the Chinese written in English cha- 
racters with an interlinear English translation), as a clerk follows the 
parson in church ; and he goes on to say, that such a student cannot 
fail to observe, as .he reads along, that many words are disyllables, 
and not a few polysyllables ; that some are accented on the ultimate, 
others on the penult, and others again on the antepenult, &c. 
Indeed Mr. Thorn was prevented from marking the said accents 
solely by the paucity of accentuated letters at his command. A short 
example from Mr. Thorn's book may be of use : — 

Yih-ko-jin heo Kw&n-hwa lai, tso shim-mo- 1! ne? 

Now a man in learning the Mandarin language, what is his object? 

Those who deny to the Chinese a grammar, seem to have started 
with wrong notions of what grammar is in their own language, and 
on that account alone have failed to find in Chinese what they were 
in search of. The mere inspection of a Chinese grammar tells ua 
that a certain syllable affixed to a Chinese substantive serves to 
express the relation which Europeans denote by the term genitive 
case, that another syllable added may imply plurality, and so on 
with the other secondary notions of grammar. It is also true, that 
at times the mere proximity of two words is sufficient to express a 

^ The Chinese Speaker, or Extracts from works written in the Mandarin Lan- 
guage, as spoken at Peking. Compiled for the use of students by Robert Thoui, 
Esq., il.M. Consul at Ningpo. Part I. Ningpo, 1846. 



relation between them without the fonnal employment of a special 
particle. So with us the nominative and accusative are pointed out 
by their mere position, whereas in Greek or Latin a suitable affix is 
required for the office. So again we say moon-light , when we mean 
the moon's light, lunae lux. But it may be opposed to what is here 
said, that the syllables which the Chinese employ as affixes, have an 
original meaning of their own ; for example, that the syllable com- 
monly used to denote the genitival relation is at times employed as 
a verb equivalent to the Latin proficisci ; whereas, to use the language 
of A. W. V. Schlegel, the affixes of our European languages in them- 
selves n*ont point de signification. This is a doctrine which cannot 
be admitted. Every affix had once a determinate meaning of its 
own, although that meaning may be obscured by time, and although 
when used as a suffix it confessedly fills an inferior office. In 
a very large number of instances philologists have succeeded in 
tracing affixes to their source. Thus the origin of the final letters 
in regam, regas, regat, is doubted by no one ; but it would l>e idle 
to enumerate the cases where philologers have succeeded in tracing 
these petty adjuncts to their source. That in many cases there 
should be a difficulty in the process was to be expected, when we 
call to mind that syllables, however significant at first in themselves, 
when they perform so humble a duty naturally lose importance by 
the side of the greater personage on whom they wait fur the time ; 
in other words, that they become enclitics to the accented word 
which precedes them ; and independently of this disadvantage, their 
position at the end of a word exposes them to early curtailment and 
the possibility of absolute annihilation, seeing that man is ever apt 
to abridge his labours. But if our doctrine be correct, that every 
affix was in origin a significant M'ord, it will follow that the differ- 
ence between Chinese and the leading languages of Europe is, that 
the Chinese has undergone less corruption. This however we say 
with some hesitation, because it seems highly probable that in the 
ordinary spoken languages of China, many abbreviations of sound 
would present themselves which do not appear in the written pages of 
the Mandarin language. Indeed some traces of such corruption seem 
to occur in the pages of Mr. Thom's book, as when he writes a Chinese 
word shin-tsze-'rh, t. e, a disyllabic represented by three members of 
the Chinese syllabarium ; and indeed we also have something very 
similar in our mode of writing as two syllables what is often pro- 
nounced as one, in loved, Strachan, Wiveliscombe, Daventry. 

We may next take into consideration the alleged distinction be- 
tween word-building by addition of affixes, and word-building by what 
some call inflection, others motion. Indeed the word 'inflection' 
seems to be used with a considerable latitude of meaning. When 
Latin grammars give rules for forming a genitive from dominus by 
changing us into i, or the second person of a verb of the third con- 
jugation by changing o into t>, they seem to invite their readers to 
invent a term for the process from some root expressive of change; 
and ' inflection' seems a suitable word ; or more probably it was in- 
vented in reference to that strange view of language by which a 


nominative was compared to an upright stick (rectus), which falling 
down passed through various angles of inclination, and so led to 
the creation of those strange words 'case/ ' oblique cases/ and ' decli- 
nation.' Be this as it may, in the so-called process of declination, as 
well as that of conjugation, the philologist now sees nothing but 
agglutination. Thus dominus contains the two significant words 
(ibmtffo ' master,' and s (originally so me fuller form) 'source of action,' 
while dominttm in the final m contains the spectre of some once- 
existing word denoting an ' object.' If this be right, what is often 
called an inflection may well receive the more intelligible name of an 
affix, and we should deduce dominum and domini, not from the nomi- 
native dominus, but together with the said nominative from a common 
word dominO', itself inexpressive of the relations which we call cases.* 
But grammarians, Bopp among others, speak of languages which 
more or less express a modification of the main word by an internal 
alteration of that word, by what Grimm and many German philolo- 
gers call motion. Thus, man, goose, tooth, in our own language are 
said to form their plurals by a mere change of the root vowel into 
men, geese, teeth. So in the Semitic tongues, to useBopp's own exam- 
ples, we have the Hebrew words k6t^l * killing.' and Midi * killed.' 
With the Semitic languages, in his profound ignorance of them, the 
writer must not venture to deal ; but as regards the cases that have 
been just quoted from the English language, he ventures with some 
confidence to refer to an explanation that he gave in a former paper, 
viz. that such plural nouns once, like other plurals, had a suitable 
suffix, es, or er, or en ; that the addition of such a suffix, by means of 
its weak vowel, affected the strong vowel in the main body of the 
word ; and that manner, for example, becoming m&nner, gradually 
passed through a shortened sound milnne to a still shorter men*. 
But there are other examples to which the explanation which has 
been just put forward will not apply. For instance, the distinction 
between venit the present * he comes,' and venit the perfect * he 
came,' claims an independent consideration. Of course within the 
limits of the present paper it would be impossible to deal with all 
the alleged cases of ' motion,' but as regards the two words before 
us, a solution presents itself which is drawn from the writer's 
favourite doctrine, that grammatical formations intended to represent 
the same idea will be found substantially identical where much dif- 
ference seems to exist. Thus he believes venit to be only a com- 
pression of a reduplicated vevenit; vellit ' he pulled-,' vertit ' he turned/ 
visit ' he came to see,' of older forms vevellit, vevertit, vevisitf. 

But it may be as well, before leaving the question of word-build« 
ing by aflixes. to allude to the practice which prevails with some 
English writers of distributing languages into two classes, which 
they call analytical and synthetical, the one name being applied to 
those which, like the Latin and Greek, express the secondary ideas 
by affixes, as patris, patrem, scribo, scribis, scribam, scripsi, &c. ; and 

* See Grimm, DeuUche Gr. on the umlaut. 

t Sec Review of Zumpt's Latiu Grammar, Journal of Education, toI. i. 


the other to the modern tongues, which more or lees discarding the 
affixes, employ prepositions, independent pronouns, and auxiliary 

As regards the opposition thus created between prepositions and 
case-endings, what after all does it amount to ? It will perhaps 
be said that a preposition is a fuller and more independent word, 
and that it is possessed of a distinct meaning. But it seems no 
way entitled to claim any privilege of distinction from the despised 
case-ending. If stress be laid upon the fact that the printer leaves 
a larger space of white paper between a preposition and the noun it 
accompanies, than between the letter or letters which constitute a 
case-ending and the main body of the noun, the answer is, that the 
Janguage which has the first claim on our attention is the language 
which is addressed to the ear, not that wliich is placed before the 
eye ; and it will be found that an ordinary speaker is apt to pro- 
nounce a preposition in immediate connexion with its noun. I'hus 
in the pronunciation of the phrase at home, the t more closely clings 
to the following syllable than to its own word. In Terence the 
rhythm of many lines halts unless we read inter nos as internos. It 
is on this account that es and €k in Greek are allowed no accent 
of their own; it is by this that we must explain the fact that 
the enclitic conjunction que attaches itself, not to the prepo- 
sition tn, but to the ablative which follows, inforoque ' and in the 
forum,' not inque /oro, unless indeed the in have in a particular 
case a special emphasis, and then inque /oro becomes not merely 
admissible, but a necessity. We might have opposed to the argu- 
ment, such as it is, founded on the interval left by the printer be- 
tween a preposition and its noun, that in the best Inscriptions as 
well as in the best MSS. of the Latin language, it is a very common 
practice to treat a preposition as belonging to the noun which follows, 
just as much as the prepositions which enter in composition with 
verbs belong to those verbs. We might refer, for example, to the 
Baccanalian Inscription as one of the oldest, where the last line 
places tn close beside agro, or to the Inscription given by Marini of 
a laudatory epitaph which had been erected by one of those pro- 
scribed by the triumvirate in honour of a wife who had saved his 
life on that occasion, an inscription belonging to what is called the 
best age of Latinity, and which contains several examples of prepo- 
sitions and nouns united. Then again, if reliance be placed on the 
fuller form of prepositions, let it be observed that bi in nobis, vobis, 
which represents the dative, is to both ear and eye as long a word 
as our own so-called by ; but in truth we also often abridge our 
own prepositions. Tlius we say afoot, abed, aboard, asleep, where 
indeed the argument from the printer's practice fails, as here the 
corrupted preposition has become indissolubly attached to the substan- 
tive ; we might also refer to the abbreviation of the word of, in ' two 
o'clock.' As to the real power of prepositions and case-endings, one 
common definition will answer for the two, the original object of 
both in their usage with substantives being to denote the relations 
of place, llius it will be found that every preposition in Latin had 


such a meaning. The only examples which may even seem to 
refuse obedience tq the definition are perhaps ob and propter, but we 
find the former occasionally used in the older writers, as Ennius and 
Plautus, with the sense of 'towards' or 'fronting/ and its equivalent 
in the Greek tongue, ewi, has often meanings related to place. We 
might also have relied on the usage of ob in composition with Latin 
verbs, as oppono, obdo, where the local sense is prominent. Indeed 
no doubt could have been entertained on the subject had it not been 
for the fact, that iu the Augustan writers ob was chiefly used to 
denote a reason. Of propter it is enough to refer to its weU-known 
connexion by form with /irope ; but the sense of 'near' belongs even 
to propter itself as used by Terence. But if the sense of locality be 
visible in the prepositions, no less is it found in the case-endings, 
llius if we look to the primitive meanings of the cases, we find that 
the nominative denotes the whence of an action ; the genitive the 
p(ut whence (so to say) of a thing, where it came from, its origin ; 
the dative denotes the where ; and the accusative the whither ; while 
the ablative appears to have in it two cases blended together. Often 
in power as well as in form it claims kindred with the dative, and 
usurps its functions, for example, after the prepositions in, sub, and 
cum, or when it denotes ' the time when' ; at other times it has a 
power more in accordance with its name of ablative, and seems a good 
substitute for a genitive, as after the prepositions ex and de. That 
one word should thus have had two origins has its parallel in our own 
him, which it is well known as a dative corresponds to the German 
ihm, and as an accusative to ihn. There remains then the single 
distinction that a preposition precedes its noun, while a case-ending 
follows it. The pettiness of such a distinction it is scarcely worth 
while to dwell upon, particularly when English, Latin and Greek 
abound in cases of prepositions so-caUed which are placed after 
their nouns, as herein, hereupon, hereat, hereabouts, &c., mecttm^ 
quibuscum, quoad, qua de re, reges in ipsos, id quo de agitur, &c. 
Indeed for the grammars of many languages, as the Finn, Lapp, 
Mongol, Turkish, it has been found necessary to invent the term 
' postposition.' One thing must be admitted, that there is often a 
more exact definition of locality in prepositions than in case-endings. 
Thus the genitival suffix denotes indeed ' whence,' but not with 
that precision which is seen in de ' down ^m,' ex 'out of ' ; the 
accusative means generally ' whither,' but ire in urbem means ' go 
into the city,* ire ad urbem ' go up to the city.' This however is 
but a defect which occurs in the Greek, Latin, and some other lan« 
guages. The Finn and Lapp have a much larger store of cases than 
the classical languages ; and it should be remembered that the Latin 
language comes before us in the shape it had when it had already 
got a number of prepositions to supply what was wanting in its 
postpositions. Who shall say that there was not a time when the 
Latin language had an abundant supply of caae-endings, perhaps 
equal in number to its subsequent stock of prepositions ? 

We will not dwell at any length upon the distinction between 
languages founded on the use of auxiliary verbs. The question is 


one very similar to that which we have been discussing. We write 
an auxiliary verb it is true as an independent word, but in pronun- 
ciation bring it close up to the verb it belongs to. Thus ' I shall have 
heard/ is just as truly a single word as audwero. In ' I did love/ 
we choose to call did an auxiliary ; but in * I loved/ which is merely 
an abbreviation of * I love did/ the very same word performs the 
same port of an auxiliary. ' He is gone away ' has the so-called 
verb substantive for an auxiliary, and it so happens that in ahiit 
(corrupted from abiist) we have substantiaUy the word est, which 
represents ' he is/ 

It is tnie, that in these instances, as in the case-endings of nouns, 
the suffixes have become obscured. For this reason, and because 
their non-emphatic place at the end of words withdrew them from 
attention, it became necessary, whenever emphasis was to be laid 
on the idea which they express, to prefix a cUstinct word to denote 
the same idea, even at the expense of tautology. Thus the Roman 
said ego scribo, although the ego was already denoted by the final 
vowel of the verb ; so ' I did love ' has a greater emphasis than ' I 
loved/ In the course of time, as the suffixes suffered more and more 
from corruption, it became more and more requisite to use the prefix, 
whether pronoun nominative, auxiliary verb, or prepositiop. 

But we must find a little space for some other matters. It will 
be recollected that Bopp divides the Thesaurus of words into the 
two head classes of verbal roots and pronominal roots (V. G. § 105). 
It does not appear that many philologers have followed him in this 
division. But the unsoundness of it seems almost to force itself upon 
the mind in the very term ' pronominal.' In fact pronouns seem not 
lik^y to have been part of any language in its earliest stages, simply 
because they are but substitutes for other words ; instead of T, it 
was so easy a matter for the speaker to use his own name, and simi- 
larly for the other pronouiis. But the writer of this paper is the 
less entitled to take up the time of the Society with a discussion of 
this topic, because he has already dealt with nearly all the pronouns 
in the pages of its Transactions. He will at present only remind his 
hearers that the pronouns of the third person were nearly all deduced 
by him from the old verb ken, familiar both to the inhabitants of this 
island and to those of the Chinese empire, and the father of a large 
progeny of words in Greek and Latin. Thus he would translate the 
passage in Terence hoc luciscit, ' See, see, it is getting light.' 

Another topic which requires a little consideration is the term 
' polysynthetic' or 'polysyllabic ' as applied to the American languages 
and to the Basque. We have here a cause of error at work the exact 
converse of that which has introduced so many wrong notions in 
reference to the Chinese language. As we arrived at our knowledge 
of the latter through the medium of the written language, so on the 
other side those who were brought into contact with the Red Indian, 
had no resource but to take down what they heard horn the mouth ; 
and as a natural consequence, a whole clause spoken with unbroken 
utterance was honestly transferred to paper as a single word, and then 
by simple-minded Europeans accepted as something most strange. 


On this subject it may be permitted to quote a few lines from the 
article in the Penny Cyclopaedia on the Aztecs, p. 21 1 , col. 2 : — *' The 
Aztec language is very regular in its construction, and abounds in 
words adapted to compUment. The word notlazomahuizteopixcatiUzin, 
f . e, my esteemed lord and reverend priest and father, is the word 
commonly used by a Mexican in addressing a priest. This word is 
thus analysed by Clavigero : no * my,' tlazontli ' esteemed,' mahuiztic 
• revered,' teopixqm (g^-keeper) • priest,' tatli * father.' " 

As to the reproach which is so often thrown on provincial dialects, 
it should be remembered that the dialect which gets established in 
polite society or in books, owes this privilege, for the most part, to 
the mere accident that a capital has been placed in a particular situ- 
ation, the choice of such situation being in no way determined by 
any supposed superiority in the language of the locality. When 
Rome was mistress of the world, the soft dialect of Rome was the 
privileged tongue of the peninsula, and the guttural peculiarities of 
the N.W. of Italy were then provincialisms which Martial deemed 
fit subject for ridicule. In a later day Italian literature revived in 
the atmosphere of Florence, and the so-called pure language of 
Tuscany now looks down self-conceitedly on the patois spoken at 
Rome and Naples. Similarly before long we shall have Berlin con- 
testing, as it is well entitled to do, the right of Hanover and Dresden 
to the supremacy among Grerman dialects. 

But it is scarcely enough to place provincialisms on a level with the 
unduly honoured language of a capital. It is among the educated, 
it is in courts and capitals that language often meets with some of 
its worst corruptions, while the provinces retain the true but despised 
idiom. But lately the writer had occasion to refer to the phrase 
I was a building of a house, and thus found his best argument in what 
would be called by some a mere patois or jargon. So again we 
regard with disdain the phrase says /, thinking perhaps that the s 
in this verb is fit only to serve as a third person suffix, whereas it is 
a genuine part of the old verb to says, and represents the g of the 
German sag-en, just as legimus, legitis, become lisons, lisez, in French. 
Thus in the Old Frisian we find — 

Kreftich swict is't, sizz, ik jiette. 

Crafty (powerfully) sweet is *t, says I yet ; 

to substitute a more literal and vernacular translation for that of 
Dr. Bosworth's in his * Origin of the English, Germanic, &c. Lan- 
guages ' (p. 72). In our own pages Dr. Guest has established the 
validity of the phrases / w. thou is; and lastly, Pegge's Defence 
of the Vulgarisms of London is throughout an argument in favour 
of our view. 

But unlimited praise is claimed for the classical language of 
Greece. In one sense the praise is due. The writers of Greece 
undoubtedly formed for their use a vast number of words, which the 
wants of their varied literature demanded ; but the roots whence 
such words were deduced, existed before there was a literature ; and 
the laws according to which such words were to be built up, were 



also long previously established. But we must not confound the 
beauty of the architecture with the excellence of the bricks and 
mortar, or with the skill of the bricklayer. Even before Homer's 
time there was a language abundant in roots, and possessed of more 
genuine and uncorrupted grammatical forms than the same Ghreek 
language had in the glorious days of Sophocles or Plato. The lan- 
guage of the pre-Homeric age may be considered barbarous, but for 
linguistic purposes it would be more precious than even what we 
have. In fact, the great value which is justly attached to the clas- 
sical languages of Italy, Greece, and India, is due, so far as philology 
is concerned, first to their antiquity, and secondly to the accident 
that they have been well recorded in books. Cor the study of lan- 
guage as language, it would have been just as well for us if we had 
had in its entirety the language spoken at Moscow 2000 b.c. 

The writer has carefully kept aloof from the Semitic tongues, but 
with the knowledge that some Hebrew scholars at least have doubted 
the correctness of the ordinary view, according to which every root 
contains three consonants. One of these doubters, the late Dr. 
Hurwitz, used to say, that in his view a correct examination of the 
language would at least raise the suspicion that the real roots were 
monosyllabic. In this suspicion one is the more inclined to acquiesce 
from what has occurred in the Indian peninsula. Although all the 
ablest Sanscrit scholars agree in the two doctrines, that the roots of 
that language are monosyllabic, and that the Hindustani is but a 
child of the Sanscrit, yet it is the common practice of the native 
teachers of Hindustani to treat the roots of that language as disyl- 
labic. Such an error is not unlike that of our own books, which 
commonly speak of reckon and open as primitives, to the utter 
neglect of the all but obsolete verbs reck and ope. Again, we have 
something similar in the perhaps universal practice of describing as 
ultimate roots such verbs as bring^ throw, know, flow, grow,fiy, turn, 
yawn, work, or the Latin trahere, plectere, frui, volvere, carpere, 
nectere, vertere, scalpere ; every one of which it is believed would be 
foimd to be of secondary formation. The paper may conclude with an 
expression of the belief that all languages were formed from mono- 
syllabic roots, and that the formation of all languages was by the 
agglutination of syllables, each and every of which was a self- 
significant word, although in the agglutinated form, one took prece- 
dence of the other in importance, and consequently in accent. 



{The Society having invited its Members to contribute any Fragmentary 
Remarks that may occur to them, the following have been offered, and 
more are invited.] 

AwXoos, hirXoos, SfC, on the Etymology of. — (Read Dec. 9, 1853.) — 
A lexicon of high and deserved repute contains nothing more in the 
way of etymology concerning the adjective &ir\oos than a comparison 
of the word with the Latin simplex, and a suggestion that the first 
parts of the two words contain respectively the particles 6,fia and 
simul, while the final letters of hwKoos, as of simplex, remain without 
notice. An explanation that deals only with one portion of a word 
must always be unsatisfEictory. Now it may be readily admitted 
that iipa enters into the formation of inrXoos, and that the sim of 
simplex is identical with the sim- of simul, provided that element 
can mean ' one/ as it seems decidedly to do in singuli and semel, 
not to add simplus and semper. So far indeed the present writer 
had already expressed his opinion'*' some twenty years ago. But 
there appears strong reason for opposing the doctrine that the / in 
simplex represents the / of simul, besides that in this case the X of 
dirXoos would require an independent explanation. We lay no stress 
on the p of simplex remaining unexplained, because the approach of 
an / to a preceding m involves, as a matter of course, the insertion 
of a j7, as in exemplum and templum for exem-ulum, tem-ulum (Comp. 


Having thus stated objections to what others have said of dirXoos, 
I suggest that the word is corrupted from iL-wKoKos, iiirXoos from 
iiwXoKoSf 8ic,, so that the last part contains the substantive wXoktj, 
which again is a derivative from the verb irXejc-oy f* This Ghreek word 
is the analogue of the Latin plica ; and from plica I would form an 
adjective sim-plici-s, precisely as from norma, fama^ are derived 
e-normi'S, in-fanU-s. Although simplicis is in practice compressed 
to simplex, yet the t reappears in the plurals simplicia and simplicium. 
Now the loss of the k from the assumed iLwXoKoi is the less violent, 
because in hrrXoos we have for the ear the sound of a to (dirXoFoi), 
just as in oyZoot, t. e, oyioFos (Comp. octavus) ; and a k sound after 
an is very apt to pass into that of a w. Of this we have abundant 
evidence at home. Thus in the northern parts of Scotland they say 
haddock, paddock (a frog), but as you descend southward you find 
these words passing through the sound haddow, paddow, into haddie 
and paddie. In the same way the Scotch winnock is our window, and 
again within the limits of England we find living amicably together 
the same diminutival suffixes ock and ow, as in bull-ock, hill-ock, 
beside sparr-ow (Comp. the German sper-ling) and minn-ow. Not 
unlike this is the interchange between the particles doch. Germ, and 
though, £ng. Another argument in favour of this view is, that the 
German ein/ach, which in power corresponds accurately to simplex 

* Journal of Education, toI. Hi. p. 128. 

t The Editor of the English translation of Matthiae's Greek Grammar supposes 
a verb irXew as an equivalent for wXexat to have existed. 


and 6w\oos, admits of a parallel explanation. The German sub- 
stantive fach seems to have for its leading meaning ' a panel or 
partition/ t. e. a flat piece of wood, &c., and so to be only a modifi- 
cation of the fuller -wordflache, ' anything flat/ or Jlocke, ' a flake.' 
Now this word fliiche is identical with the substantives pHca and 
wXoKTi, for the terms p and c of the classical words only obey Grimm's 
well-known law in taking the form of aspirates/ and ck when they 
enter the region of Germany ; and a flat surface is precisely what 
the word plica originally meant, as is well seen in the derived verb 
applicare, to bring one flat surface into contact with another, a 
sense still retained in our own language, as where we say : Apply 
the A ABC to the A DBF. But our theory that ein-fach repre- 
sents a supposed ein-flach calls for exi)lanation as regards the lost 
/ ; and we need but refer to the double form oiflittich and fittick, 
* a wing,' in the same language, or to the German ^tt^eZ-mafut, which 
with us has become fugel-man. We have something like this in the 
habitual change of ft into fi in Italian, as in fiume, fiore, Firenze, 
fiare, from the Latin /vmen, /or-, Florentia, flare ; nor indeed is this 
change limited to modem times. The Romans and Greeks seem to 
have suppressed an / in their verbs fug-ere and ^evy-en', when we 
compare with them the German verb /tV^n, ge-fiogen^ or substantive 
flwilU, * flight.' Here again we see the strong tendency of a guttural 
between vowels to disappear, so as to confirm the view that iiirXoKos 
might become &w\oos ; and indeed the very words plica and plicare, 
when they pass into French and English, commonly appear without 
any representative of the c, as in pli, plie, plier, plioir ; and our ply, 
apply, deploy, employ. 

But we find still stronger support for our derivation of airXr>os 
within the limits of the Greek vocabulary. EtiitXoov, the omentum, 
is referred in the same lexicon to the verb exi9rXeta», which verb in 
its own place is translated ' sail over/ This again is wholly un- 
satis^tory. Now on asking a medical friend to define in plain 
English what the omentum is, we received for answer, " a sort of 
apron folded over the intestines/' Can we then hesitate to regard 
the word as standing for eviirXoKoy, a neuter adjective formed from 
€7n and leXoKrii, or directly from the verb cin-irXeic-a), ' fold over' ? 

T. Hewitt Kbt. 

Provincialisms, — Radnorshire. Fleke, hurdle. Steely handle. — 
W. T. Rees, D.D., Cascob Rectory, Presteign. 


Vol. VI. NOVEMBER 25, 1853. No. 139. 

Hrnslbioh Wkdowood, Esq., in the Chair. 

The following paper was read — 

" On Celtic Words used by early English Writers." By the Rev. 
John Davies. 

J purpose in this paper to examine some of the Celtic words which 
are found in our early writers, and of which the meaning has, for 
the most part, been eitiier incorrectly given by lexicographers, or has 
not been given at all. It is impossible for one acquainted with any 
of the Celtic languages to take up even our best dictionaries, without 
perceiving that the authors of them have fallen into gross errors from 
their ignorance of this class of languages. Ducange, in his elaborate 
'Glossary of Mediaeval Latinity,' furnishes no exception to this 
remark. His etymologies of Celtic words are usually drawn from 
other sources. Mr. HalHwell, in his ' Dictionary of Archaic and 
Provincial Words,' when speaking of so common a Celtic word as 
pen, head or summit, tells us that " the word pen is said to be of 
Phoenician extraction. It was first introduced into Cornwall where 
the Phoenicians had a colony, who worked the tin mines. Hence we 
have many names in Cornwall which begin with pen." (Hall, sub v. 
Pendle-rock.) There is no necessity, however, to go so far for the 
origin of the word. It is a pure Celtic term, and is still used every 
day by the Welsh in their own language. We have also Pendle 
Hill, Penrith, and many other words with the same prefix in the 
north of England, where the Phoenicians never penetrated. The 
most cursory examination of a Welsh dictionary would have con- 
vinced a comparative philologist that the word belongs to the Celtic 
stock. Mr. Knight, too, in his 'Pictorial Shakspere,' finding in 
Coriolanus (Act iii. Sc. 1) the expression clean kam, is at a loss for 
the exact meaning of the phrase. He says in a note, " We take this 
to mean, nothing to the purpose." A knowledge of the Celtic lan- 
guages would, however, have removed all doubt as to the meaning 
of the expression. In all the branches of the Celtic stock, cam 
signifies ' crooked,' ' awry,' ' false,' and in this sense it is used by 
our great dramatist. The word is still retained in the Lancashire 
dialect (rich in Celtic forms), in which to cam is ' to make crooked,' 
or ' to bend awry.' 

It is evidently quite time, for the credit of our scholarship, that 
the Celtic element of our language should be more carefully studied. 
In France, Messrs. Le Pelletier, Legonidec and de Villemarqu6 have 
thrown much light on the nature and origin of the French language 
by their researches into the Breton or the Franco-Celtic tongue. So 
long as this class of languages shall be ignored or imperfectly studied 
among us, it will be impossible to analyse the English language 



correctly, or to ^rite its history. Dr. Whittaker, the learned histo- 
rian of Manchester, may have heen in error in assigning so large a 
number as three thousand English words to a Celtic origin, but 
undoubtedly a large part of the English language has sprung from 
this source. The Celtic races were neither wholly destroyed nor 
banished by the conquering Saxon. They have long been blended 
in England with the Saxon race, but they have left an enduring 
mark of their existence in the language. 

I will now turn to the consideration of some Celtic words which 
are found in our early writers, but which have at length fallen into 
disuse. They will show the necessity of this branch of philology; 
for the correct interpretation of early English works. 

Bragare, Brazure, Brasium hordeum. — In the Doomsday book it ia 
recorded of Hereford, that *' cujuscunque uxor brazabat inter et 
extra civitacem dabat decern denarios per consuetudinem ad regem" 
(Whittaker, Hist, of Manchester, vol. ii. p. 57). The word brazare, 
' to brew/ is from the Celtic word brag, ' malt* (Ir, braich). Hence 
the word braciatrix, used in some of our old acts of parliament ; the 
office of brewer devolving, it would seem, chiefly upon women in the 
mediaeval age, as the A.-S. feminine forms brew9ter, nudtster, still 
bear witness. The word brag is connected with the verb bragiawt 
* to swell out,' 'to expand,' ' to boast,' whence the English verb ' to 
brag' is derived. It was softened into brasium*, * barley' or 'malt«' 
and is often found in this form in the Wardrobe Book of Edward I. : 
" De Domino Roberto Ughtred, Vice Com' Ebor' 1 quarter', 6 bush' 
brasii ordei, prec' quarter' 5«." (Edition of Soc. of Antiquaries, p. 8.) 
Ducange has the word bragare, evidently from the same source, 
which he derives from the French word brave : " Bragare: Ex mun- 
diore cultu gloriolam aucupari. Ficta vox a Gallico brave, Menoti 
Sermones, £t ideo, vos Domine, que (sic) vos omatis ad braganditm, 
rogo vos ut videatis modum Ecolesi»." — Ducange, sub voce. 

Mittan, — In the Saxon Chronicle it is related, that in the year 
852 A.D. " Ceolred, abbot of Medehampstede, and the monks, let to 
Wulfred the land of Sempringham on this condition, that after his 
decease the land should retui^ to the minster, and that Wulfred 
should give the land of Sleaford to Medehampstede, and each year 
should deliver to the minster sixty loads of wood, and twelve of coal, 
and six of faggots, and two tuns full of pure ale, and two beasts fit 
for slaughter, and six hundred loaves and ten mittan of Welsh ale" — 
ten mittan Wnlsces alot$,-^translated by Gibson, " decern Sextarios 
WallicsB cerevisise." It is however very unlikely that so small a 
quantity as ten pints of ale should be connected with six hundred 

* Mr. Garnett quotes, in the Transactions, vol. i. p. 171 :•— 

M^eUh hragt * malf/ whence 1 hratium (barbarous Latin). 
bragodlyfif * spiced wort.' J bragget. 
At the time when this paper was read before the Society, the writer was not 
aware of the late Mr. Garnett's valuable contributions on the study of the Celtic 
languages, printed in the 1st vol. of the Society's Transactions. In a few instances 
he has sought to explain words which that learned philologist had already traced 
to their proper sources. He is glad to have this opportunity of paying a patting 
tribute to the merits of that eminent and learned tcholar. 


loaves, and the other conditionB of this agreement. Bosworth, in 
his Anglo-Saxon IHctionary, has " midd, a bushel- measure/' on the 
authority of Somner. The word is purely Celtic. It is still used 
in Wales, and signifies the vat or cooler in which brewers put their 
ale in the process of brewing. The covenant, therefore, is for ten vats, 
or generally, ten hogsheads of ale, and shows, among other things, 
that the worthy fathers fully appreciated the excellence of the 
Welsh cwrw (cooroo) or ale. 

Flatkettus, Pelum. — These words often occur in the Wardrobe 
Book of Edward 1. (Liber quotidianus contrarotulatoris anno regis 
Ed. I. Vices. Oct.) The vrord flaskettus is left unexplained by the 
editor. It is the Welsh fflasged, 'a vessel made of straw or 
wicker-work, a basket.' It is sometimes used in this sense, and, at 
others, with the meaning of ' a covering of net- or lattice- work* ; as 
in the items paid to Richard de Haveringe for a horse purchased for 
the king, — *' waoflasketto empto pro eodem equo cooperiendo." The 
word is still retained in the Lancashire dialect, in which flasket 
means a kind of shallow basket. 

Pelum is used in the sense of castle or stronghold. The following 
entry shows that Edw. I. built a castle at Dumfries, "De Henrico 
de Braundeston de denariis restitutis per eundem, de denariis quos 
receperat super vadiis fossatorum operancium circa pelum de Dum- 
fries pro defectibus eorundem 3s. lid." (p. 6.) The editor quotes 
from Fordun, "Edw. I. built a castle at Linlithgow, which in 
English is called a Pele." The word is the Celtic pill, which Davies 
translates " castrum, propugnaculum." It is still used in the Isle of 
Man, and is found in the PUe of Fouldray and other names of places. 
Hobelarii. — " Comp' magri R. de Abindon de municione castrorum 
Carlioli et Laghmaban una cum vadiis Luce de Comub', Egidii de 
Shawe et aliorum scut' cum equis discoopertis qui dicuntur Hobelari" 
(Wardrobe Book, &c.). This word is derived from the Celtic hobelu 
(aubsaltare, subsilire. Davies, W. Diet.), which is the origin also of 
our English words ' to hobble ' and ' hobby.' The horsemen em- 
ployed in this border warfare (temp. Ed. I.) used a small ambling 
pony (whence the name Hobelarii, ' hobblers'), very similar probably 
to the galloways of the present day. 

Capull, — In the ballad of Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne 
(Percy's Reliques), we find the expression capulUhyde or horse* 
hide. Of the formidable Sir GKiy it is said — 

A sword and a dageer he wore at his side, 

Of many a man tne bane. 
And he was clad in his capuU-hyde, 
Topp and tail and mayne. 
And again- 
Yonder I hear Sir Guye's horn blowe, 

Itt blowes soe well in tyde, 
And yonder comes that wightye yeoman, 
Cladd in his capuU-hyde, 
This is a Celtic word. Ir. capdll ; Welsh ceffyl (horse) ; Lat. caballus. 
It is more nearly related to the Irish than to tiie Welsh form of the 



word, and gives eyidence, to some degree, that the Celtic tribes in 
England were more nearly related to the elder than to the younger 
branch of the Celtic stock. In the Craven Country, the word (still 
used by the country people) is kevil or kephyll^ a form which is 
purely Welsh. It is possible that the race of the Cymry, which, 
descending through Cumberland, invaded the Gael, and pressed them 
on to the west, may have colonized that part of Yorkshire. 

Kendel. — In the appendix to Wilbraham's Glossary of Cheshire 
words, it is said, that ** in the old terms enumerated by Lady Juliana 
Barnes and others, a litter of cats is called a kendel of cats." The 
word kendel is still used in the north of England in the sense of 
bringing forth, and is chiefly applied to animals*. Skinner admits 
the word, and derives it from the A.-S. cennan, to produce, to bring 
forth. The words kindle and kendel are however more nearly related 
to the Welsh cenedl, ' a family or stock,' and the verb cenedlu^ ' to 
generate.' We might perhaps infer, from the contemptuous use of 
&e term (which does not belong to the Celtic), that it was drawn 
from a conquered race. 

Greece, Grise, — The first form of this word occurs in an allegorical 
poem written by Stephen Hawes, a poet of great repute in the time 
of Henry VII., though now almost forgotten. The poem is called 
" The Historic of Graunde Amoure and La belle Pucel." In de- 
scribing the tower of Doctrine, he writes — 

The toure was great, of marvellous wydnes, 
To whych tlier was no way to passe but one, 

Into the toure for to have an intres 
A grece there was, ychesyld all of stone, 
Out of the rock, on whyche men did gone 

Up to the toure, and in lykewyse dyd I 
Wyth bothe the gray lioundes in my company. 

Shakespere has two forms of the word, grise and grize, the dif- 
ference arising only from the uncertain spelling of that age. In 
Twelfth Night (Act iii. Sc. 1), Viola says to Olivia, 

I pity you. 
Oiiv. That *s a degree to love. 
Viola, No, not a grise ; for 'tis a vulgar proof 
That very oft we pity enemies. 

In the Timon of Athens, the poet makes Timon say sarcastically — 

Every grize of fortune 
Is smoothed by that below : the learned pate 
Ducks to the golden fool. — Act iv. Sc. 3. 

This word is the Celtic gris, a step or stair, and is probably related 
to the Lat. gressus, Mr. Halliwell, sub v. grees, quotes from a MS. 
(Egerton, 829), "Siste gradum, abide thor at grees.*' "At the 
greese^f oot," Davies, p. 136. — 

At this temple that I of mene 

A greese there was of steppes fiftene. 

Cursor Muudi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab. 

* Has your rabbit kindled ?— Staffordshire. 


Imp, — ^This word is used by Sliakespere, both as a verb and a 
noun. In the History of King Richard l\,, Northumberland ad- 
dressing the lords Ross and Willoughby says — 

If then we shall shake off our slavish yoke, 
Imp out our drooping country's broken wing. 

The editors of Shakespere explain this correctly to mean, " to 
engraft or insert," and tell us, that to imp a hawk was artificially 
to supply such wing-feathers as were dropped or forced out by acci- 
dent. It is the Celtic impiaw, 'to engraft/ from imp^ a slip or 
scion. The application of the word to mean a boy, or young man, 
was an easy transition*. In Love's Labour's Lost (Act i. Sc. 2), 
Armado calls Moth a ** dear imp,'* Mr. Douce, in his remarks on 
this passage (p. 131), says, that " this word was often, as in the 
present instance, used to pages. Thus Urquhart, in his Discovery 
of a Jewel, &c. (p. 133), calls a person of this description a * hope- 
ful youth and tender imp of great expectationf .* " In the north of 
England, and probably in other parts, the word is still used with the 
same meaning. In Lancashire, however, it is not used as a term of 
endearment, but the contrary ; and the verb signifies * to rob,* * to 
deprive of,' — another evident derivation from the original meaning 
of taking a slip and engrafting. 

Crowd, Crowder, — These Celtic words were used in our language 
down to a comparatively late period. They signify respectively 
fiddle and fiddler, Baxter, in his ' Glossarium Antiquitatum Britan- 
nicarum,' has a full account of the word, with his usual accompa- 
niment of somewhat fanciful etymology : ** Crota Britannorum 
inventum, nam Venantio Poetae Crota Britanna dicitur ; vulgo hsec 
Violina appellatur." (Baxter sub voce.) The word, which signified 
originally * belly* or ' womb,' shows that the instrument must have 
been of a swelling form, like the modern fiddle, of which it was pro- 
bably the parent. Butler, in his Hudibras> uses crowd and fiddle 
as synonymous words : — 

Crowdero only kept the field, 

Not stirring from the place he held ; 

For getting up on stamp and buckle. 

He with the foe began to buckle ; 

Vowing to be revenged for breach 

Of crowd and skin upon the wretch, 

Sole author of the detriment 

He and Ym fiddle underwent— Hudibras, Part I. Canto 2. 

And again, Ralph says to Hudibras — 

His fiddle is your proper purchase, 
Won in the service of the Churches, 
And by your doom must be allowed 
To be or be no more a crowd, 

* So Gael, gallau, a branch, and secondarily a youth ; ogaUf a branch or twig^, 
a young man. 

t " The king (Rdw. III.) returned into England (after the ccnquest of the 
Spanish fleet a.d. 1350) with victory and triumph: the king preferred there 
eighty noble ffmpes to the order of knighthood, greatly bewayling the loss of one, 
to wit, syr Richard Goldesborough, knight." — Stow*8 .\nnals, 1592, p. 385. 


Mr. Halliwell has omitted this word, though he gives it in the 
compound forms crowdy-kit, * a small fiddle,' and crowdy-muttont ^ a 

Clutter, Clutker, Clodder, — ^The Welsh word cluder, a heap or 
pile, whence cludeiriaw, * to heap together,' is the source of these 
words, which have often been incorrectly explained by our English 
lexicographers to signify noise, as if allied to clatter. The meaning 
is that of a 'confused heap or assemblage.' L'Estrange has the 
word, " He saw what a clutter there was of pots, pans and spits." 
Mr. Carr, in his * Glossary of the Craven Dialect,' quotes from 
Wilsford on Natural Secrets, " If the ashes on the hearth do dodder 
together of themselves, it is a sign of rain." The word is still used 
in the dialects of Yorkshire and Lancashire. In Lancashire it is 
particularly used to express a thick and rapid utterance, for a person 
speaking indistinctly firom too great haste is said to clutter his 
words. It is also used in Scotland to express a rapid and confused 
assemblage : — 

Butphiz and crack, uj)o' the bent 
Toe Whigs cam on in cluthers. 

Davidson's Seasons (quoted in Carr). 

Braggot, Braket, — These words are derived from the Welsh brag, 
* malt,' to which reference has already been made, and signify ' ale 
spiced and sugared.' They are still retained in the dialects of the 
north of England, though they are rapidly becoming obsolete. 
Chaucer, in t£e MiUer's Tale, writes — 

Hire mouthe was swete as braket or the meth. 
Or hord of apples laid in hay or beth. 

Halliwell, in his Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words, quotes 
from a MS. (Rawl. c. 86),— 

With strong ale bruen in fattes and in tunnes, 
Pyng, Drangoll and the brevet fyne. 

Kecks, Kex. — ^The root of this word is the Celtic cecys, which is 
used for any plant of a reedy form, but especially the wild hemlock. 
" As dry as a kex," is still used as a proverb in the northern parts of 
England. The phrase is found in the poems of Byrom, a Man- 
chester poet of the last century, and of much local fame. Shake- 
spere in his History of Henry V. writes — 

The even mead, that erst brought sweetly forth 
The freckled cowslip, bumet and green clover 
Wanting the scythe, all uncorrected, rank, 
Conceives by idleness, and nothing teems 
But hateful docks, rough thistles, kecksies, burs. 

Henry V. Act v. Sc. 2. 

Sylvester also has the word in his translation of Du Bartas : — 

Kindles the reed, and then that hollow kix 
First fires the small and then the greater sticks. 

Quoted in Carr's Gloss, sub voce. 

Cotgrave makes it synonymous with elder, ** Canon de suls, a kex or 


elder sticke." This is not, however, the usual signification, which 
is rather of weeds with hollow stems, than of trees or shrubs. 

Torre or Terry. — I find this word in Wilbraham's Glossary of 
Cheshire Words. This gentleman adds, '* it is a good old word, 
used by Wickliffe in his Path-waye to Perfect Knowledg ; and also 
in a MS. translation .of the Psalms by Wickliffe, penes me, 'lliey 
have terrid thee to ire/ " The word signifies * to push on/ ' to 
incite/ It is used by Shakespere. In the tragedy of King John, 
Arthur pleads with Hubert^— 

And like a dog that is compelled to fight 
Snatch at his master that doth tarre him on, 
All things that you should use to do me wrong 
Dehy their office. — Act iv. Sc. 1. 

In the play -of Hamlet, Rosencrantz says to the prince — 

Faith ! there has been much to do both sides, and the nation holds it no 
sin to tarre them to controversy. — Act ii. Sc. 2, Knight's edit. 

This word has been derived from the A.-S. tiriaUf tyrgan, ' to 
vex/ 'irritate,' 'exasperate,* and this derivation is not without 
ground for its support, but the Celtic taraw, 'to smite/ 'to push' 
(from tarw, a bull, Lat. taurus), may also advance its claims ; for 
in the instance adduced, the meaning is evidently rather to push 
on, than to vex or irritate. When a dog is said to be tarred on to 
fight, the meaning we should attach to the word would be that 
of pushing on or inciting. The signification ' to yex,' ' to provoke,' 
given by Bos worth to the A.-S. word, does not seem so germane to 
the subject, though since the two ideas easily flow into one another, 
it is possible that the two words may have a common root'*'. 

Lob. — This word, which is also used by Shakespere, is unques- 
tionably of Celtic origin. It is the Welsh Hob, ** a lump, a dull 
fellow, a blockhead." In the Midsummer Night's Dream (Act ii. 
Sc. 1), Fairy says to Puck (who may also claim a Celtic origin 
from pwci, hobgoblin) : — 

Farewell thou lob of spirits, I'll be gone, 
Our queen and all her elves come here anon. 

Halliwell quotes from Stanihurst (p. 17), " a blunt countrie /oft." 
The word still exists among us in the forms of looby, lubbard, and in 
the sailors' pet phrase, a land-lubber. 

Tackle, TakeL — This word occurs in Chaucer, in the description of 
the "yonge Squier," with the meaning of arms or accoutrements X'-^ 

And he was cladde in cote and hode of grene, 
A shefe of peacock arwes bright and kene 
Under his belt he bare full thriftily, 
Wei coude he dress his takel yemanly, 
His arwes drooped not with fetheres lowe. 
And in his hana he bare a mighty bowe. 

* The Chairman considered that the words tarre and ierry were instances of 
onomatopoeia, and were taken fVom the noise made in er-r^r^ing on a dog when 
yoq set him at a cat or other animal. Prof. Key said that that was certainly the 
ori^n of the Latin irritare, which was originally only applied to dogs. 


This is the primitive meaning of the Celtic tad, * annour,' ' accou- 
trements/ ' arrows,' though it was also used in the sense of ' tools/ 
'implements*/ 'furniture/ in which seme it is still found in the 
tackling of a vessel. In the north of England a man's tools are still 
called his tackle, Butler, in his Hudibras, uses the word in this 
sense ; — 

This said, she to her tackle fell, 

And on the knight let fall a peal 

Of blows so fierce and pressed so home, 

That he retired. — Part i. cant. 3. 

Halliwell sub v. quotes from Harrison (p. 115) the phrase, "To 
stand to our tackling,** and from the Promptorium Parvulorum 
(1440), ** Tacle or wepene, armamentum." This word, which, like 
dumps, neave, imp, and many others, was once in general use as an 
acknowledged term, has now degenerated into a provincialism, and 
is rarely used except jocosely, or in a low sense. 

Bugs, Bug-a-boo, Bugle-how, Boggart, — These words, which in 
past time have often perplexed commentators, and have given rise to 
some curious etymologies, are from the Celtic bwg (boog), bw (boo), 
(signifying primarily a * ghost' or ' hobgoblin,' and thence any object 
of terror), and bwgwl, ' terrifying.' (See Trans, vol. i. p. 174.) Mr. 
Douce, in his Illustrations of Shakesperc, quotes a curious passage 
from Matthew's Bible, Ps. xci. 5 : " Thou shalt not nede to be afraied 
for any bugs by night." In our authorized version, ** lliou shalt not 
be afraid for the . terror by night" In the Taming of the Slurew, 
Petruchio says — 

And do you tell me of a woman's tongue, 

That ^ives not half so great a blow to hear 

As will a chestnut in a farmer's fire ? 

Tush ! tush ! fear boys with 6m^«.— Act i. Sc. 2. 

In Cymbeline (Act v. Sc. 4), Posthumus, giving an account of the 
defeat of the Britons, says — 

" ten, chased by one 

Are now each man the slaughter-man of twenty. 

Those that would die or ere resist are grown 

The mortal bugs o' the field. 

Warwick was a hug that fear'd us all.— Henry VI. Part III. Act v. Sc..2. 

Massinger also has the word in his New Way to Pay Old Debts. 
(Act iii. Sc. 2), Marrall says, ** No bug words, sir," meaning ** no 
threatening words." It is still retained in the word boggle, to hesi- 
tate, to be afraid. Granvill says, ** We boggle at every unusual 
appearance ; " and in the Lancashire dialect boggle and boggart are 
found ; the former signifying to be afraid, or to do anything imper- 
fectly through fear, and the latter, a 'sprite,' a * hobgoblin f/ 

Arval, Arvel, ArweL — ^This word, wliich was till lately used in the 
northern dialects to express the peculiar kind of bread or cake given 

* See Philological Society's Transactions, vol. i. p. 173. 

t See Mr. Hensleigh Wedgwood's derivation of hug, &c., Trans, vol. v. pp. 35, 37. 
The modern sense of this word does not date earlier, I beUeve, than the latter part 
of the seventeenth century. 


at fdnerals, is undoubtedly from the Celtic arwyl, a buriaL This 
word signifies properly mourning over the dead or holding a wake, 
for the verb arwylaw means to mourn, from ar, < at/ or ' upon/ and 
wylaw, * to weep/ ' to wail/ of which latter word it is most probably 
the parent. Grose has arvel, a funeral. Dr. Whittaker, in his 
History of Lonsdale (quoted by Carr, s. v.), says that the word is 
of unquestionable antiquity, but that he had sought for it in vain in 
every Etymologicon to which he had access. Mr. Douce has referred 
the origin of the word to some lost Teutonic term that indicated a 
funeral pile on which the body was burned in times of paganism 
(niustr. of Shakesp. p. 439). It is however purely Celtic in its 
origin, and from the widely distant countries in which it is found, 
it shows how extensive the domain of the Celtic tongues was in old 
time. It still exists in Denmark, and by the Danish antiquarians 
has been derived from erfe, * heir,' and 6l, ' ale,' as if the arvil feast 
were an acknowledgment of the heir by the persons assembled at 
the funeral. It exists in France, or was at least in use in compara- 
tively modern times, for Boxhomius has the word arwyl in his 
* Origines Ghdlicse,' witli the correct meaning exsequia, . It is now 
almost obsolete in our own country, but it remains in the books of 
our antiquarians, as a relic of a language once spoken throughout 
the whole of England, and of which the present English language 
bears very evident marks. 

I subjoin to this paper a note (on the principle of suutn cttique)^ 
concerning the first observer of the relationship between the Welsh 
hwynt, ynt, and the terminational form of the third person plural in 
the Greek and Latin verbs. It is commonly supposed that Dr. 
Pritchard has the merit of first observing this analogy. That learned 
and estimable scholar has fully wrought out the connexion between 
the Celtic and other Indo-European languages in this respect, but 
the fact had been observed and recorded by Lhuyd in his ' Archseo- 
iogia Britannica* more than a century before. Lhuyd's words are, 
" I can only say that it seems most probable that the Latin third 
person singular comes from their id or is, and that we have lost it, 

as they have our Hynt in the third person plural Nor does this 

observation merely manifest the analogy of our language with the 
Latin, but also excludes the objection some might propose, that 
whereas we have a great many Latin words in the Welsh, they are 
only provincial, or such as have continued among us ever since we 
were a Roman province. For all know that at that time there was 
no such word in the Latin for the pronoun they, as that termination 
of their verbs ^ant, -ent, -unt or ^int, which I take to be clearly inter* 
preted by our llynt or hwynt (they, them), which is sometimes also 
int or ynt, as adhynt (to them), odhiarthynt (frx)m them)." — Lhuyd's 
Archaeologia Britannica, p. 268. 



Sroa, aroiat and Dor, aruta. — (Read Dec. 9, 1853.) — 'fhiaword is 
referred commonly to. the verb larrifn, apparently with a view to the 
pillars that support it, and hence perhaps the somewhat imperfect 
translation " a place enclosed by piUars." More correct is what 
follows in the lexicon to which we allude, " a colonnade, piazza, 
arcade, &c." The term <noa is used of buildings applied to yarious 
purposes, but in all cases it will be found that its utility is derived 
mainly from the possession of a roof. When in the form of a por- 
tico or long gallery, it was resorted to as a place of exercise in the 
heat of the day ; when goods were stored in one, the roof was a 
defence against the weather ; and as an engine of war, it protected 
the besiegers against missiles from above. Hence it is not likely to 
have derived its name from the pillars, which perform but the 
secondary office of supporting such roof. A parasol, an umbrella or 
parapluie, are also armed with a stick for similar support, but their 
names carry with them a very definite allusion to their main office. 
Secondly, had the word been a derivative from icrrifit, we should 
doubtless have found an a in the first syllable, as in ora ais, ora- 

TLKOS, &c. - 

We look then for some parent word which shall contain the 
required idea, and at once arey-u*, * roof in,* presents itself. From 
such a verb a substantive (rroyrj might have been expected to be 
formed, if we look to the analogy of wXoktj, fiotri, yovrj from irXejc-, 
/icK- (fiifiV'), y€V' (yiyy')» so that the accredited form trrtyri, * a 
roof,' is somewhat anomalous. But the tnoa is not so much a roof, 
as a building with a roof; and so it should rather be represented 
by a derivative from aroyrj than by the mere noun. Now uroyia 
would be a legitimately formed feminine adjective, which might 
well signify ' a covered way,' with a tacit reference to some under- 
stood substantive as dhs, just as vXareia signifies * a broad-way,' ' a 
street.' Lastly, the y of aroyca preceding a vowel t would natu- 
rally slip into the y- sound aroia (stoya), precisely as the' Latin 
language from magnus forms a comparative maior (^ mayor) instead 
of mag-ior, which would be more in agreement with the superlative 
masumus (mag-sumus) ; nay, so marked is the convertibility of g 
and y, that in the Bohemian alphabet the symbol g is solely used 
for a y. Of the three forms aroia, aruta, aroa, we have (bought it 
right to give a preference to the longest, on the very ground Uiat it 
is the longest, because abbreviation is the usual law of language. 
Of this, by the way, we have an example in the word just mentioned, 
T/\areia, which passed into use at Rome as platea with the loss of 
the t. But for this feeling we should have stopped at aroyn, and 
relied on the fact that the existine fn€yri is used both for ' a roof 
and ' a roofed building.' In assigning to our supposed adjective 
(TToyios the idea of * roofed,' we are only following the analogy of 
the Homeric adjective reyc-oj, 'roofed,' from the neuter rtyos 
(reyec-) ' roof.' 


Some Remaf^ks on the Speech Pro Plancio, — (Read Dec. 9, 1853.) — 
There are some statements concerning the trial of Plancius in the 
pages of Drumann*8 work, ' Pompeius Casar und ihre Zeit-genossen,' 
which seem open to doubt ; and Wunder, in his edition of Cicero's 
speech, in one point gives his sanction to what we regard as erro- 
neous. It is asserted by these two writers (Drumann, vol. vi. p. 65 ; 
Wunder's Prolegomena, p. Ixx) that the quaeaitor who presided at 
the trial of Plancius was C. Alfius Flavus. The cognomen here 
added to the name of Alfius rests solely on a conjectural reading of 
Garatoni's, supported by the fact, so far as it can avail, that the 
surname, Flavus, is at times found in the Alfia gens. In the last 
chapter of Cicero's oration the judge is addressed, according to the 
MSS., as C. Flavi; and as it appears from the speech elsewhere 
that the gentile name of the magistrate was Alfius, not Flavins, 
Garatoni proposed as an emendation C. Flave, so that the full name 
should be C. Alfius Ravus. In making this suggestion,- he forgot 
that the etiquette of the Roman Bar prevented an advocate from 
addressing a presiding magistrate of high rank (and Alfius was 
praetor at the time) otherwise than by his praenomen and nomen, 
C. Alfius. In fact the cognomen, as in its first origin it was com- 
monly founded on a personal allusion, would for some time continue 
to savour of a nickname. Naso, Capito, Rufus, signified nothing less 
than Long- nose. Big-head, Red-head. When these were accepted 
by succeeding generations, all sense of afiFront had no doubt ceased, 
and at times we may readily believe that a Roman was proud, rather 
than otherwise, to carry in his cognomen evidence of his descent 
from some distinguished ancestor. This would especially be the 
case when the cogpiomen was peculiar to the family, as with the 
Scipios, SuUas, Caesars. The individual might then even court 
the being addressed by a surname, but still the cold formalities of 
the law would long maintain themselves. Hence, when the pre- 
siding consul in the senate called upon Cicero to speak, the phrase, 
we are told by himself, was : Die M, TulU, no Cicero, Or to take 
precedents more precisely in point, in the Oration pro P. Quinctio, 
the presiding quaesitor is addressed both in the opening and closing 
chapters as C. Aquili, not C. Galle ; and again in the pro Roscio 
Amerino, c. 5, we have M, Fanni, The same is the case in the 
Sjpeeches in Livy. For example, in xxii. 39, L. Aemilius Paullus 
the consul is addressed by Fabius at the outset of his speech as 
L. Aetnili, although he lays aside the formality of his manner as 
he warms up, and so at the close calls him in the familiarity of 
friendship L. PauUe, a Uberty the more excusable because of the 
high station of the speaker and the friendly character of the speech. 
The same Aemilius, after the battle of Cannae, when found wounded 
in the retreat by Cn. Lentulus tribune of the soldiers, is again 
addressed in the respectful phrase L. Aemili (c. 49) ; and he in his 
tarn commences his reply with Cn. Cornell , not Lenttde, A few 
chapters after (c. 53), Scipio in speaking to Metellus says L. Caecili. 
These from a single book of Livy. More examples might easily be 
found, both in this historian and elsewhere ; but it is unnecessary, 


as the feeling of scholars will probably be with what has been said. 
But if neither C. Flavi nor C. Flave be admissible, what is to be the 
reading? We answer, without much hesitation, C. Alfi, which 
differs in no great degree from the letters or sound of C. Flavi. 

Again, Drumann (ibid. p. 65) says that Plancius was acquitted, 
and his paragraph ends with a reference to a note : " Ad Fam. iv. 
14 and 15 ; compare ibid. vi. 20 ; see below, § 92." We have turned 
to the places thus indicated, and can find no authority for the 
assertion that he was '/reigesprochen,* On the contrary, from the 
two letters of Cicero addressed to Plancius in the year 45 b.c, it 
appears that Plancius was in exile at Corey ra. The year is fixed by 
the allusions to the recent marriage of Cicero with Publilia. Now, 
as the trial is admitted to have occurred in the autumn of 54 b.c. 
we have an interval of about nine years, which would agree very 
well with the supposition of his having been convicted. That the 
pimishment which awaited Plancius on conviction was exile, we are 
told by Cicero himself (c. 3) ; and as the Licinian law, under which 
the prosecution was conducted, had been brought forward under the 
belief that the previously existing laws were of insufficient severity, 
we may safely assume that the period of ten years' exile, which was 
imposed by those laws, was at any rate not curtailed in the Licinian. 
The argument becomes stronger, when it is recollected that Plancius 
was proceeded against, not merely for bribery, de amhitie, but on the 
charge which the Roman lawyers denoted by the words de sodaliciis. 
This seems to have implied a union of nearly all our modem election 
offences, bribery no doubt, but also treating, intimidation, and per- 
haps actual violence. But the chief danger of the offence lay in the 
practice of organizing an elaborate system of clubs (sodalicia) under 
the pretence of social meetings, by which the offences just enu- 
merated might be effectually perpetrated. 

So far we have argued upon the fact of Plancius being in exile in 
54 ; but there appears evidence in some sort that he was residing at 
Corcyra at an earlier period, and if so, probably for the same cause. 
It was, of course only the very wealthy who could have couriers 
sent with letters from Rome to foreign countries, and they too would 
not lightly incur the expense. Now not only do we find such letter- 
messengers in the service of Plancius passing between Rome and 
Corcyra in 54 (Cic. ad Toranium, vi. 20, compared with iv. 14), but 
four years before this we fall in with a slave of Plancius on the same 
line again performing the same ofiice. On the occasion referred to, 
Cicero was returning from his province to Rome. After spending a 
short week (Nov. 9 to 15) wind-bound at Corcyra, he crossed to 
Brundisium; and on the 26th of Nov. he receives there by the 
hands of a slave of Plancius a letter from his freedman Tiro, whom 
he had left behind an invalid at Patrae ; and travellers from Patrae to 
Rome usually took Corcyra and Brundisium in their way. Does 
not then the appearance of a courier belonging to Plancius upon this 
route, charged with a letter to Cicero, con&m the view that Plancius 
was then living in exile at Corcyra? If Plancius was not at Corcyra. 
why should a courier of his be the bearer of this letter ? if he was. 


then Cicero would probably so arrange hii movements as to pay liim 
at least a passing visit; and this intention made known to Tiro 
would lead him to send his letter in the first place to the address of 
Flancius, with the knowledge that if it did not find Cicero there, it 
would be put into Plancius's letter-bag for Rome, and so forwarded 
to Cicero. 

But it will perhaps be argued that Plancius cannot have been con« 
victed, because a coin given in Eckhel (Doct. Vet. Num. vol. v. 
p. 275) has : " cn, plakcivs. aed. cve. s. c." (thus proving him to 
have actually held the office of aedile), and yet the trial took place 
it is affirmed between his election and the time for his entering upon 
his office. "The people*/' says Drumann (p. 46) "decided in 
favour of [the candidates] Plancius and Plotius, who consequently for 
the months which yet remained of the year 54 were to be the aecQles. 
However, before they entered upon their office, Plancius was brought 
to trial." It may readily be conceded, on the evidence of the coinf , 
that Plancius did act as aedile, especially as the gens Plancia, being 
plebeian and of no great note, was not likely to have supplied two 
candidates with the same praenomen Cnaeus for this distinguished 
office. But we do not know on what autliority Drumann asserts 
that the trial took place at a time intervening between the election 
and the day for entering upon the office. The aediles, it is allowed 
on all hands, ought to have been elected in the preceding year, when 
indeed M. Licinius Crassus, the then consul, held the comitia for 
the purpose ; and if the disturbances in Rome prevented the election 
from proceeding at that time, nay if, as Drumann observes, the actual 
election could not be gone through till the summer of 54, it was 
only the more necessary that no time should be lost after the election. 
It may be said, however, that a magistrate while in office was not 
amenable to the courts of law. This argument would have availed 
for quiet times, but Wunder, in his ' Prolegomena' (p. Ixvii), has 
pointed attention, on the authority of Cicero (Ep. ad Q. fr. ii. 9), 
to the fact, th^t the election of praetors was subject to the condition 
ut dies j^x.privati essent. This was for the express purpose of leaving 
them open to the vengeance of the law, if irregularities marked their 
election ; and it seems not unlikely that the Lex Licinia too would 
adopt an enactment so necessary for its own objects. 

We have omitted to notice that Drumann, as it would seem for 
the purpose of explaining the fact of Plancius being in exile in 45 
notwithstanding his alleged acquittal, calls him a supporter of the 
Pompeian cause, and implies that his forced residence abroad was 
due to the vengeance of the Dictator Csesar : " (Er) lebte erst 

* " Das Volk enUchied fiir Plancius und Plotius, welche also in den noch ubrigen 
Monaten des J. 54 Aedilen sein sollten. Ehe sie jedoch ihr Amt antraten, 
erschien Plancius vor Qericht," &c. 

f The coin has on one side what Visconti and Eckhel bel^ve to represent a head 
of Diana, the more so because an inscription exists with the phrase Diana Planciana, 
proving that the worship of Diana specially belonged to the family of Plancius. On 
the reverse of the coin too we see what confirms this, a bow, a quiver, and what 
Eckhel calls capra silvtstris, either an ibex or chamoise, for the horns seen on the 
coin would suit either. 


spater als Pompejaner unter Casan Dictateer in Coroyra im ^xil** 
(p. 65). For this assertion we cannot find the slightest foundation, 
and Drumann gives no authority heyond the references already 
quoted. No one can read the speech of Cicero without the im* 
pression that he had a had case. It is to a great extent of a suppli- 
catory character, and abundant stress is laid upon what Romans 
must owe to Plancius for his generous treatment of Cicero when in 
exile. The unqualified tone in which the orator thus dwells upon 
his obhgations to Plancius contrasts somewhat amusingly with the 
sneering manner in which he speaks of those services in his letters 
to Atticus, &c., written at the time. The tenor of his letters (ad 
Att iii. 14 and 22, ad Fam. xiv. 1) then ran: "Plancius is very 
attentive to me ; he won't let me leave Thessalonica for any other 
part of Greece ; and hopes, good man, that his and my return may 
coincide, just that he may share in the Mat of my entrance into 
Rome." On the other hand, all that we know positively of Plancius, 
subsequently to Cicero's speech, is the fact of his exile. If then we 
must come to a conclusion upon the result of the trial, the proba* 
bility is in fiEivour of a conviction. At any rate, let those who 
maintain his acquittal produce some sort of evidence in support of 
their view. 


Vol. VL DECEMBER 9, 1853. No. 140. 

The Rev. T. Oswald Cockaynr, M.A., in the Chair. 

The Rev. J. Llewellyn Davies, M.A., Fellow of Trinity College, 
Camhridge, Incumbent of St. Mark's, Whitechapel, was elected a 
Member of the Society. 

The following jiaper was read : — 

•' On Words admitting of being grouped around the Root FLAP 
or FLAK." By Hensleigh Wedgwood, Esq. 

In tracing the origin of words apparently related to each other, it 
often happens that we are finally conducted, not to a single root, 
but to several distinct articulations, having equal appearance of 
originality, yet bearing a general resemblance to each other, in con- 
sequence of being formed by imitation of the same class of natural 
sounds. Thus an extensive class of sounds, ultimately arising from 
the sudden compression and release of small portions of air, as in 
the flapping of a loose sheet, the cracking of a whip, the collision of 
flat surfaces, the agitation of liquids, or the like, is represented with 
equal verisimilitude by the syllables clap, clak, clat, flap, flak, flat^ slap, 
slak, slat, lap, lak, lat, and hence an infinite variety of words formed 
by the insertion of a nasal, an alteration of the vowel, an exchange 
of the spirant p, t, or k, for the corresponding sonant b, d, or g, the 
adoption of a frequentative form, or other modifications, according 
as the peculiarity of the idea to be conveyed or the genius bf the 
language may require. The imitative term is first applied to the 
sound itself, then to the action by which the sound is produced, to 
the instrument producing it, or any analogous object, to the con- 
ditions or quality tending to give rise to such an effect ; it is then 
applied (generally with more or less modification) to particular 
objects or actions in which those qualities and conditions are exem- 
plified in an eminent degree, and the same operation is repeated 
with a constant tendency to fresh modification of the root, as a new 
variety of meaning is developed, until all resemblance in sound is 
exhausted, and the connexion of meaning is only to be traced by 
the establishment of a long succession of intervening stages. 

It is proposed in the present paper to confine our attention to 
such of the derivatives from the foregoing roots as can be traced to 
the idea of a sheet or analogous object flapping or fluttering in the 
air and 8la])ping against the surrounding objects. The feature most 
obviously essential to the exhibition of a flapping or slapping action 
18 a loose, unstretched, unfixed condition of the instrument, and 
such consequently is the character most frequently represented by 
the simpler forms of the root. The adjectives so originating are 
next applied to designate the vital or moral conditions which exhibit 


. 144 

themBelves in a loose condition of the agent, appearing in the 
signification of weak, washy, liquid, languid, lazy, without vigour, 
faded, withered, hanging down, bagging, untidy, slovenly, dirty. 
Then, as a loose cord or sheet flutters in the air or hangs down and 
trails upon the ground, numerous verbal forms are found in the 
signification of wavering, dangling, moving backwards and forwards, 
going about without a set purpose, or of tending downwards, trail- 
ing, dragging, sliding, and again in the sense of making a thing 
loose, separating the connexion by which it is held, letting it go, 
deserting it. Such significations as these are common to most of 
the radical forms indicated above ; the more particular applications 
may be traced with greater advantage in connexion with the words 
by which they are actually expressed. 

The sound made by the concussion of a loose sheet in the air is 
most aptly represented to an English ear by the syUable flap or fiag^ 
and thus to flap is applied to the action by which such a sound is 
produced, and ^flap to the instrument by which an analogous action 
can be accomplished, to any soft or pendulous object confined on 
one side and free on the other, as the flap of a hat, of a coat, cr 
even of a hard object like a table. To flip represents a smarter, 
quicker action than^/7, as a blow struck with the comer of a towel 
or a' handkerchief, or the lash of a whip. When applied to the action 
of one finger suddenly released from the thumb, it is written fillip. 
The older Dutch has/a66e, a slap in the face, a fly-flap, Q.Jiiegen^ 
klappe ; Q.flabhe, a drooping, hanging mouth, chops (Kuttner) ; E. 
FLABBY, soft, hanging, without stifihess. The Fr, faible, formerly 
Jloibe sndjloible, the origin of our fbbblb, Vroy.flebes, Romaunsch 
flawel, lUfievole, seem identical with E. flabby. The Du. hasyfod- 
beren, for the flapping of the sails or the action of the wind upon 
them (Weiland). The Lat. flabrum, a gust of wind (analogous to 
the h\,flapr, ventus inconstcuis), as well vlr Jlabellum, a fan, are pro- 
bably to be referred direct to the same root rather Uxan to Jlare, to 
blow. The insertion of a nasal gives Fr. flambe, a flag or water- 
plant with broad flapping leaves ; flamber, to blaze, to flame. The 
last would doubtless in general be derived from lAt, flamma, but it 
preserves in a lively manner the sense of flaring, wavering (comjiare 
flamherge, a sword, that which is brandished), and perhaps it indi- 
cates the origin of the word fiamma itself, as we shidl subsequently 
find several words of like signification derived from the wavering 
motion of a flame. The Bohem. plapolati, to flap (as a flag), to fly. 
to blow, to move quickly, to blaze, to bum, seems to be the origin 
of the more contracted piati, to flare, to blaze, and of plamen, a 
flame, apparently identical with lAt.Jktmma, 

llie flapping sound of a loose sheet may be imitated as well by 
jlack as by /op. We have accordingly Fr. /ac for the sound made 
by clapping of hands, also •' a slat, flap, slampe or clap given by a 
thing that is violently thrown against a wall" (Cotgr.) ; mettre i la 
Jiac, to empty a purse, to make its sides flap together. A flag is a 
piece of cloth flying loose and flapping in the wmd; also a water* 
plant with broad flat leaves ; to flag is to hang loose, to fade to 


treary, correspondiDg exactly to Lat. Jlaccere, whence Jlaccus, flap- 
eared ; fiaccidus, flaccid. Fr. fla^ue, Jlache, weak, feeble, fiaint, 
flaggie (Cotgr.). The addition of the nasal ^ves Ft. Jianc, £. flank, 
the soft part of the body below the ribs, as in G. from weich, soft, 
die weiche, the flank ; from Pol. slaby, soft, slabina, the flank. A 
FLOCK of wool, &c, is probably so called from its loose puffy texture, 
and the It. form fiocco is essentially the same withfioco, weak, faint, 
feeble. As a flock of wool or of hair coheres together, to /lock came 
to signify to assemble together, and hence a flock of sheep or the 
like. The Swed, Jhck-silke, Q.flock-seide, is loose uuspun silk. In 
It. Jio8SO,Jlo8cio (Patriarchi), faint, flaggy, weak, the k sound passes 
into a sibilant, as in the Fr, Jlaque, flache, and hence £. FLOss-silk. 
In like manner the Dan. has holiijlokke and/losse, to ravel out. The 
comparison of Fr. flache, limber, flaggy, drooping, with fiichir^ to 
bend, would seem to show that \At,fleciere with its numerous deri- 
vatives is another offshoot of our stock. 

The direction of the attention to the wavering reciprocating action 
of a flapping object has given rise to numerous words signifying 
action of such a nature, or the object in which it is exhibited. 
Thus in O.-E. to flack, to beat, to move to and fro — 

Her colde breste began to heate. 

Her berte also ioflacke and beate.— Gower in Richardson. 

Svf.Jlacka, to go to and fro, to tramp about; flhksa, to flap the 
wings; fl&kta, to blow, to fan, to flutter, to wave; Q,Jtackem, to 
flutter, to gad about, to flicker; 'Dvca. flagre, to move to and fro 
as hair wavering in the wind, a bird flapping its wings, to flarb as 
a candle (as O.-E. smoor from smother), T^e Dan. verb is identical 
in form with lAt, Jhgrare, to blaze, to bum, in which the signifi- 
cation is restricted to the wavering action of flame. The same 
application of the root in a simpler form gives Gr. ^Xcyia, to bum. 
A somewhat different application gives Bohem. Jlakati, to flog ; 
\At, flagrum, Jlagellum (related to root Jiag, dAjlabrum andjlabellum 
to root Jlab), an instrument of flogging; Pl.-D. Jlegel, a wing, a 
FLAIL, instruments of a flapping action in flying or in threshing. 
In the corresponding Fr. vrovd jUau, a flail, a scourge, the beam of 
a balance, twigs of a tree, the signification is extended to other 
examples of wavering movement. In the compounds infligere, coH' 
jUgere, the root appears in form and signification analogous to E. 
FLiNO, to do anything with a sudden exertion ; lf\. Jlengia^ to flog ; 
Pl.-D.^^«i, A.-S.yfeo^an, Swed.^y^a, Dan.jfyre, to fly. Hence 
many derivatives: Dan./lyg, Fl.-D.Jiugge, ready to fly, FLEnoBD; 
Q.flug, flight, or, in heraldry, wings ; Jiunke, a wing, but now applied 
to the FLOOKS of an anchor, also csXled Jluhe or anker-fliege ; Q.fliigel, 
a wing ; Jlugelmann, a fuolbman. 

From the notion of flying like a bird, it was a natural step to 
flying away, flbbiji^ before an enemy, making one's escape, and 
the two ideas were early distinguished by verbal modification. Thus 
we have Isl. Jliuga, to fly ; Jlya, to flee. The Lat. fugere is used 
only in the latter sense, tiiough it would seem from the G. vogel, a 
fowl, that the same modification of the root was once used in the 



sense of flying. For it can hardly be doubted ttistfugere, like the 
modern fugleman^ as suggested by Professor Key, has lost an /. So 
we have G,flittich and fittich, a wing; D. plaveien t^ndpaveien, to 
pave ; plaitijn and pattijn, a skate ; £. blotch and botch, flaggy and 
foggy* ¥t.flo8che is translated by Cot^.f aggie, weak, soft, as a 
boneless lump of flesh, and thus to fag, to weary, to work hard, 
must be taken as a modification of the verb to flag, to hang down, 
to fade. Thus in Devonshire they speak of vagging (i. e, fagging) in 
the wind, for flapping or flagging. 

In like manner the loss of an / from forms like flog, flicker, flackem, 
gives fick-fack, which is generally used in Holland, Sweden, and 
Germany for rapid to-and-fro motion. Sw. fickfack, sleight of 
hand, des tours de paftse-pas»e (Nordfores); fich-fackcn, factitare, 
agitare (Kihan), to fidget, to move about without any apparent end, 
to play tricks (Kiittner). Ficken, fickelen, to whip (Kil.). A.'S.ficol, 
FICKLE, versatile, easily swayed backwards and forwards; Swiss 
figgcn, fieggen, fienggen, to move from side to side, to fidob, to 
FinoBT; lA.fiuka, T)&n,fyge, to blow about with the wind, whence 
sne-fog, a snow-storm, and our fog, a mist driven by the wind. 

The G. fackeln, to be ever in motion, to fidget, to make a fuss, to 
flare, to blaze, whence fackel, a torch, brings the Lat. fax within 
the sphere of our root. Between flackern Bind fackeln there is much 
the same relation as between Dvai.flunke, to sparkle, and Q.funkeln^ 
and in the latter we see an example of the mode in which the pas- 
sage is clearly made from a form commencing with fl, to one in 
which the / has entirely disappeared. Thus G.flackern, ^, flicker i 
G . flinkern, flinken, to glitter or sparkle ; flink, smart, lively, quick ; 
Dan. flunkCf G.funkeln, to sparkle; funke, a spark; are obviously 
different stages in the development of a common root. 

In like manner are connected £. blab and babble, G. plappem and 
papem, to babble ; plantschen and pantschen, to dabble ; Gael, plead- 
hag and E. paddle ; Gael, plodach and £. puddle : and a similar loss 
of an / from a form like the Bohem. plapolati would explain Lat. 
populus, G. pappel, a poplar- tree (like Fr. tremble, an aspen), from 
the tremulous motion of the leaves ; papilio, a butterfly, in some parts 
of Germany csHed fleterache, from its fluttering mode of flying ; Lat. 
pappus, thistle-down, from being blown about by the wind ; Bohem. 
paper, down, and It. papero, a gosling, from being covered with down. 

It is impossible to separate Dan, flagre, D\i, flaggeren, G.flackem, 
from G,fladdem, flattern, to flutter, flicker, move about irre- 
gularly, waver ; G.flittem, to quiver, glitter, shine; Du.fledderen, 
vledderen, to flutter, flap (compare vledermuys, Svfed. flUdermus, 
Dan. flaggermuus, mus volitans, a bat) ; Sw. fladra, to flutter, 
waver, flare, blaze ; Swiss fladern, to blaze up. Isl. fladra, is 
said of a dog wagging his tail, and secondarily in the sense of 
flatter, blanditiis fallere, in the same way that wheedle is from G. 
wedeln, to wag the tail. Du.flodderen, to hang loose about one (as 
clothes), to tramp through snow and wet, with the insertion of a 
nasal becomes £. to flounder; Swiss flodern, pflodem, fludem, to 
flutter, to bustle, to hang loose about one ; floder-hoaen, loose bag- 


glng trowsers ; pjiodi, a sloven. Nor are these less manifestl]^ 
connected with G. schlottem, to swag, wabble, dangle, tremble ; 
schlotterig, swagging, wabbling, slapping, tottering ; schlotter-hosen, 
Du. slodder-hosen, wide bagging trowsers ; schlotte, a loose frock, 
slop; Du. slodderer, an untidy negligent person, a slattbrn; 
P1.-D. slatte, siodde, a rag, tatter ; Du. slodde, sordida et inculta 
mulier, a slut. 

To return however to the forms with an initial^ : the Fr. fre- 
quentatives^q/fo/er,^o/e/fr (equivalent to the E. iormE flatter, flitter , 
flutter), to surge or wave up and down, also to miJce a surging, 
bubbling, or tempestuous noise (Cotgr.), lead to the simple ^^/^, to 
waver in the air, swim aloft upon the water, to float, whence ^/«, 
waves ; flotte, a flbet, or collection of vessels borne on the fieuce of 
the water. The corresponding Isl. fliota^ Dan. flyde, to flow, 
whence lf\.fliot, Dhn.flod, a river, lead to E. flbet, a creek, fleet, 
swift, rapid, and flood, an excessive flow of waters. 

Q,flittem, to tremble, quiver, glitter, shine ; E. flit, to move 
h'om place to place, to change one's residence ; G.flittich, a wing, 
from the rapid flapping motion, also the flap of a coat. As flittich 
passes into fittich, it is possible that flederen, to flap, may be the 
origin of feather: com^^ae fleder-wisch, a goosewing or feathet 
brush for dusting furniture. 

The imitation of the sound given by the flapping of a loose sheet; 
with an initial si instead of fl, gives Pl.-D. slapp as well as slakk, 
loose, unstretched ; Du. slap, laxus, flaccidus, languidus, marcidus, 
fluidus (Kil.) ; Isl. slap-eyrdr, lop-eared ; Du. slappelick te werke 
gaen, to go lazily to work, indormire causae (Kil.). Hence as sleep is 
the concQtion in which the absence of exertion reaches its acme, 
Du. slaepen, obstupere, torpere, dormire (Kil.), to sleb^. 

Pol. slahy, faint, weak, feeble. Swiss, schlahb, loose, draggling ; 
abschlabbig, swagging, hanging down ; schlabbete, schlappete, ge^ 
schlapp, washy drink, slops. Lith. szlapas, wet, moist ; szlapokas, 
moist, sticky ; Isl. slapp, Ir. slaib, mud, dirt ; Dan. prov. slamp, slush, 
melted snow; G. schlamm, mud, dirt, mire. Hence probably G. 
schleim and our slime, the same connection appearing to hold good 
between Lat. limus, A.-S. lam, loam, mud, and £. lime, properly any 
viscous substance employed to hold bodies together. 

Isl. slapa, to flag, to slack ; slepia, to fade, to rot; sldpugr, squa- 
lidus, slovenly ; Gael, slaopach, trailing, drawling, slovenly, lazy ; 
slaopair, slaopag, a slovenly fellow, a slut. From the hanging down 
of a loose rope, £. slope, to tend downwards ; N.-E. slap, a sinking 
between hills. 

Du. slobberen, to bag or flag, to be loose or flaccid (synonymous 
with slodderen, flodderen, schlottem, above-mentioned) ; slobbe, a 
SLOP or loose article of dress ; slop-hosen or slomp-hosen, wide trow* 
sers. G. schlumpen, to hang very loose or slack ; schlampig, schlumpig, 
slack, loose, slovenly ; schlampe, schlumpe, schlampampe, a slut. 

From slap, loose, the Swedes have two forms of the verb, sl&pa, 
to trail, drag along the ground, and sldppa, to loosen, let go. The 
£. neuter corresponding to both of these forms is slip, signifying in 


accordance with the first, to slide, move along a surfieLce with a 
continuous motion, and with the second, to go loose, unrestrained^ 
unimpeded. A slipper, G. schiUpp-schuh, is a shoe which can be 
put on and off without resistance. In ordinary G. the more usual 
form of the adjective is acUaff, and while from schlapp is formed 
schleppen^ to drag, from schlaff in like manner are formed schletfen, 
to drag or trail, to slide, to slant, to sharpen a knife ; schleife, the 
train of a gown, a dray or sledge, a noose or slip-knot ; schlie/en, to 
slip through a hole or the like ; schlauf^ a muff into which one slips his 
hands ; Du. sloe/, lentus, piger, homo sordido cultu, incultis vestibua 
et moribus dissolutis, a sloven ; sloe/, a loose, coarse dress, a slop ; 
sloe/'hosen, bagging trowsers; sloe/, sloove, replicatio, velum, tegmen, 
exuviae, folliculus ; slooven de mouwen, reflectere manicas, to turn 
up one's SLEEVES, originally the cuffs or part flapped or slapped 
back, equivalent to Sp. aolapo, the flap or facing of a garment, the 
part of a dress 'qui se double sur Tautre'; Isl. slio/r, Dan. sllh?, 
languid, dull, blunt ; £. SLSsvE-silk, flock silk, loose, not spun into 
threads; hence a confused mass of unwound thread, as in Shake- 
spear's "ravelled sleeve of Care." 

E. SLOW, properly unstrung, without life or energy, then taking 
a long time to do a thing (whence sloth, an absence of energy 
or exertion), is in form nearly equally related to slapp and slack. 
From the latter of these forms arise £. to slake, to slacken or take 
away the strength or force of thirst, fire, &c. ; Sw. sloka, to droop, 
to trail, to hang down, to slouch ; slok-biork, a weeping birch ; 
slok'hatt, a hat with falling brims, a slouch-hat; sloktg, flagging, 
slouching, slovenly ; prov. Dan. slok, sink, slack, loose, downcast. 
Dan. sluk'Hret, lop-eared ; prov. £. slack, a valley (as slap above- 
mentioned) ; G. scMeichen, PL-D. slicken, Du. sleiken (corresponding 
to slak, as schleifen, schlie/en, to schlaff), to slip, to creep, to slivk, 
while Swed. slinka is to hang loose, to flag, to dangle, to shake ; 
sUtnkig, loose, unstretched, flaccid ; slankig hatt, a slouching hat ; 
G. schlank, pliable, flexible, and hence slender ; schlankem, to swing, 
to dangle ; Sw. slingra, to roll like a ship, to twist, to slip ; slinga, 
a noose or slip-knot, slinga, to twist ; £. to sling, to cast with a 
whirling motion of the arm ; G. schlingeln, to loiter or saunter about ; 
schlingel, a loiterer, a sluggard ; Pl.-D. slunkem, slakkem, to waggle, 
joggle ; slakkem, schlakkig wetter seyn, to rain long, to trapes in 
the mud and wet ; prov. £. slacking, idling ; to slug, to be without 
energy, slow ; sluggard ; G. schlauch, a loose skin or case, as the 
skin of an onion, leather bottle, hose for a water pipe, &c. (corre- 
sponding to schleichen, as Du. sloe/ to schlei/en) ; £. slough, the 
loose skin of a serpent or that which separates firom a wound; also 
a deep mass of mud, in which sense it may be compared to the W. 
llaca, mire, slop, mud, from llac, slack ; slag, the scum which sepa- 
rates from melted iron as a slough from a wound. 

The passage of the final korg into an «, / or d, gives Swiss schlass, 
loose, wearied, dull ; schlassem, wet snow, slush ; prov. Dan. sluus, 
SLEET ; Swiss schlassmen, to thaw a little, to become wet, soft, to 
fade ; prov. £. slattert (corresponding exactly to the P1.-D. slakkig 

/ ^■'-- ■■■- ■'■-■ 

above-mentioned), showery, sloppy weather ; Isl. sladda^ 
through wet and snow ; prov. £. sladb, to drag (analogous to Swed 
sktpa), whence slbd, slbdob, and the neuter to slidb (analogous to 
slip), slithbr; Gael, slaodach, trailing, dragging, clumsy, lazy, 
slovenly; slaodag, a slut; Swiss schlodig, slovenly; Dan. slude, 
sludske, sludre, to do a thing carelessly, lazily, to slubbbr it over 
(compare Du. slodderen, slobberen, to bag, flag, to be loose or flaccid), 
to SLUR it over ; Du. sluus, slons, slus, loose, homo ignavus et dis- 
Bolutus; Pl.-D. slunien, rags, tatters; prov. Dan. slendt, joggling, 
loose ; £. SLBNnBR, like G. schlank, originally doubtless pliable, then 
thin, lanky ; G. schlentern, Swed. slentra, to dawdle, loiter, go to and 
fro, SAUNTBR ; prov. Dan. alunte, sluntre, to work lazily, to be slovenly, 
negligent ; Piedmontese slandra, slandrassa, an idle slovenly woman. 
Again, it will be found that a large proportion of the foregoing 
words with ah initial fl or si have corresponding forms with a 
simple /. Thus W. llabio, to slap ; llah, a flag, a stripe ; llahi or 
llahwst, a lank clumsy fellow, a loobt ; lleban, a long gangrel, a tall 
lubberly clown ; Berri lapeau, a lazybones ; Romaunsch. lappi, a 
simpleton ; Sp. lapo, a blow with the flat of a sword ; £. lap, any- 
thing hanging and flapping, as the dew -lap of an ox, the lap of a 
gown, which is properly the part hanging down in front, then the 
hollow covering the knees when sitting ; the lappets or flaps of the 
coat ; Du. lapken, the flap or lobe of the ear, dew-lap of an ox ; lap, 
a loose piece of cloth cut ofi^, whence lappen, to patch. A LAv-wing 
is a bird which flaps its wings in a remarkable manner in flying ; to 
lap, or in the N. of £ng. to wlap, to fold over, apparently the origin 
of the It. inviluppare. Ft, envelopper, to bnvblop. Lat. labium, 
Gael, lab, a lip ; Gael, lab, laib (like slaib), dirt, mire, a swamp, a 
bog ; laban, mire, dirty work, drudgery ; labanach, a labourer, dauber, 
slovenly fellow; whence perhaps may be explained Lat. /a6or, labour, 
as well as labi, to slide ; and a similar connection may be observed 
between the Du. slibbe, slibber, mud, dirt, and slibberen, to slide, to 
slip ; to LAPB, to walk about in the mud, to go slovenly or untidily 
(Halliwell). To lob, to hang down ; Lat. lobus, the lap of the ear, 
LOBB of the liver ; LOP-eared, with hanging ears ; Swiss, lampen (as 
schlampen), to hang down, to fade; lampig, lampeli^, loose, soft, 
hanging down, withered ; gelamp, a trailing garment ; lamp-ohr, a 
hanging ear; Fr. /am6eati, a tatter; 0, lumpen, rags, tatters ; WJlipau, 
to flag, to grow faint and lank, to hang down, to droop ; llipa, soft 
and slack, withered, flagging, flapping; £. limp, flaccid, without 
inherent strength (whence to limp, to go lame), limbbr, pliant. 
Then SAjUchir, to bend, from /acA« above-mentioned, the Gael, lub, 
to bend, must be referred to the present root, as well as £. limb, an 
articulation or bending of the body. Again, from the foregoing lamp 
in the sense of loose, soft, hanging down, we easily pass to the Piedm. 
lam, slack, loose ; Du. lam, laem, weak, languid, without vigour, and 
hence lamb ; lam-oore, flaccidus ; lamme leden, membra dissoluta ; 
lani'Suchtig, paralyticus ; lam-slaen, enervare verberibus ; prov. £. to 
LAM, to beat severely ; Du. lamen, diminuere, debilitare, mutilum 
reddere, remittere alicui quod debetur ; lammelick, languid^, remiss^. 


cunctanter, segniter ; Swiss, lummemj to lounge, to slug a bed. G; 
lummer, slack, soft, loose; lUmmel, a lubber, sluggai^. Then as 
many kinds of things become flaccid as they warm, the two ideas 
are frequently connected together. Thus D. iqf (corresponding 
to G. achlaff), flaccid, languid, insipid, lukewarm ; lauw, tepid ; 
Swiss lah, l&h (to be compared with flabby), lukewarm ; Swiss lau, 
warm enough to thaw, laiies wetter, mild and hence calm weather 
(Du. laf'Weder) ; G. flauy weak, faint, vapid, slack. The transition 
of signification from warmth to the absence of wind, shelter, connects 
the Du. laf, Swiss laii, with A.-S. kleou), warm ; hleow^tede, a shel- 
tered place ; Du. iuuw, sheltered from the wind ; luuwen, to cease 
blowing ; A.-S. hleo, lee, shelter. 

Corresponding to the form slack are W. Uac, llag, slack ; llaca, 
mire ; prov. £. lache, a muddy hole, a bog (Halliwell) ; W. //acto, to 
slacken, to droop ; llagu, lleigio, to flag, to lag ; Gael, lag, weak, 
languid, faint ; lagaich, to fatigue ; Gael, and Icel. lag, a sinking, a 
hollow, a dell, in the same sense in which we have seen both slap 
and slack ; then as the slack of a rope lies low and trails upon the 
ground, IceL lagr, Sc. laigh, law, low ; £. lag, to drop behind, to 
be slow ; lank (like G. schlank), properly too weak to stand stiff of 
itself, without inherent strength, long, slender; Lat. languere, to 
fade, to be without life and spirit, to languish ; Goth, laggs, long, 
t. e. protracted, drawn out (to be illustrated by Kero's * sint kelongit, 
relaxantur') ; to linger, to drag on, to lag or languish ; Bav. lung, 
soft ; E. LUNGS, from their loose, soft texture, also called lights, for 
a similar reason, and in Fr. mou, from mou, soft ; Swiss lug, luck, 
loose, slack ; luggen, to be loose— das seil lug get, the rope slacks ; 
£. LUG, to trail, to drag, whence lug, the hanging ear of a pig, &c. ; 
Pl.-D. luggem or lungem, to slug in bed, to loiter, to saunter; Du. 
lunderen, cunctanter agere; Pl.-D. lugger- bank or lunger-bank, a 
couch ; then from the notion of being slack, without exertion, A.-S. 
licgan, to lie. 

On the other hand, the G. luck, lugk, loose, not tight, leads to 
lUcke, a faulty opening, a gap ; lUckig, full of holes, breaches, chinks, 
or chaps (Kiittner), leaky ; Du. lecke, leke, a leak; lecken, to drip, 
whence lecke, lte, lixivium excolatum a cineribus (Kil.). The notion 
of leakiness, want of tightness, affords a natural type of deficiency 
in general, whence Du. laecke, defectus, vitium, vituperium (Kil.), 
and £. to lack, to blame, to cast up his faults upon one. To lack, 
to want, may be explained direct from the notion of slackness, which 
is constantly used to express deficiency of action ; hence laecken, 
minuere, decrescere, deficere paulatim, deesse, consumi (Kil.). 

Again, Picard laque, slack ; laquer, to be slack ; Fr. loque, a rag, 
tatter, from hanging loose and fluttering in the air ; G. locker, loose ; 
Dan. logre (applied to a dog), to wag his tail, whence may be 
explained Isl. logo, to blaze, log, £. low, a blaze, viz. as standing 
in the same relation to logre (the proper import of which is obviously 
to express wavering motion) which Gr. <p\eyw bears to hat.flagrare ; 
prov. £. to LOGGER, RS Fr. locker, to shog, shake, wag, make a noise 
as a thing that is loose (Cotgr.) ; loquet, the latch or snecket of a 



door, firom moving up and down ; Lat. laqueus, Fr. laqSp a slip* 
knot, snare or gin, latch of a door, latchet of a shoe (Cotgr.), all 
of them instruments of a similar kind of motion. Hence A.-S. 
geUcccan, O.-E. to latch, to take, and not vice versd; Bav. latschen, 
letschen, lotschen, to he loose ; veriatschi, loose, flaccid, sloppy ; 
latschi, a soft undetermined person ; It. laccio, Sp. iazo, Fr. laisse, 
lacet, a slip-knot, running cord, lbash, lace ; Swiss lundsch, soft, 
tender ; luntsch, a sloven, slut ; Pl.-D. and Bav. lunzet, loose, soft, 
slow, sleepy ; Swiss luntschen, to hag, hang loose, to lounge, or 
loiter ahout ; Bav. lumen, lunzeln^ to eJumher ; Pl.-D. lunachen (like 
to limp from limp, flaccid), to go lame, to halt. 

The passage of a final k into 8 is often facilitated hy the previous 
insertion of the latter, either hefore or after the k, as in Lat. Iaxu8 
=lak'8'U8), It. lasco, Gael, leasg, W. llesg, slack, faint, sluggish ; 
leschen, to put out, to slake, slacken the force of; Prov. hue, 
lasch, Fr. Idche, loose ; prov. or O.-E. lash, soft, loose, as a soft egg, 
slack, dull ; lask, looseness of the howels ; lush, a laa^^ fellow ; to 
lush, to slug ; W. llaes, loose, slack, trailing ; llaesu, to hang down, 
flag, grow faint and lank ; Ihtes-glust, a long hanging ear ; Grael. 
iasach, loose ; Icel. las, los, solutio, debilitatio; lasinn, tired, weak, 
ragged; Dan. las, a tatter; Bav. lass, lassig, slack, unstretched, 
slow ; It. lasso, Fr. las, weary. 

Corresponding to the Fr. and It. forms Idche and lasco are the 
verbs Idcher, to loose, slacken, release, and lasciare, properly to let 
loose, to leave freedom to the action of another, then to permit, to 
desert, while from the Teutonic modification lass are derived Fr. 
laisser, to let loose, to permit. It. lassare, to fatigue, and also to 
leave, to permit. In like manner it would seem Uiat the Lat. /tit- 
guere must be derived (as fling from flak) from ther oot lak in the 
sense of loose, the Gr. \ecirfi>, Xifixayta, from the equivalent root lap, 
and the led. leifa, to leave, from laf, extant in the same language 
in the sense of flap, flaccid. 

The notion of looseness, absence of connexion^ separation, and 
hence deficiency, privation, emptiness, is expressed by the Goth, laus, 
G. /o«, A.-S. leas, and the £. termination less. Buendra /eo^CCsedm.), 
void of inhabitants ; breath-/f««, wanting in breath, scant of breath, 
in Gkel. lag^analach, literally slack of breath, from lag, and analach. 
The idea conveyed by the comparative less itself, formerly written 
lass, is closely analogous, being merely a generalization of the idea 
of slackness considered as diminishing the vigour of action. From 
Gx>th. laus we have liusan, to lose, i. e. to become loose from, to 
separate from. The passage of the s into an r gives G. verlieren, 
whence E. lorn, forlorn, lost, desolate. 

On the other hand, the equally common passage of an s into a / 
leads from O.-H.-G. laz, slow, torpid, lazy, to Goth, lots, slow, Icel. 
latr, lazy, E. late. In like relation to O.-H.-G. Idzan, lazzen, G. 
lassen, are G. Utan, A.-S. Ustan, to permit ; £. let, to permit, to give 
freedom of action, and also as Goth, latjan, to delay, to impede. From 
UUr the Icel. has latra, torpere, to slug (explaining perhaps the Lat. 
lateo), and lotra, lente et segniter ingredi, to loiter. The G. has 



lotter (like locker), loder, loose, physically and morally (leading to 
O.-E. liiher, luther, loose, bad ; lithb, pliable ; lith, a limb); lodenh 
lottem, lotteln, loiteln, to joggle (like schloUem, schlaudem), to be 
loose, to waggle, to go about without a purpose, loiter (Schmeller) ; 
lotter-bank, like lugger- or lunger-bank, a couch. In ordinary G. 
lodern, which properly signifies to move lightly to and fro, is com- 
monly used in the sense of to blaze, to flame, to glimmer. 

\g Paper. 





























English Words included in the /on 






















































































Circum/oraneus ; Circulator; Cento; on the Etymology of. — 
(Read January 27th, 1854.) — The adj. circumforaneo- is referred by 
our lexicographers to the sub. /oro- (nom. forum) as its origin. This 
seems erroneous, for although the Latin vocabulary has instances in 
which an adj. is so formed, as medi-terraneo- from sub. terra-, yet still 
more numerous is the formation from verbs, as circumcid-tt$ieo-, succid- 
aneo', &c. In the present case a derivation from the vb. eircumfer' 
is better suited to the usages of the word. Hie passage in Cic. ad 
Att. II. 1 — acre non Corinthio, sed hoc circumforaneo obruerunt-— 


adtttts of no more idiomatic translation tiian " current money, money 
in common circulation." Now the verb circumferri is itself used in 
this Tery sense, as — Quint. IL 15 : Si ars quae circumfertur ejus 
est-—' if the treatise in common circulation be really the work of 
Isocrates.' See also the passages which speak of ' current reports/ 
&c., quoted by ForceUini from the younger Pliny and Columella. 
Secondly, the expression circumforanea domus (Apul.), ' a moveable 
house,' corresponds most accurately to the Herodotean wepK^oprira 
oiKfifjtara. As regards the phrase cirewnforaneae hostiae, we have 
only to refer to the well-lmown use of the verb circumferri in 
lustrations, Plaut. Amph. II. 2. 144, Lucil. ap. Non. 261, 27, Virg. 
Aen. vi. 229, and Serv. ad locwn, Lastiy, the use of this adjective 
with pkarmaeopola Cic. p. Clu. 14, lanista Suet. Vit. 12, mendi- 
eabuban Apul., monackus Hieron., agrees well with the translation 
' itinerant' ; and indeed such translation is better suited to the last 
two passages than any reference to the forum. Surely then we may 
set aside the forced interpretation given to Cicero's c. aes by For- 
cellini : "feneratitium sen fenore sumptum; nam circa forum tabemae 
erant argentariorum, qui artem feneratoriam exercebant." And in- 
deed, in reference to the use of the word with hostiae, Andrews (no 
doubt after Freund), forgetting his own derivation from forum, says, 
(" Cf. circumfero, no. 2, c") What is here said is consistent with 
the supposition that a possible substantive eircum-for-a' (=irepc0opn-) 
may have stood between the verb drcumfer* and the adj. circum- 

Circulator is a word of somewhat ambiguous origin. If derived 
from the verb circula-ri, it would probably mean one of those well- 
known characters in society, who are fond of collecting a knot of 
listeners round them while they exhibit their power of haranguing, 
the conversationalists par exceUence. See the passages where the 
verb occurs in Seneca's writings. But as the sub. circulator seems 
always to carry with it the notion of an itinerant mountebank, the 
pkarmaeopola circumforaneus of Cicero, we think it more correct to 
regard it as a variety of circumlator, so that the u shall be long, 
especially when we have before us the sentence from the Digests : — 
" circulatores qui serpentes circumferunt." — Thus we would restore 
to circumfer- another of its long-lost children. Circ&latrix lingua in 
Mart, of course belongs both by meaning and quantity to the verb 

The Latin centon' (nom. cento) and Ghreek reirpw- no doubt 
represent the same word, and the former may possibly have lost its 
r from an erroneous reference to the numeral centum. Our objec- 
tion here lies to the translation usually given to these words, viz. 
' patchwork,' and that in the best lexicons. Mr. Rich for example 
seems to regard the derived word centunculus as an equivalent to our 
harlequin's many-hued dress*. Now we believe that in all the pas- 
sages in which cento or its derivatives occur, it will be found that 

* The phrase in Apuleiiu upon which Mr. Rich founds his opinion, centunculus 
mimi, may with more fitness be applied to the padded dress» by which the clown 
guards his body against the innumerable blows he is exposed to. 


Bomethiag wadded, padded, or quilted, ib meant. ThoB we are told 
that centones were employed — 1, as cheap clothing for slayea to 
protect them from the cold, Cato ap. Feat. (Prohibere), a vento/rigare 
pluvia, Colum. I. 8 ; — 2, under a saddle, to prevent it from galling 
the back of the beast, Veg. Vet. II. 59. 2 ; — 3, to g^ard the persons of 
soldiers, Caes. B. C. III. 44, or wooden military works, II. 9, against 
missiles; — 4, as bedding, Macr. Sat. I. 6; — 5, wetted (especially 
with vinegar), to keep off flames, Ulp. Dig. xxxiii. 7, 12, and Sisen. ap. 
Non. II. 177. Hence the use oifarcire with centones in Plaut. Ep. 
III. 4. 18, is open to no doubt. Indeed the critics had better reverse 
their proceedings and perhaps substitute /arctW for sarcire in Cato, 
R. R. 2. But the phrase suere centones, Lucil. ap. Non. II. 818, has 
also its justification, for after the stufling process is completed, it is 
necessary to fix the wadding, whatever it may be, wool, or rags, or 
hair, by a number of stitches, either in lines or at isolated points as 
in our modem mattresses. It was probably from this point of view 
that the Greek name was given, rd^rpwF-, ' abounding in punctures 
or stitches.' Of course where nothing but rags were supplied to 
form the entire eento, it was necessary in the first instance to form 
the two outer surfaces for holding the wadding, by pieceing together 
such rags, and then the love of beauty would naturally lead to a 
preference of one uniform figure for each piece, and also to a pleasing 
distribution of the variously coloured rags. Hence patchwork pro- 
bably arose ; but still the one essential quality of the article con- 
sisted in its wadded substance ; and for ordinary purposes the super- 
ficial material would probably be for the most part in one piece. 
Of course the metaphorical use of the word for a poetical cento is as 
readily explained from the use of rags stuffed in, as from rags 
sewn together ; while that other metaphor, which corresponds to 
our use of cramming a person with lies, telling crammers, — Plant. 
(£p. III. 4. 18) : proin tu alium quaeras cui centones farcias — admits 
of no explanation from the idea of patchwork, but one altogether 
satisfactory upon the view here taken. — T. Hbwitt Kbt. 



A Contribution to Greek Grammar and Etymology*. 

" Feminines in ta and tas, together with yvvii.'' By H. L. Ahrens, 

1. In the accidence of my Greek grammar I assumed for the femi- 
nines in 'bj, a stem or crude form in -01, as for example, AHTOI for 
AfiTUf, The two gentlemen who have reviewed that hook, so far as 
it falls within the sphere of comparative philology, viz. Lange in the 
Gottinger gelehrtenAnzeiger 1852, Nos. 80-86, and G. Curtius in the 
Jahrhiicher fur Philologie und Padagogik 1853, p. 1, &c., refuse their 
assent to this doctrine. Lange regards it as highly improbable, 
because the vocative in 'Oi by itself ought not to have been regarded 
by me as decisive, while the comparison of other languages does not 
permit us to suppose the existence of stems in -01. Curtius on the 
other hand remarks in an off-hand way, that it is past comprehension 
what can have induced me to adopt the idea. Both declare them- 
selves in favour of the common doctrine, first advanced by Buttmann, 
that such forms have arisen from the degradation of stems in -N. 

How little this doctrine considered on its own merits is en- 
titled to approval, will appear in the sequel. But as regards my 
own assumption, Lange too has only in part conjectured the motives 
which have influenced me ; and yet the mere form of the vocative 
certainly does seem to offer a very strong argument in favour of my 
view, for it has never as yet met with any other explanation that is 
not altogether intolerable. Still it is precisely the Greek language 
itself which supplies another remarkable argument ; not that I lay any 
stress whatever on the doubtful genitive in -oU or accusative in -oly. 

One who in such a matter is a thoroughly safe guarantee, He- 
rodian, as quoted by Choeroboscus (Anecd. Bekker, p. 1209), 
bears witness that " the old copies of authors in the nominatives 
which end in <J exhibited an affixed t, as li Arrr^, ri Safr^^'f ." This 
statement is confirmed by numerous examples found in inscriptions 
which have been collected by Karl Keil in the Leipsig Repertorium, 
1851, vol. iii. p. 125, viz. Corp. Inscript. No. 696, APTEMM in 
the epitaph of a Milesian lady at Athens; No. 2151, AIONYSai; 
No. 2310, *I AYTOI ; No. 3714, AGHNfll. Again. Cyrenaic Inscrip- 
tions: No.5163,A<»£Nai(6t5) and<^£lill; No. 5164c, MNA2QI; 
No. 5171, AKESai or AKEill; lastly, in an old Milesian Inscrip- 

* This is a translation of the first paper in the second number of the Zeittehriftjur 
vergleichendeSprach/ortchungaufdem Gebiete dtt deutschen, grUchuc?ien undlatei- 
nischen, herausgegeben von Dr. Adalbert Kuhn (dritter Jahrgang) ; published 
Oct. 22, 1853: Berlin. 

t 8rt rd dpyata rStv ivriypa^wv ev raU eit ii Xtiyovtrait tlBtlaa elxov r6 t 
irpo<ry9ypafifi€vov, olov 4 Aifr^, 17 Sax^^. 

VOL. VI. ' S 


tion 10 Ross, iii. No. 228, APXIOI, which I was the first to recognize 
as a nom. = Apx^^» Philol. i. p. 183*. I add yet another very old 
example. On an old vase (see Keil, Annals, p. 172) there occurs, 
in letters written from right to left, the name of a nymph XANGOI, 
which it has been attempted to correct in various ways. We may, 
however, with the more certainty adhere to the reading tSarO^, 
because another vase (ibid,) places before us a nymph SayOa, and 
Hesiod, Theog. 356, gives to an Oceanid the name SSayOrf, corre- 
sponding to tiie river SayOos, comp. No. 7, below. In the great 
mass of inscriptions, the c it is true fails, even in inscriptions of the 
fourth century, for example, in the Athenian inscription No. 155, 
Mrriauf, K\€U), Qeavw, ^ikw, 'Apc^rbi, as also in the names in ia found 
in Athenian naval documents. Nay, I find not a single instance of 
such a name written with an iota in any Athenian inscription, with 
the excei)tion of the Milesian epitaph above-mentioned. Little 
reliance, it is true, can be placed on the occurrence of a reading with 
the iota in existing manuscripts (see Jacobs ad Anth. Pal. p. 8 ; 
Hecker de Anth. p. 7, 85, 322); yet in the text of MSS., which even 
Herodian in his time regarded as old, and of the above-named 
inscriptions, some of which belong to the oldest period, to see as 
Lobeck does^ ('PrifjiariKov, p. 327), only a clerical error, cannot 
be permitted: Lobeck indeed, when he expressed this opinion, 
knew of only one of these inscriptions, ^i\vt^. No. 2310. There 
can be no doubt that the pronunciation and writing with -f 
was more widely spread in earlier times, but that it soon lost ground 
more and more, and only maintained itself in isolated districts for a 
somewhat longer time, as an archaism. Yet with what force these 
nominatives in -^ speak in favour of my assumption of a stem in 
-01, is at once obvious, and will presently be placed in a yet clearer 

2. But a comparison also with kindred languages not merely jus- 
tifies the assumption of a stem in -01 in the case of such ilouns, but 
even guarantees the great antiquity of this formation. Let us first 
look to the Sanscrit. Pott, in his ' Etymologische Forschungen,' 
ii. p. 443, had already noticed the striking likeness between the 
vocative of Greek words in -cu, as ^oi, and that of the Sanscrit 
feminines in d, f tW for example, seeing that the Sanscrit ^ and Greek 
01, as is well known, habitually correspond to each other; but while 
he observes this, he does not follow up the inquiry. Lict us now 
take a nearer view of the declension of feminine nouns in -d in the 

* I have there defended the otherwiie unknown name 'Apxtw by the analogy of 
the masculine name 'Apxi^Vf to which the former stands in the same relation as 
' Apx^ ^^ '^PX^^* '^^^ " many other female names In 'U to males in -wv. Keil objects 
to this that males in -uav have for their correlatives females in -w, not in -cw, for 
example, ^iatriiav, £<tf(r<tf, and is inclined with Ross to see in *Apx^ '^ dative from 
*Apx^*' Bu^ ^^^ analogy of the other Melian epitaphs of the same character, No. 
226 — 232, imperatively calls for a nominative ; and over and above this, the asser- 
tion put forward against me is not correct. Just as 'Apxwv, 'Apxoi stand to 
'Apx^foVf *Apxifii»t 80 also KaXXwv, KaXXw to the pair of names KaXXiutv (see Keil. 
Inscr. Boeot. p. 18. 232) and KaXXutf (Corp. Inscr. No. 2338, 1. 109, 110), of which 
names Pape has omitted to give the last two. 


singular: nom. dhardy instr. dkarayd, gen. or abl. dhardyds, voc. 
dhar^, ace. dhardm, dat. dhardydi, loc. dhardydm. 

The remarkable change of vowel in the vocative is also to be 
recognised in the instrumental ; for the ay which here precedes the 
final vowel is precisely what in the ordinary course of things would 
grow out of ^. The assumption that a euphonic y had been inter- 
posed, as is the case in the gen., abl., dat., and voc, would involve 
a difficulty of a startling nature in the abbreviation of the long a. 
And as besides this, the vocative in Sanscrit, as in Greek, habitually 
represents the simple stem, the conjecture forces itself upon us that 
the true stem is dhar^, not dhardy and that the d of the nominative 
is but a corruption, just as the diphthong of the stem rdi- is con- 
verted into d, in the nom. ras and the other cases. This conjecture 
may well become a certainty, when it is observed that the vowel t is 
the regular symbol of the feminine in Sanscrit, as in Greek ; and 
that we may therefore, with perfect legitimacy, from a masculine 
stem dhara-, deduce a feminine stem dhar^- (^dhara-i-). 

In the feminine of the pronouns it is only the instrumental which 
has retained the old stem, viz. kayd- (for k^-d-) from a nom. kd^ 
'quae'. The vocative is wanting, and into the dat. kasydi an irre- 
gular change has made its way, which will be the subject of remark 
in No. 3. 

3. The Gothic also presents some remarkable traces of the old 
formation in the strong declension of adjectives and among the pro- 
nouns. The feminine singular of blinds and hvas =s skr. has (quis) 
runs as follows : — 


blinda, blinddizds, ' blinddi, blinda. 

hvd, hvizds, hvizii, hv6. 

Here the ending -zds of the genitive corresponds accurately to the 
Sanscrit -yds*. There remains consequently for the stem blinddi, 

* The Gothic z most have agreed in sound with the Greek (, since Ulphilaa 
employs it as the equivalent of the Greek letter in the designation of proper names. 
Further, as Z is nearly related to^' (»y). and even employed as a substitute for it 
(compare for example Zvybv with Sanscrit yuga-m, Lat^'ugum, Goth. joAr n.), so 
also the Gothic z has in many cases supplanted an original y, which may be best 
seen in the formation of comparatives. It will be enough to consider the comp«- 
ratival suffixes as given in the following table : — 


Satuerit. -ty&n, 

Oreek. 'iwv, 

Latin, -ior, 

Gothic. -iza, 

It is here self-evident that the Gothic z throughout takes the place of the Sanscrit 
y, which has disappeared from the Greek and Latin. The second portion of the 
suffix, originally ans, and still preserving this form in the Sanscrit ace. masc. 
'iydmtam, appears in Sanscrit for the most part as as, in Lat us (or), in Greek oy, 
in Gothic tn, and in other instances an. It is strange that neither Grimm nor Bopp 
has taken a correct view of the relations which subsist between the forms above 
given, especially Bopp, who (Comp. Gram. §§298, 307) very ingeniously seeks to 
identify the Gothic z with the second part of the Sanscrit and Latin suffix, and 
it must be admitted that this letter has most commonly grown out of an origi- 













where we have the original termination in its entirety, corresponding 
to the Sanscrit dhar^, the ^ of which in this very case is transformed 
to ^. In this dative blinddi also the pure stem has been maintained, 
for (as Bopp, Vergleichende Gr. § 161 correctly points out) the 
case-suffix (-zat) has been lost. In the pronoun the genitive and 
dative have suffered from the expulsion of the stem -vowel before 
the weak t ; but the old Norse forms of the article, gen. peirrar, 
dat. peirri (Goth, pizds, pizdi)y viewed in relation to the laws of 
letter-change, lead us to infer with Ghimm, an old Grothic yaizds 
and pdizdi, so that here also we are brought back to a feminine stem 
fdi' beside the masculine )ni-. 

4. The Latin, unlike the Sanscrit and Gx>thic, has maintained the 
old feminine stem even in the nominative of several pronouns. For 
that the diphthong in quae, hae-c, iliae-c, istae-c^ has arisen, according 
to its ordinary habit, from at, and that thb t is the old symbol of the 
feminine, has already been well observed by Max. Schmidt (de 
Pronom. p. 86), and less distinctly noticed by Bopp ($ 387). Yet 
even here the enclitic qud and the ordinary forms ilia, istH, in 
which the old diphthong had no appended c to protect it, again 
exhibit the short a. 

But the nouns also are not without examples of feminines which 
virtually end in -at. llie fifth declension has unmistakeably a very 
close connection with the first, and not a few words follow at pleasure 
the one or the other declension; comp. Pott*s£tymol.Forsch.ii. p. 438. 
But we must not on this account, with Pott, regard the e of the fifth 
declension as a curious representative of the a (originally a), just as 
the Ionic i; is substituted for the old a, for such a letter-change is 
utterly foreign to the Latin habit. But, as already in the old Latin, 
ae and e not unfrequently interchange, and in the word rta of the 
fifth declension the e itself corresponds to the Sanscrit diphthong di 
in the stem rat-, we may look upon this fifth declension for the most 
part as a remnant of the oldest feminine formation. The qualifi- 
cation implied in the words for the most part is added, because the 
presence of some heterogeneous element, mixed up with the genuine 
declension, is proved by the appearance of dies as a masculine ; and 
further, it is precisely to the influence of such foreign words that we 
must ascribe the irregular assumption, by the fifth declension, of an 
8 in the nominative, despite the analogy of the first declension, and 
of the corresponding feminines in other languages ; for the Sansc. 

nal «. Thus he supposes the old iyat to have been compressed into m, and recognixet 
this form of the suffix on the one hand in the comparatival adverbs, Lat. wuigu, 
Goth, flidu and mint (for mtfiM ?), &c., and on the other hand, in such superlatives 
as Gr. fA€yi(r-ros, Sanscr. laghuh'iaSf Goth. sutU-ta. But that in the adverbs just 
quoted, the t is no way essential for the comparatival notion, is clear both from the 
Latin mage, mdvuU, Anglo-Sax. md (magis), and still more from a comparison of 
liivvOu and minuo with mint. Moreover the derivation of the superlative from the 
comparative is an improbable fiction, and we should rather regard -trros as the 
proper superlative-suffix, compare for example exdrtpos, ^caoroc, and irSrepotf 
ir69T0S. If further we place beside these the corresponding Sanscrit katarO't, 
katama-tt and keep in view the fact that the Sanscrit suffix of the superlative -tama-t 
corresponds to the Greek 'Taro-t, the conclusion follows that -ffrof is to be 
regarded as a contraction of -raTW. 


nom. rds, agreeing so closely with the Latin res, is yet in its own 
language an exceptional word. 

5. The original diphthong ai of this feminine formation, which in 
the Gothic appears unaltered, and in Sanscrit becomes e (which 
however would in reality be more correctly expressed by ai, as I have 
designated ai with Bopp by the symbol di), occurs again in Greek 
too in a word deserving especial notice. The strange declension of 
the noun yvr^ (Dor. yvva), gen. yvvaiKos, &c., is dealt with by 
Buttmann, i. p. 223, who endeavours to explain the irregularities of 
the oblique cases by the extraordinary theory, to which by the way 
Pott, ii. p. 440, assents, that yvvacic- contains a second element EiK-, 
so as to denote * wife's form ' (weibsbild), but against this the di- 
gamma of the root ElK, to say nothing of other objections, bears 
its testimony. On the other hand, the vocative yurat, beside the 
nom. yvva (yvyfi), corresponds with entire accuracy to the Sanscrit 
dhar^, beside the nom. dhard; and again the Homeric ywaifiayiis 
preserves the unadulterated stem yvi^ac. As for the k in yvpaiKos, 
this is but a euphonic y somewhat hardened, of which we have 
another example, according to the view given in my grammar, in the 
K of Greek perfects, and of the aorists idrjKa, ijica, i^oica ; and the 
same applies to the k in some Sanscrit forms, as will be shown in 
No. III. Thus we have in yvvaixos (leaving out of view the vowel 
of the last syllable), a precise equivalent for the Sanscrit dhar^-yds 
in place of the ordinary dhdrd-yds, and for the Gothic gen. hlinddi-z&s, 
from the fem. adj. blinda, llie insertion of a euphonic k admits of 
justification only before vowel case-endings ; but one sees that at 
an early period its true iiature was misunderstood, and thus the 
whole of the declension, save the nom. sing., was formed as though 
the stem was yvyaix-, for even the vocative yvvat offered no obstacle 
to such an idea. Yet the popular language of Athens, as represented 
in comedy, and possibly the Sicilian dialect (de Dial. ii. p. 241) had 
also forms in agreement with the first declension, as yvvtjvj yvyai, 
yvvas, which moreover correspond accurately, or if not so, yet more 
accurately to the Sanscrit formation of these cases, -dhardm, dhards, 
dhards. The Gothic quin6, which represents ywn, has a regular 
weak declension, while qu^ns or queina follows the fourth strong de- 
clension of femi nines. 

6. Thus we learn from the above comparative view that the femi- 
nine nouns which correspond to masculine stems in -a, originally 
received a suflix t, and so ended in -at, whence the Sanscrit •^, Lat. 
^ae or -e ; that this diphthong was for the most part supplanted by 
a long a (which is represented by a Goth. 6, and Ionic- Attic 17), and 
thi8 again in Latin, ^quently also in Gothic, and at times in Greek, 
was shortened into an &, Moreover, all the languages which are 
usually brought into comparison with the Greek as being akin to it, 
have preserved traces more or less marked of the original formation, 
at least in the singular; for a consideration of the plural cannot 
be entered upon without carrying the inquiry beyond reasonable 

Now it is evident that to this original formation belong also the 


Greek feminines in -w. I have already, in the first part of thi« 
paper, shown that their stem must haye ended in -ot, partly on the 
evidence of the vocatives as Aiyroc, partly from the old mode of 
writing the nom. as Aryr^ ; and a Greek oi is a very common repre- 
sentative of an original di, as seen in the Gh>thic 6i, and virtually in 
the Sanscrit ^, for example Foifa, Sansc. v^da, Goth. vdit. Or, in 
other words, the change of the original a into o, which occurs in the 
Greek masculine, is also extended in these forms to the feminine. 
Let us next see how far the use of such nouns in -w agrees with the 
doctrine of their original identit}; with the feminines in a (17). 

7. Appellatives or common nouns in -w are far from numerous; 
yet, comparatively speaking, not a few of them are in sense equi- 
valents of other ordinary forms in -o (-iy). Thus j^peikt Hom. = xptla, 
^Xut in the older writers, as >/x'/t ah^ut, Sapph. fr. 1. 6 = ai^fi (I 
now consider av^tt^f to be the right reading), ^op^ut, Archyt. s fiopfii, 
loKUi, Eurip. El. 747 =s ^oic^, leu /3o^, Hesych., and also as an old 
various reading in Hom. 11. X. 601 (comp. Lobeck Rhem. p. 320), 
ellii o^is Hesych. compared with eif^i; o\(/u, ibid. ; rnruf freyia Cyril. 
= rfirri Hesych. ; Oi^Xw, a wetnurse s OijX^, the breast (comp. rhOii 
with both senses), yXix^ ii feidtoXos, Etym. Magn. 234. 26, com- 
pared with y\ix6s ^ci^wXds Hesych. ; fiop^ut, a bugbear, compared 
with fiopfjii KarairXriKTiKti, Hesych. Other feminines, which stand in 
evident relation to masculines in -of, are iirdpwirut ^ yvfti irapa 
AaKunriv, Hesych. (for which commonly y) &y9pw7ros), and fii/iw, an 
ape, = ii fjufios, ' mtma.* 

A similar relation exists in a tolerably large number of the nu- 
merous proper names. The Athenian demos Opla, according to 
Steph. Byz. was also called Qpiu) (see p. 163 note and No. 16). 
A form in -w is also implied in the ethnic Vekfos, 'H/sFa^os, Corp. 
Inscr. No. 11, from riKcij 'Hpala, comp. Ai/r^ot. The friend of 
Sappho, called Fvpiryut, both by herself, fr. 78, and in the Etym. Mag. 
243. 58, in Maximus Tyrius xxiv, has the name Tvpiyya, shortened 
from Tvplvya. The female cupbearer of Ptolemy Philadelphus has 
two forms of her name in Athenaeus, KXccfiO, xiii. p. 576 f., and 
KXlyfi, i,e, KXe/viy, x. 425 tf. The nymph KakXivr^ is properly 
nothing else than the "Apre/ics KaXKlora. SSavBit and KavQri are 
equivalent names of a water-nymph, see above No. 1. One of the 
steeds of the sun is called AiOiO, and the mare of Agamemnon, A itfii, 
Lobeck, p. 321. 

Other proper names in -w are in origin identical with feminine 
appellatives in -a (-17) • Thus Topyit is from yopyos, whence also a 
proper name Fopyrf ; Mopfiw, see above ; *Apyw, the ship so called, 
and the name of a hound (Keil. AHalect. p. 189) = &pyn> the swift 
one, comp," Apy OS, the hound of Ulysses; Ahyut, the name of a 
hound in Xenoph. and Avyn, name of a ship = airy^, radiance ; 
/^eiyuf, the Graea = ^eiyrj ; 'Ayi'w, a water-nymph = &yyf} ; 'Hx^, 
see above ; Moptpw, a surname of Aphrodite (Mopffa), a name of a 
woman, Liobeck, p. 319) = fiop<pfi, like 'AQiivti NUti ; Kopv^w, a pro- 
montory of Corcyra, just as a mountain near Smyrna is called 
Kopwpfi, =r Kopvfh. To Uiis class likewise belong the Fury 'AXificrw = ^ 


AXfltros, and the Moera ^Arapirw (Scholia Od. 19. 197) = " Arpoirof ; 
also the river-nymphs NecX^, *A9ww&, Krj^gau), which are but the 
feminines of the river-gods NecXos, &c., just as 'Pohla and '£irrair<$piy 
stand beside 'Polios and 'EirTairopos: see Hermann's Opusc. ii. p. 289. 
Also among the names of common life, not a few betray their 
identity with forms in -d (-17). I will only enumerate some of the 
most striking examples : 'Aice^n/iw and ^Atcetrrlfia, comp. *AKi9Tifios 
(see Keil. Anal. p. 239) ; Birw, Bira, Biros ; Boiw, Boia, Bolos ; 
'i'vXXw, 'i'vXXa, (de Dial. ii. p. 225) and ^vXXos ; Ko/xaiei^, Kofiafda, 
Hesych., comp. adj. KOftaiBot ; MeXti^faf, McXifvw = MeX/vi;, Mikipva 
(Keil. Anal. p. 8) ; ^EnayaOkt, ^EwnyaHos ; Ki/ptXXoi. KvpiXXos. 

8. The appellatives in -w are commonly formed from the verbs 
not lengthened by a secondary syllable ; thus besides those quoted 
above, we may give as examples neidtJ, nevduf, ^e(^fa>, iifteiflut 
(Eustath. 1471. 30), /xeXX^^, eijcw, X^xw. With all this we never 
find, except in the instance of ^oi:u»'(^i')(pfAai), the change of vowel- 
sound from € or ei . to o or oi , which is usual with the nouns in -d 
(-1}). But this proves nothing against the identity of the two 
classes, since even among the nouns in -d (-i|) this change of vowel 
at times fails, e. g, vriyri. The discrepancy only bears witness to 
the high antiquity of the forms in -m. For as e and o, which have 
often been developed oat of an d, had not yet made their appear- 
ance in Sanscrit, consequently what is but a single- formed guna in 
Sanscrit, exhibits two degrees of development in Greek and Latin. 
Compare, for example, Sanscr. {dvish-), pres. dvMdmi, perf. did' 
v^sha; Gr. (Xir-), pres. Xeiiruf, perf. XeXotira; Goth, (bid-), pres. 
beida, pret. baid. Hence the forms in -ai were produced at a time 
when the Greek, like the Sanscrit, had but one kind of guna. 

9. Of appellatives in -w, which are formed by the intervention of 
a consonantal suffix, the examples are very scanty. Besides Kwut = 
Kiptit^is ^ufpieU, Hesych. (comp. Iictois cio), which belongs to the 
same category with (w-vrf, <^uf-yn, icXni;, there occurs only the 
remarkable class of abstracts in -rui, from the root E£- (elvac), viz. 
€<yrw in Archytas and Philolaus, together with its compounds, found 
chiefly in the Ionic dialect, aireaTuif chetrrta, xaxeffruf aeietnui. Be- 
sides these there occurs also avearvs, Hesych. in the more usual 
Ionic form of abstract nouns ; and yet a third variety in -^os may 
perhaps be recognized in iieiearoy = Tt^u aitaviov ohaiay, Hesych., 
for the proposed emendations ieietrrovv, and (what Fix suggests in 
the Thesaurus) deic^rvi', seem not altogether necessary. The Greek 
language in the formation of abstract nouns from verbs has the fol- 
lowing T- suffixes : -ris, commonly changed to -tris ; rria, whence 
-(Tia ; 'TVS ; 'Tos ; -ri; ; -rw, — all of them feminines with the one 
exception of -rot. Now the suffix -r« appears to be most closely 
related to -riy, which like itself is of rare occurrence, e, g, yeyerri^ 
ficKern, But this has arisen out of -ria, by the mere loss of the 1 ; 
and in precisely the same way -rcu also should be classed with -na 
{'tria). Hence Plato also (Cratyl. p. 401c) quotes from an unknown 
dialect the form eatria or €<yia = ohaia, which has arisen from an 
original la-rla, and like ecrrw, etrrvs, is a derivative from the verbal 


root ES-, whereas the familiar ohafa comes immediately from the 
participle, just as absentia does The form ccr/a, by its a, claims kin 
with the Ionic dialect, and is only an Attic variation of eairj, which 
moreover has been preserved in the compound cveairf, for so must 
we read with the MSS. in Galen, Lex. Hippocr. p. 474, in place of 
ehdcairi. Lastly, the form eoria is found in a gloss (Bachmann, 
Anecd. ii. p. 361. 19) ; ehearia, eheTtipla^ ^ KaKXltrrri rtHy Itwv 
^laywy^i. Aioyd^caFOs tivev rov tr ypa^ei (that is eheria). Precisely 
in the same way chetrTu is explained in Hesych. and Etym. Mag. 
890. 22, by ehentpla, and falsely derived from iros*. 

10. A very remarkable use of the forms in -w is that which is 
designated by the grammarians, not very happily, the hypocoristic, 
I mean their being employed as abbreviations of compound or other 
long names, e, g, Ei^ni for Ec^o^^a, *A0/E>fiJ for 'A^ppohirri, Tavpi^ for 
TavpdiroXoSi /^rfd for ^rifiiirript *ApT€fjn^ for ^AprefAiitapa corresponding 
to *Apre/ias for * Apre/jldiopost *Eirei^/o(J for *ETrai^podirri corresponding 
to *£ira^pdf for *£ira^f)o^tros, *AXe^fJ for *AXe(dv^pa corresponding to 
*A\e£as for *AX^(a k3/>os, XvpaKu for ^vptiKovtrai, Aeoyrto for Aeovro- 
iroXd, rpaireitJ for rpave^otftopos, I cannot just now enter upon a 
closer consideration of this interesting usage, and must refer those 
who would pursue the inquiry for materials to Lobeck, Rhem. p. 317, 
&c., who however has mistaken the nature of this formation. It is 
evident that it corresponds precisely to such abbreviation of men's 
names as Mijvar, *AXe(ds, for Mrfvd^tapos, ^AM^avlpost and to the Ger- 
man forms which Grimm has discussed in his grammar (iii. 689, &c.), 
e. g. Fritz, Kunz, GDtz for Friedrich, Konrad, Gottfried, But that 
the feminines in -cu, here under consideration, are in origin no way 
different from the formation in -d (-17), is a point more difficult to 
establish. At the same time there is nothing surprising, if two forms 
originally identical, but already at a very early age separated from 
each other, should have met with different applications. 

11. I now proceed to a more accurate consideration of the de- 
clension, and for this purpose begin with a summary of the forms 
that occur, using Topyu- as my paradigm : — 

Nom. — Topyi^, according to the old mode of writing; but also 
Topyd without the t, even at a time when elsewhere the iota sub- 
script was retained. One of the earliest dialects to banish the i was 
the Aeolic (comp. de Dial. i. p. 99). The forms in 'ws are rare, but 

* By an oversight this gloss has been also attached in the gloss. Herodot. to 
titeffrw, i. 85 (the best MSS. have not got it), where however the common reading 
is t{)€<rrri ; in place of which Gaisford, on the authority of one MS. has adopted 
cveoTcJ, evidently without good cause, as Diogenianus cannot have written e^rcrca. 
Neither is it to be supposed that the reading in Herodotus should be eveeriri. It 
is true that in vi. 128 too ev ry 9vv€<rriy is the old reading, which is commonly, 
but most unjustifiably, assumed to be an equivalent expression for ffvve<rriav€tf 
and the reading now adopted on the authority of a MS. is trvveiXTot, But L. 
Dindorf, in the Thesaurus, vii. p. 1355, has with truth observed that this is incon* 
sistent with the context (and the same objection applies to the equivalent word 
(rvveffTiyi) ; accordingly he conjectures iv rytri liTTiri<n<n. A more correct emen- 
dation, founded on the reading of the best MS. ev ry Kw^ffTty, would be iv ry 
^etvKTri'it Ionic for levicMi. 


there occur the names of thedemes GpcJs* and Kpioisf for O^kJ and 
Kf>«tf, and also in later writers Xexu>€ for Xexw, see Lobeck, Rhem. 
p. 325. For nliias and ilus, which do not belong here, see No. 18. 
Gen. — Vopyoos, Ionic according to Choeroboscus (p. 1201, Bekk.), 
and on the same evidence (Hort. Ad. f. 268 b) also used by a part 
of the Dorians. In the words Aios icat Aip-ovs vios, forming the end 
of averse, Hesiod, Scut. 202, and H3rmn. Merc. 321, the objec- 
tionable spondee has induced Gerhard (Lect Apol. p. 144) with 
reason to insist on the reading Ariroos ; and the same applies to Aiof 
Kai Aifrovs vii. Hymn. ApolL 545. Nay, even in later times, Machon 
has still the old form in a trimeter (Athen. ziii. p. 563), KaXXioroos 
Zk Ttis 'Yos K€K\rifA€vrfs, for so Casaubon by a safe conjecture in 
place of KaXXcoTovs. Still the contracted form Fopyovt is that 
which prevails in the Ionic-Attic dialect, and also in the Doris mitior 
(Dial. ii. p. 238). The Doris severior has ropywf (Dial. ii. p. 204); 
the Aeolic, the barytone Topy-wt (Dial. i. p. 118). That a form 
Aaror, with a Doric abbreviation of the last syllable, occurs in the 
Amphictyonic decree, Corp. Inscr. No. 1688, seems to me to be 
established by what I have said in Dial. ii. p. 485. But it is not 
only in the Doris severior and in the later inscriptions of Aeolis, that 
the form in -wf presents itself : it is found also in districts to which 
the Doris mitior belongs (Dial. ii. p. 238, 570), nay even in the 
Ionic island Tenos ; ^ei^ws, Corp. Inscr. No. 2338, 1. 92 ; KaWiiSs, 

* The name of this deroe has a great variety of forms: — a. Op7a, Stepb., Opeia, 
Phot, where however the MS. has Opia, in violation of the alphabetical order, yet 
it would seem with a more correct accent, comp. i^Oia, For Gpiot Theogn. 103. 
29, we should read 9pia. For the gen. Op<i|ff, Corp. Inscr. No. 1 2, a nom. Opiif 
must be assumed, b, Opiiu, Steph., comp. Hesych. Qpiu, Xitros and 0pw, XtfiSt, 
where Reiske very properly substitutes S^fioi. c. Gpius, see Theognost. p. 156. 
33, where there stand grouped together, as adverbs in -wOev from words in -ais, 
euf9 eotBeVf i^iin ^wOev, Oplos QpiutOev (in the Excerpta Bekk. p. 1415 Opi'tuv), 
Meineke ad Steph. p. 318, correctly 0pc(Js). d. Qpiovst Hesych. e. Qpiatv oLTrb 
GplavTo§ is mentioned by Stephanus as a different deme, beyond a doubt incor- 
rectly ; Meineke would read Opto/s, though Qpiuv also would be admissible. 
/. Opcoc 6vofia rSirov, Anecd. Oxon. ii. p. 377. 31 ; also Theogn. p. 48, 23 ; Arcad. 
37, 2 1 , have a Optos or Optot among words in -io$, probably still the deme. g. Qpiat 
is inferred by Meineke from the ^ords which Stephanus adds in explanation of the 
ethnic Opidviot : S<tti it tat TiOpat TiBpdviot ; I am inclined however to think, 
that the words dirb 0ptavros, which now stand at the end of the article, belong 
here, so that Stephanus is comparing Opid(rco« dtrb OpiavTOS (a hei[o) withTtf)pas, 
Tc0pd(ru)s. Of the other cases, none is found save Opiiys, Corp. Inscr. No. 12. The 
derivatives have partly a or ri, Qpidtnot, Opiafficos, 6ptd(n(v), commonly, but 
Qpiavij Theogn. 157. 27 ; Opi^<riv, Athen. vi. p. 255 e ; 0pti}O€V, van lect. in Arist. 
Av. 646 ; on the other hand always with oi, Opiw^e, Steph., and elsewhere, 0p(ai^e, 
Hesych. and Thucyd. i. 114, ii. 221, less correctly 0pta/(riv, Theogn. p. 157. 26. 

f KpiJ is inferred by Lobeck, Patholog. p. 228, from the adverbs Kptw^^, 
Kpiwffiv, KptCiBtv, especially as Stephanus, p. 539. 14. ed. Meineke, compares 
IlvOaiOev with KptwBev, Kpiuk, corresponding to 0pi<uc, is meant by the MS. read- 
ing KvpttM in the Scholia ad Arist. Av. 646. [The common reading here and in 
Suid. is Kpc<^.] Kpifi is implied in the form KpiffQev of Suidaa, and is also to be 
inferred from the two readings KptuiOev and OpcijOev in Arist. Av. 646. The best 
known form is Kpioia, Steph. Phot. Harpocr. ; comp. Arcad. 100. 23, where ffpcJa, 
and Theogn. 106. 26, where Kpiuia stands (so also commonly in Stephan.) ; whilst 
at the same time a form with an iota subscript is mentioned, consequently Kpi^a 
or Kpc^a. The ethnic is Kpioievs. 


I. 109; A;avri5s, 1. 118. llie form XapixXots, Find. Pyth. 4. 103, 
has been changed on the overpowering evidence of the MSS. into 

Dat. — Fopyoc the common form. The use of the uncontracted 
was absolutely denied by Herodian, according to Choeroboscus (p. 
1202, Bekk.) ; yet this same Choeroboscus quotes Qvdoi from Pindar; 
and the same reading has been already restored by Fr. Schmid for 
the sake of the metre in Isthm. vi. 51, where however it is properly 
a locative. Herodian also might have regarded it as an adverb. 
Aar^ from Aurij, the name of a town, occurs in the Cretan inscrip- 
tion, Corp. Inscr. No. 2554. 

Ace. — Fopyol, oxyton, according to Aristarchus, Apollonius, and 
Herodian (see Scholia, 11. /B. 262 and i. 240, from Herodian ; ApoU. 
de Pron. p. 112 ; Joann. Al. p. 12 ; Choerob. p. 1203, 1233/ Bekk. ; 
Anecd. Bekk. p. 1 159). On the other hand, Pamphilus, and it would 
seem Dionysius Thrax wrote AijriJ, &c. (according to the Scholia, 

II. /3. 262) ; and this accentuation is not unfrequently found in the 
MSS. Buttmann (Gram. i. p. 185), and Lehrs (Aristarch. p. 260) 
think with reason that Aristarchus, who at the same time gives ii^i 
and ai^tS from the nominatives in -us, were guided by actual 
usage, and that on the other hand Pamphilus, who compares A^rJ 
with ifuf, as also Dionysius Sidonius, who quotes together Ai^rJ and 
ifi4, desired merely to establish a grammatical uniformity. An 
uncontracted Fopy^a cannot be established as a fact, and is only a 
theoretic form of the grammarians. The Aeolic dialect had the 
baryton T6pywy. Also later non-Aeolic inscriptions have forms in 
'bjy, as /iafjuay, \arioy (Dial. ii. p. 238). To the Ionic dialect a form 
in -ovy is ascribed, as Vopyovy, by Gregorius (Dial. Ion. $ 35). Ex- 
amples of this occur in the Smymaean inscriptions, *Apr€fiovv, Corp. 
Inscr. No. 3223; ^rjfjiovv. No. 3228; Mrjrpovy, No. 3241; also 
ebetrrovy in Democritus, frag. 206, Mull. (Stob. PI. 44. 16), comp. 
Hesych. Kaxeffrovy, KaKrjy Karavraaty ; again in Herod, lovv, i. 1,2; 
ii. 41 ; Bovrovi', ii. 59, 63, 67, 75, 152; Ti^ovi^ vi. 134, 135. On 
the other hand, in place of Aijroi/v, ii. 156, many MSS., including 
the best, have AiyrJ ; and without any various reading, there occur 
the accusatives Uvdu, i. 24 ; ^aphoi, i. 1 70, v. 106, 124, vi. 2 ; net0J» 
viii. Ill; elKui, vii, 69 (elsewhere eijcdva). Also later writers of the 
KOiyn ^laXeKTOs have at times the form in -ovy; see examples in Inter- 
prett. ad Gregor. p. 527, and likewise the names of the river- muses 
NccXotiv, Kij^iffov^, *A<nafrovy, Hermann's Opusc. ii. p. 289. To the 
same form must we also in reality refer the testimony of Choeroboscus 
(p. 1202, Bekk. ; I am unable to consult Gbiisford's edition) : evph' 
icerai ical dWrj airiariKrl els oiy, o\oy rrfy Ai^rocK Kai Ti)y Duir^oci', 
ijris *loifyi*:ii etrriy^ X^yet Ik b *Hputdiay6i on iari r^y 2air^ci»y a:ci( 
rj)f ArjTuy fj aiTtani:^, icat Kara rpowtiy ^lufyiK¥jy rod cJ €t« rj^f oi 
ii(bOoyyoy yiyerai r^v ^awtboiy Kal n)»' Arjroiy, Now it is very 
strange, to begin with, that Choeroboscus, in his very complete dis- 
cussion of the declination in -ci», should not have mentioned the 
accusative in -owi', especially as Gregorius has evidently drawn from 
the same sources, which his examples Arjrovy and Dair^oui/ alone are 


sufficient to show. But when one calls to mind that an Ionic change 
of ia into 01 is absolutely unknown (such change is called Boeotic or 
Doric in Dial. i. p. 194, ii. p. 185, and even this falsely), there can 
be no doubt that some corruption has taken place. .However, it is 
not enough to substitute ov throughout for oi, for the alleged rpowrj 
*lwvtK(i of <tf into ov is unknown to the grammarians. Rather be it 
observed that a law of letter-change noticed by Choeroboscus 
(p. 1201) authorizes us to deduce from Ai/riJs first Arir6s and then 
Airrovfi corop. "OXv/uiros OvKvfiirot, v6oos yovtroSt opta ovpecu Now 
this is precisely what we want, an oft-mentioned rpoirij ^Iwyixii ; and 
it is clear that we must write ow ... ArjTovv ... 2air0ov»' .,.ori iari 
r^v Dax^K Kai rrjy Arirt^p Ij airiaTiKtj [icai yherat rrjy Ikur^oV cat 
rijv AijriJy] koI Kara rpoirfjy ^IwyiKrjy rov o els rrjy ov lii^Boyyoy 
yirerai rijy ^ainfiovy koi Tfjy Aiyrovi', or rather rriy Sair^ovv ical rijv 
ArfTovy, as no notice is taken of any change of accent. Though 
elsewhere indeed these accusatives are invariably written, it seems, 
with a circumflex. 

Voc. — Topyot ; so also Aeolic ; only by presumption as a baryton 
Sair^f, Ale. fr. 54 ; ^air^oi, Sapph. fr. 64. At the same time diere 
occurs a form u '9air<p\ Sapph. fr. i. 20, which has been explained as 
^air^a or ^air0o. 

The plural and dual are declined throughout with the endings of 
the second declension by Theodosius, p. 994, and Choeroboscus, 
p. 1205, Bekk. But the only accredited forms of this kind which I 
meet with are Topyovsy Hesiod, Th. 274: etjcovv, Eurip. Tr. 1179, 
and Arist. Nub. 559; Xexoi, Hippocr. Epid. ii. 5. 11 ; and besides 
\exiay, Xe^ovs in late writers, lliere is also good reason for think- 
ing that in Hesych. fiopfioi ^o/3oi, we should read fiopnol from fiopfAtJ, 
Athenaeus, vii. p. 299, has the accent ehovi in Arist. Nub. 559*. 
The form KKwduts, in the second Triopian inscription (Append. 
Anthol. Pal. 51. 14) stands entirely by iteelf. 

12. In order to form a correct judgement on these various forms, 
it is necessary to give our attention to a remarkable peculiarity 
which will be found from an early date to have affected the feminine 
declension in the Indo-Gothic languages. In the Sanscrit, for 
example, the female stems that end in a vowel, show a disposition 
to strengthen the ending, the nature of which will best be seen in 
the following examples, in which I give only those cases of the sin « 
gular which are known to the Greek also : — 


nadi, nadim, nadyas, nady&i, nadi. 

vadhus, vadhum, vadhv&s, vadhv&i, vadhu. 

dh^r&, dharim, dharayds, dhar&y&i, dhar6. 

♦ Compare also rpvySn, rat rpvyutvai, Hesych., where Lobeck (Rhero. p. 324) 
jiutly substitutes rpvydvas, but without any occasion reads rpvyovt, in violation of 
the alphabetic arrangement: rpvyios is a strong Doric form, see No. 17. Lobeck 
elsewiiere says that Choeroboscus gives elKoift as the accent ; but I find in this 
writer only eiKOvt, An. Ozon. iv. p. 411, like SaTr^ovs, p. 1207, Bekk. Bui the 
words of Lobeck in the whole of this passage bear marks of some error, for he 


As the simple and usual endings of the gen. and dat. are -as and 
•^(=ai), and as the vocative usually exhibits the mere stem, it is 
readily seen that in the first two cases we should assume for the 
stems, not nadU, vadhtt-, as the Sanscrit grammarians do, but nadi- 
and vadhu' with a short vowel. For throughout the declension, 
setting aside the vocative, the principle prevails of lengthening the 
final syllable, the result of which in the nom. and ace. is to modify 
the stem vowel, but in the ge;i. and dat. the case-ending. That in 
the third class, a stem dhari-, not dhard-, is to be acknowledged, 
has already been shown above. From such a stem, carrying out the 
principle of strengthening the nom. and ace, we ought to have had 
dhardi and dhardim ; but the t is here discarded. In the gen. and 
dat. the y is euphonic, see No. 3; consequently dkardyds stands 
for dhar^-yds^ and dhardydi for dhar^-ydi, with an irregular change 
in the vowel. 

Even the Gothic still exhibits traces of the principle. The San- 
scrit polysyllabic feminines in -i (nom.) are represented in GK>thic 
by the feminines of the second strong declension, as :— • 

Nom. bandi. Ace. bandya. Gen. bandy6s, Dat. bandydi. 

It is here seen that the genitive accurately corresponds to the San- 
scrit, since Goth. S = Sansc. d. But in the nom. the vowel is not 
lengthened, or rather it has again lost its long vowel ; while in the 
ace, instead of such lengthening, an a has been assumed, the case- 
ending m having been as usual thrown off. As in this state of 
things, the several cases of the singular, except the nominative, might 
also have belonged to a stem bandya (of the first strong declension), 
so also the whole of the plural is formed as if from such a stem. The 
declension of nouns in -k has been subjected in the Gothic to much 
disturbance, and nothing can be recognized in it. On the other 
hand, remains of the old formation are again to be found in those 
feminine strone adjectives and pronouns that correspoiM to the 
Sanscrit in -d (-/), as — 


bllnda, blinda, blindaiz6s, blindai, 

hvd, hvd, hviz6s, hvizdi, 

for the genitival suffix ^z^s corresponds to the Sanscrit -yds, and the 
6 in the nom. and ace. of the pronouns to the Sanscrit d (for di). 

The Greek, in the feminines which represent the Sanscrit femi- 
nines in -f (nom.), have advanced yet one step further than the 
Gh>thic, and have taken the additional a, in place of lengthening the 
vowel, not merely in the ace, but also in the nom., e. g, — 

Nom. i//dXrpia. Ace. ^aXrpiay. Qren, i//aXrpias. Dat. ij/akrpl^. 

At the same time, the plural and dual, just as in Gothic, are formed 
throughout as from words in -id (-iri), so that the two declensions 
are solely distinguishable by the quantity of the vowel in the nom. 

ascribes to Buttmann's Gram. § 56, anm. 11, the accent tUoWi whereas this writer 
gives his sanction only to eiKovt, Further Lobeck himself writes €iffot>s, oivdovt, 
and immediately after rpvyow. 


and ace. sing. The correet view, however, is to regard 4^Xrpi> as 
the original stem, and so to identify the endings -as, -y, of the gen. 
and dat. with the long terminations of the Sanscrit -ds, -di. In the 
nom. and ace. id corresponds to the Sanscrit i, 

A different relation prevails in the fern, stems in -v. Here the 
above-mentioned Sanscrit declension is represented by the oxytons 
in -vf , 1 

Nom.* vij^v's. Ace. vrihvv. Gen. vrfivo$, . Dat. vrfBv'i, 

That in the nom. and ace. the vowel is regularly lengthened, is a 
point now sufficiently admitted, see Spitzner de versu heroico, p. 67, 
and Arcad. 92. 8. Here consequently the Greek is in perfect har- 
mony with the Sanscrit, whereas in the gen. and dat. the lengthening 
of the final syllable has been abandoned. No polysyllable of the 
masculine gender has the long vowel in the nom. or ace. (in mono- 
syllabic words it is well known such long vowel is to be explained 
on another principle), except the common noun ixdvs, in which 
again, as will be shown in No. 13, a special relation prevails. The- 
vocative of feminines in -vs, from the nature of their meaning, does 
not occur, but would have had, no doubt, as in Sanscrit, a short 

The feminines in -a (-17) exhibit the strengthening principle in the 
a (fj), which, as in Sanscrit, has grown out of di, that is a strength- 
ened at. On the same principle depends also the remarkable Homeric 
form I17S, II. T. 208, for tjt, in which, beyond all doubt, the strength- 
ened genitival suffix -11$ == Sanscrit -ds, whilst i- represents the 
stem. Other traces of this formative principle I cannot now inves- 
tigate without taking up too much space. 

13. Moreover the Greek language further shows us that the 
strengthening of the feminine ending in the outset was not confined 
to an affection of the vowel, but also carried with it the accent. To 
this is due the tendency of feminines to become oxytons, as is proved 
first by the numerous formations in -is and -as, which, in place of a 
lengthened vowel, has taken for the rest of the inflection a conso- 
nantal addition in the shape of a ^ ; and secondly, by the feminines 
in -d (-17), whose vowel has been subjected to the lengUiening process, 
affording many highly instructive examples, as otoX^ beside aroXos, 
^ri beside poos. But especial attention is due to the feminines in 
-vs ; as with them the length of the final syllable always depends 
upon the presence of the accent, for example vtjhvs and irirvs. And 
here occurs an instance which most distinctly shows how the principles 
of Ghreek accentuation may be of service in the comparison of lan- 
guages, receiving illustration in return. Of the polysyllabic words 
in -vf, gen. -vos, three, as we are told by the trustworthy Herodian, 
although our editions for the most part pay no attention to his 
statement, are circumflexed on the last syllable, IxSvi, o^pvst 6a^v$. 
The accent of \lv$ is more doubtful, for Herodian in the 'Oi^o/iarcicoy 
writes it with the circumflex, and in the KaQoKov with the acute. 
Now of the three words above named, o^/ovs beyond all doubt is in 
origin of one syllable, a euphonic vowel having been prefixed, comp. 


SaoBcr. hhrd'8. Old- Germ. /»r^a. That the same holds true of oaf w 
was inferred hy Pott (Etym. forsch. ii. p. 297) and Benfey (Wurzel- 
lex. i. p. 545), from a comparison with ypva, &c. Pott (i. p. 142), 
from remoter comparisons has arrived at the same conclusion for 
IxBvs* Both these scholars either did not know or did not notice 
the circumflex accent in these words. But it is evident that this 
accent confirms their original monosyllabic form (comp. Ipvs, fivst 
ffvi)t and itself receives confirmation in return, llie suspicion too 
is now removed which Herodian entertained against the circumflex 
in ixBvs as a masculine, wishing to give it in this sense an acute 
accent (wepl fwvrjpovs X^feuis, p. 31 , 17 ; oomp. Joann. Al. 12, 25.) At 
the same time we have an explanation of the long vowel in the vocative 
^xSv, more correctly ixOv, as a monosyllabic x^v must also have had 
this quantity. The doubtful word Uvs seems to have been in origin 
identical with oa^vs, with which it substantially agrees in meaning, 
as well as i^i offtpvs, Hesych., and the derivative iaxioy. For the 
aspirates readily interchange, and £ = o'x* Hence here too the 
accent llvs appears more correct. 

In the instances so far mentioned the strengthening of the final 
syllable by the accent is limited to the nom. and ace, for in the gen. 
and dat. of words in -d (-ty), the circumflex admits also of explana- 
tion by the contraction, see No. 2. But in some feminines the 
efibrt to accentuate the final syllable extends in an unmistakeable 
manner to the genitive and dative also, first in yvvfi, in the declension 
of which we have already seen remarkable traces of the oldest for- 
mation, yvyaiKvsj yvyaixl, without any lengthening of the final vowel ; 
secondly in /i/a, /iidf, fci^. fiiav ; while in the Ionic and older Attic 
dialect (no doubt in the older language generally) the same principle 
extends to other words in -id, e.g. Ayvia, dyvidr, dyvi^, ayvtav^ see 
the testimony of the grammarians in the Thesaur. s. v. dyvca. As 
•ds and -^ are here, as above shown, originally case-endings, the 
strengthening of the final syllable by the accent in these cases coin- 
cides with the strengthening by the long vowel. 

14. Let us now apply what has been said to the feminines in -ta, 
or in other words to the stems in -oi. These in their declension 
exhibit (so far as the singular is concerned) the closest agreement 
with the oxyton feminines in -vs, that is, they have the strengthening 
of the end syllable only in the nom. and ace, not in the gen. and 
dat. When it is further considered, that the t of the stem-diphthong 
before a vowel naturally passes into a consonantal sound, and that 
such a y is apt soon to disappear, there results at once a scheme of 
declension as follows: — stem or C. F. Topyoi; nom.Topyfi ace. 
FopyyV ; gen. Topyoos ; dat. Topyoi ; voc. Vopyoh 

With the exception of the ace. all these forms actually occur, at 
least in the older language. For the most part however they have 
been subjected to various changes, viz. : — 

Nom. — Topyuf with loss of the i, corresponding to the Sanscrit 
nom. dhard for dhardi, for u not unfrequently =: Sanscrit d. So too 
the occasional addition of a nominatival f , us in Qpws, has nothing 
strange in it. 


Gen. — CoDtr. Topyovs, strong Doric Topyws, AeoHc FopyMf, ac- 
cording to the laws of this dialect. 

Dat. — Contr. Topyol, The great rarity of the uncontracted form 
arises from the fact that i most readily coalesces with a preceding 
vowel. Thus, for example, in the Doric Idylls of Theocritus, neuters 
in -Of and words in -iy«, gen. -eos, very frequently exhibit the uncon* 
tracted forms of the other cases, while the dative singular has 
invariably the contracted termination -ci. 

Ace. — has nowhere preserved a subscript, the expressions of which 
indeed, even before consonants, must have very readily vanished. 
Hence arose the form Topy^y, still preserved in inscriptions, and 
the Aeolic baryton Topywy, corresponding to the Sanscrit dhardm. 
The change of w to ov, so general in the Thessalian dialect, is not 
altogether limited to it ; some isolated beginnings of this change 
occur also in the Ionic- Attic dialect, so that this ov corresponds to 
the Sanscrit d; and the agreement is not an accidental result from 
contraction. Similarly the Sanscrit daddme is represented it is true 
by hihktfii, but on the other hand, the analogous forms of the past 
tense adaddtn, adadds, adaddt, by ihidovrf thihovsf i^ihov. Precisely 
in the same way from Fopywy comes the Ionic Top yovv, or probably 
more correctly TopyovF, as Herodian appears to have written. The 
circumflex might easily have slipped in from the other oblique cases. 
That the to of the nom. did not also pass into ov, admits of this 
explanation, that at the time when the change took place in the 
accusative, the i in the nom. was still sounded. Further, that the 
ordinary form Topyut did not arise out of Topyoa, as is commonly 
assumed, but out of ropytov, has two arguments to support it ; in 
the first place, the absolute non existence of the uncontracted form 
in -(Ki ; compare with this fact, for example, the numerous instances 
in which from the one word ijijSs, the accusative rjoa is safely esta- 
blished; see No. 18. Secondly, there is the testimony of the best 
accredited accent, for Fopyoa must of necessity have led to Topyui, 
and it is on this account that Pamphilus contended for the circum- 
flex. On the other hand, the doctrine that Topyta was deduced from 
the older form Fopytay by the loss of the y, is no way at variance 
with analogy. For not only has the ace of the third declension in 
general lost its proper case-suffix m, whence the Greek y (comp. 
woBa with Sanscrit pad-am, Lat. ped-em) ; but in the particular case 
before us, after a preceding tj, the loss of a k has repeatedly occurred, 
as in \ayfa», Ke«u, for the assumption of a metaplasm to the third 
declension is only a makeshift 

Voc. — has preserved in its entire purity the oldest form, except 
where the nom. is used in its place, for even the accent Vopyoi must 
be considered as original in the stem. The Aeolic variety w "i^aw^* 
b explained in different ways ; see Lobeck, Rhem. p. 323. In Dial, 
i. p. 115, I have taken it with Seidler to represent ^air^ ; but in iL 
p. 510, on account of the Aeolic nva (see No. 18 below) for ^aTr^a : 
in both cases however acknowledging at the same time an abbre- 
viated form for ^air^i, yet cot assuming, as some have done, a 
nominative ^air^a as a by-form. This view is also confirmed by 


the Sanscrit, in which many feminines in -d, in place of a vocative 
in -^, have an abbreviated form in c{, as ammd (see Pott, Etym. Forsch. 
ii. p. 259), which in Greek might be just as well represented by 
^awi^ as by ^fdir^. But besides this it is also possible that we 
should acknowledge an elision of oi in ^uir^*, for the Aeolic dialect, 
like the Latin, seems to have had an unusual tendency to elide long 
vowels and diphthongs ; but this, on the present occasion, I can only 
point to, and so pass on. 

llie plural would have, if we are still to follow the analogy of 
words in -vs, the following foi ms : nom. Topydes, gen. Fopyowv, dat. 
Topyoitu, ace Topyoas ; or with contraction, nom. Fopyovs, gen. 
TopytSv, dat. Topyolai, ace. Fopyovs; for the contracted accusative, 
according to the known law, must be like the nominative. Thus all 
the cases, excepting the nom. and the accent of the ace. were iden- 
tical with the forms of the second declension, and so it is no way 
surprising that the ace. on the one hand was thought entitled to an 
acute accent (though the circumflex must still be regarded as ori- 
ginal), or on the other hand, that the nom. was made to follow the 
analogy of the second declension. Further be it observed, that 
\cxoi corresponds to the nom. plur. of the first declension deai, 
except in the difference of the vowel, which also in other cases 
distinguishes the words in -a» from those in -a (-17). The isolated 
form K\(adiij€i has in it at least something to remind one of the earlier 
formation in -oes. 

15. The only forms that still need explanation are the genitive in 
-CDS, as found in inscriptions where the dialect requires the contrac- 
tion of -oos into 'ovs, and the dative Aarip in the Cretan Inscription, 
No. 2554. In Dial. ii. p. 238, I have explained these formations as 
being late imitations of the analogy of the first declension. But it 
now appears to me very possible that they may point to a declension 
of the highest antiquity, the remains of which were preserved pre- 
cisely in the patois of some country districts. Thus if the above 
explained principle of the feminine declension had been fully carried 
out, even the stems in -oc would have retained in the genitive and 
dative the terminations -ai and -9 ; and as it is, there are still left 
some remarkable vestiges of such a declension in some old personal 
or geographical names. First, in the form KpuJa or Kpi^a by the 
side of Kpiw : see above, p. 163, note 2. For a genitive Kpi^as from 
Kpi^ would be the most exact equivalent of the Sanscrit dhardyds, 
from dhard (in place of dhardi), and from this gen. a new nom. in 
the shape above given might then readily be deduced. Again, a 
town in Argolis is named Oti^iy, O1V017, Olviani, with an ethnic Olvaloii 
two Athenian demes and a town in Icaria are called OUori, with the 
same ethnic Oifqcos; a town in Elis is written Olvori or Oiiova; 
lastly, Olvoiri has been handed down as an old name of the island 
Sikinos. All this put together leads to a form Olv^ = Oiviy, with 
an old genitive Otvoias, OiVdas or OiV^'as, like K^c^as ; and then 
from such genitives the above nominatives might have been developed. 
Geiffda, the name of a place in Arcadia, and also of the wet-nurse of 
Zeus, is evidently nothing but Qtitria, 'the suckler/ from Qrioai 


with the foim so much in favour for mythical names ; the cc in place 
of iy corresponds only the more closely to the Sanscrit 4 in dh^^ give 
to drink : comp. Benfey, Wurzel-lex. ii. p. 270. To the same stem 
belongs *AfiaXO€ia, the Goat or N3rmph that suckled Zcvs, so far as 
regards the second part of the name ; also Trfdus, the foster-mother 
of Rhea, the fxiirrip as Homer calls her, formed by reduplication like 
riidri. Above all is this form of word common in the names of 
places in the Peloponnesus, as Meaaoa, AvKoa, ifo\6ri, *AX0ei«ua, 
Kapoia, commonly called Kapva, and in Polyaenus Knpa (which is 
generally held to be corrupt, but perhaps without reason), &c. Now 
such old forms as Vopyoast Topyiq., if contracted, would give with- 
out distinction of dialect TopyQs, Vopy^, i. e, precisely those forms 
which were proposed for further explanation. 

IG. For the derivatives, I will mention only the so-called local ad- 
verbs, which are nearly all much the same as cases. Such formations 
are known from Ilvt^cii, Qpaa, Kpiw. First, Uvdwh, Qpiwiie, Kptwiie, 
where the enclitic ^e = (e is added in the usual way to the accu- 
sative. The accentuation QvdwSe, preferred by Aristarchus (see 
Scholia II. /3. 262; Apol. de Pron. p. 112), is originally more cor- 
rect But UvOui^e also (as Pamphilus wrote the word, and as the 
MSS. not unfrequently present it), QptdZe, KpiuiZe (never Qpiuiiet 
KpitaCe), admit of justification, for it was very natural that when the 
two words Jlvdi^ hy &c. by repeated use had coalesced into an 
adverb, the law of accent for single words should enforce its autho- 
rity. On the other hand Qplwie appears to be an error. 

For the question ' where,' we have the original locative form of the 
singular in Uvdoi, Pind. Isthm. 6. 51 (from UvOoi-i), and contracted 
UvOol. The ending at, which properly is added only to a plural, is 
seen in Qpiwaiy (incorrectly written Qpiuttny) and in KpuHtny, corre- 
sponding to the Sanscrit loc. plur. dharasu, with w=^ d. But a more 
frequent form isQpidaiv orQpifjffiy (also written Opiaai), formed upon 
a stem Qpia-, and equally in harmony with the Sanscrit, only here 
71=1 d. With the ending Oey, which is attached directly, or by means 
of a connecting vowel o to the stem, there occur UvOuidey (Steph* 
and Pind. Isthm. i. 65), Kpttadey, and QpiriOev, KpirjOey, which exhibit 
the same vowel-relations as the adverbs in -ac. On the other hand, 
UvdoOey, Steph., points to a form UvOos, as also does the ethnic 
nv6/os. According to the analogy of this form we must change 
AT09EN in Corp. Inscr. No. 3058, not, as I proposed in DiaL iL 
p. 374, to AartaOey, but to A aroOcF, especially as Aarid also in Crete 
has an ethnic Aarios. About Uydwyadcf UvOwy60ey, see No. 17. 
The accent in Opcd^c, Kpirjdey, though contrary to rule, seems to be 
quite correct, and to be only another result of the old tendency of 
feminines to become oxytons. 

17. Some feminines exhibit twin forms in -w and -wy, gen. -dvof, 
rarely -wyos, or at least occasional metaplasms from the one form to 
the other. 

UvStS is the prevailing form in Homer, in Hesiod, in the hymns 
to Apollo, as also in Aeschylus and Herodotus : nom. IIvOw, h. Ap. 
872— dat. and loc. nv6oi, II. i. 405, Od. d, 80, Theogn. 499, h. Ap. 



390— ace. ni;0fal, h. Ap. 183, 515, Aesch. Prom. 661. Herod, i. 54. 
and in UvduZe, Od. \. 580. Scut 480. With a v we first find Uvdiira, 
II. /3. 519 in the catalogue of ships, and h. Merc. 378. Pindar has 
this form regularly in the ohlique cases. UvOtayos, UvOwvi (this also 
in Simonid. h. 154, Theogn. 807). IlvOiJva, also liveHra^e, Ol. 6. 37 
and 9. 12. and Uvdityodey, Pyth. 5. 98 (already in Tyrtaeus. fr. 2) ; 
on the other hand, he has Uvdw, Pyth. 4. 66 and 10. 4, locat. Uvdoi, 
Isthm. 6. 51. DvOoi. 01. 7. 10 and 13. 37, Pyth. 1 1. 49 ; also Ilve*^^, 
Isthm. 1. 65. Even in the later writers the local adverbs UvOoi and 
UvOitde are in common use. The form llvdwy seems to be a stranger 
unknown to the good period. The derivatives, as Uvdios, UvOwos^ 
UvOo^ktpos, 11 vdoKXrjs, never show the y. Hence it follows clearly that 
Uvdt^ is the older form, and that v is a later addition for the purpose 
of inflection, as in &\ws, AXtayos, the Sicilian ifptot, iipvyos (Died. ii. 
p. 241), the Latin Sapphonisy Minonis, The origin of these forms is 
further confirmed by Uie analogy of the numerous names of places 
in -iJv. gen. -cJi^os. 

Tkrixtj, Att. fiXrixbi* in the nom. has no other sanction than the 
testimony of the Scholia Arist. Ach. 861 and 874. and Suidas; 
whereas the other cases, gen. -ovs. dat. -oi. ace. -iJ, have good autho- 
rity in their behalf, see Lobeek ad Soph. Aj. p. 172 and theThesaur. 
But besides these. 6. ff yX^x^^* S^^* y^^X^^^'» ^ ^ ^^' ^^^ ^® 
feminine j^ yXrix^y is established as a baryton by Arcad. 16. 15. 
Theodos. p. 1 28. At the same time it follows from Phrynich. p. 30. 
15, Arcad. p. 16. 5, that according to more exact usage the feminine 
was an oxyton. consequently yXi^x^^* yXi^x^'^^'o^* &t least among the 
Dorians and lonians (in Phrynichus read yXrix^yo. for yXryxpya, and 
in Arcad. icai fAtj hia tov /3~ for icac 3ia tov /3~). It appears from this 
that originally 6 yXiixwy and fi yXi7x<^ stood to each other as many 
masculines in -wy and feminines in -cJ did, and further that the declen- 
sion with a V at an early date slipped in among the feminines through 
the influence of the masculine. 

Topyti is the prevailing form in Homer and Hesiod. as is noticed 
even in the SehoHa II. 6. 349. viz. Topynj, 11. X. 36. Topyov$, 6. 349, 
where Zenodotus read Fopyoyos, Fopyovs, Hes. Sc. 224, Fopyovs as 
ace. pi.. Th. 274. yet on the other hand, Fopyoyes, Sc. 230, where an 
original Fopyoes may be conjectured ; still the Scutum is, to say the 
least, not purely Hesiodean. In Herodotus there occurs only Fopyovs, 
2. 91. Pindar has only the forms with y: Fopyoyes, Fopyoya. To the 
Attic dialect lliomas Mag., p. 194, ascribes Fopyw, Fopyovs, and at 
any rate the tragedians appear to have used the singular forms with 
y only in the appellative sense of the ' Grorgon's-head' = yopyoi^ecoK, 
as Fopytjy, Ion. 1421 and Rhes. 306, according to the better reading 
(commonly Topyw), Fopyoyos, Erechth. fr. 17.46, Fopyoi^, Or. 1520, 
while in this sense a Fopyw, Fopyovs, never occurs as a reading to be 
depended upon. On the other hand, in Here. f. 881, instead of the 
extraordinary phrase Nvm-os Fopywy eicaroyice^aXocs | 6<piuty iaxhfiain, 
where Lyssa is said to have been called Ni/icros Fopy^v. we should 
rather read & Nvitt^s yopyQy \ iK, o^. iax-, »o that yopytjy should be 
an epithet attached to oi^tjy. For yopydyos, Phoen. 458, Valckenaer 


had already insisted on, what is recommended by the improved 
rhythm, Fopyovs. In Here. f. 990, in place of iiypikntoy ofi^a Pop- 
yoyos TpiijHify or trrpk^tay^ which seems almost intolerable, we ought 
to read yopyoy oh arpe^wy, that is, opOois oi^daXfioU, On the other 
hand, in the plural the tragedians have always Topydyes, &c. The 
female name Fopyut seems never to be formed with the v, except in 
the MS. reading Topywriy or Topydyri XaKe^aifioyta of Stob. 7. 31, 
for which there has been substituted with good reason, Topyto ^ 
AaKehaifioyia, The adjective in Hom. and Hesiod takes the form 
Vopyeios ; it is in Aesch. Prom. 793 that there first occurs Topydyeia 
irc^/a, where however the reference is to the plural Fopyoyet. If to 
this state of facts, as to the older usage, there be added that fopyiJ, 
as above remarked, seems to be =: yopyii^ scarcely a doubt remains 
that Fopyti is the genuine old form, and that the y first came into 
use, as a means of aiding the declination, especially in the plural. 
A nom. Fopytjy even Pindar would not have used. In the appel- 
lative sense the y most firmly maintained its position, simply because 
the appellatives in *ta became generally obsolete. 

Mopfiw, which corresponds precisely to the preceding, appears for 
the first time with a v in Aristophanes. This form occurs partly in 
the plural, Xen. Hell. 4. 4. 17, Mopfioyas, partly with an appellative 
sense, where it denotes the shield of Lamachos, Arist. Pac. 474, 
fiopfidvot, and 582 fwpfioya. 

SflXta = BriXvi, see above No. 7, with ace. plur. 6ri\6ycu in Plu- 
tarch, see Buttmann's Gram. i. p. 210. 

eUw, the npm. in Hesych. €i\-w, etculK, ^o/Daicr^p, oi^is, where 
doubt has without reason been thrown upon it ; it is also mentioned 
in Anecd. Oxon. iv. p. 170. 8. The word first appears in the dra- 
matic writers and Herodotus. The former seem to have used only 
the forms from eU^, gen. ehovs, ace. cIkup, ace. pi. eUovs or eixovs ; 
for eiKuty in the very corrupt passage. Here. f. 1 102, is itself open to 
strong suspicion, as Fix correctly saw. In Herodotus there occurs 
the ace. eM (7. 69), elsewhere eUoya, eUoyes, eUoyas, see DindorTs 
Dial. Herod, p. xvi. Among the later writers eUwy, eiicoyos is the 
prevailing form, but this seems, just as in the preceding words, to 
be only a secondary variety. 

Among the words which have been so far considered, all the forms 
in -M have proved to be the older, all those with a v to be the more 
recent, or at least post-Homeric. In no single case does a nomi- 
native in 'My present itself before the fourth century, excepting 
yopyity used as an appellative. Setting aside UvOut and yX»?X'»'' ^^ 
which the inflection with a y, and indeed with u>y, was favoured by 
special circumstances, it seems next to have appeared chiefly in the 
plural ; all the above words belong to the limited class of words in 
-w, in which the formation of a plural was likely to be called for. 
But the case is different with 

iirihwy and xcXiSwv. In these words the forms with a y occur 
even in Homer and Hesiod: 6.ri^wy, Od. r. 512; aridoyuy Hesiod, 
Op. 203; x«^t^«»'» Op. 461; x^X'^^^v** 0. 411 and x- 240. On 



the other h^nd, all the forms without a v occur only as rarities^; 
iifjdovSf Soph. Aj. 629; voc. 6.rihoi, Aristoph. Av. 679, voc. x^^<^^* 
Anacr. fr. 67, Simon, fr. 73, Arist. 1410, all in Ijnric poets or 
in lyric parts. It seems all but certain that these forms had a 
special connexion with the Lesbian dialect. For ariBovs in the 
Scholia is expressly referred to a Mitylenian &fj^ta; and again 
both Simonides (whom even Aristophanes was imitating according 
to the Scholia when he wrote x^^^^O ^^^ Anacreon borrowed 
much from the Liesbian dialect ; and as regards Anacreon, the very 
fragment above referred to betrays other such borrowing. When it 
is further considered, that the Latin hirundo, -inis too, which is only 
another form of xeXtduty, also exhibits the n, the claim of this liquid 
to great antiqui^ is past dispute. The same may be said of trw^uv 
and TpvyuiVt as only the rare forms tnvhovs and rpvyuis (see above 
p. 165 note) dispense with the y. The case of ^aphut, the island so 
called, is involved in much doubt. For while the older sources, 
Herodotus and Arist. Vesp. 700, have no other form, the derivative 
^apSoyios, Herod, i. 166 and vii. 165 (Sop^^os occurs only in later 
writers), gives its testimony in favour of ^apB^v, 

It appears from this summary that in only a few of these wavering 
words will the historically established facts of the Greek language 
permit us to regard the forms with v as the older, and consequently 
that the theory which would deduce all feminines in «i» without 
exception from stems in -N is so much the less to be justified, 
setting aside the fact that this theory of necessity leaves unexplained 
the I of the nom. Topy^ and voc. Topyoi (the case is. somewhat dif- 
ferent with the Aeolic metaplasm of aridutv to a vocative in -oi, as 
the language already possessed a class of words with such vocatives 
to suggest a false analogy). Again, a comparison with kindred 
languages appears to lend little support to the theory. At any rate 
Bopp (Comp. Gram. § 142) is of opinion that originally there were 
absolutely no feminine stems in -y, a somewhat too sweeping 
statement indeed, for in the Greek language, to say nothing of other 
words, there exists the numerous class of feminines in -Bwy, to 
which the Latin nouns in -(fo, gen. 'dints, correspond. 

1 8. Lastly, I have yet to deal with the feminines jjias and aihun, 
which are commonly believed to differ from the words in -a> solely 
by the possession of a « in the nominative. Let us see how it 
stands with their declension : — 

Nom. ijufs, alhws. Only Philetas has aM without s ; see Lobeck, 
Rhem. p. 324. 

Gen. i}ovs, aidovs, Aeol. avufSy aiBtasy Dial. i. p. 118. The uncon- 
tracted form *Aoos in Pindar, Nem. 6. 54, has been with reason 
substituted for *Aovs for the sake of the metre. 

Dat. iJoT, aldot. For aiBoi eiKuty at the end of the hexameter II. 
r. 238, Gerhard (Lat. Apol. p. 143) would with reason write ai3o(. 

Ace. iJJ, ot7w. For the accent see above No. 11. The uncon- 
tracted form ijoa is expressly declared to be Ionic in the Etym. Mag. 
351. 20, Etym. Gud. 193. 13, and Anecd. Oxon. i. 158. 5 (Etym. 


Oud. 196. 14 and Anecd. Ox« i. 158. 5, untnily say Aeolic, instead of 
Ionic). Gerhard too and others are right in recommending ^6a 
instead of ^ia in the verse-endings, ^iH ^ay^ II, i. 240, &c.; 4 J h' 
avre, Od. \f/, 243 ; €k* iftS Koirov, Hes. Op. 572, to which there may 
BtiU be added ^cJ fiifivoy, U. &. 565 ; 4 J filfiyeiy, Od. <r. 318. The 
accusatives i^ovr and al^ovy are stated by Gregorius (Dial. Ion. § 35) 
according to the common reading to be Ionic. But in the majority 
of MSS. the example al3iJ, cu^ovv, is omitted, and in place of ^w, 
ijovy, the Codex Meerm. has *Ici», *lovy, which Koen has very justly 
regarded as the right reading. For Gregorius is speaking only of 
words in -iif, and in the examples Aririit Af^rovF, ^airiptif Sair^vv, 
it is clear that Aijrc^, San-^of are nominatives, not accusatives. In 
giving these familiar examples, it was an easy matter to add that of 
'lovv from the first chapter of Herodotus, of which he also avails 
himself in § 36. The form i^iovy is used only by the later poets 
Hedylus in Athen. xi. 473 a, and Lieonidas, Anthol. Pal. vii. 422. 
Herodotus too knows only //tJ and aiSui, 

Voc. ifoi, at^ol are given by the grammarians, as Theodos. p. 998 
Bekk., Joann. Al. 13. 25. But no further stress must be laid upon 
this, beyond the fact that Theodosius impartially declines the plural 
and duaJ ai ai^oi, and so on (which however assuredly never occurred 
in authors), just as he does the same with KcJs. All that we can 
infer is, that in the opinion of these grammarians i)uts and ai^iits 
distinguished themselves ft-om the other words in -w solely in the 
nominative. As a vocative from these two words could not well 
occur, no special form for the case can be established on safe autho- 
rity. Yet the ava of Sappho, which Apollonius (de Pron. p. 596) 
mentions as a metaplastic form, seems to be a vocative from avuts : 
see Dial. ii. p. 510. 

The Attic dialect has changed ^ws into ^us ; and then passing 
over to the so-called second Attic declension, proceeds with the 
inflections : gen. Iiu, dat. cf), ace. ew. 

Leaving out of view this irregular declension, the accusative also, 
in addition to the nominative, shows distinctly a difference from 
words in -lu. For like the nom. alhut, so also the ace. ijovy is only 
an abortive invention of pedantic poets, and the genuine language of 
the people knew in these two words neither a nom. without s, nor 
an ace. with v. The Aeolic dialect alone may have credit for a 
form avtov : see Dial. i. p. 1 13. Even from those accusatives of words 
in -w which have no y, as Arjrw, the best authorities call upon us to 
distinguish )}(J, ai^to, as having a circumflex; and to this accent 
they are well entitled, as in them an actual contraction has taken 
place. The use of the form ijoa is established, as regards the Ionic 
dialect, by trustworthy authorities, and for the old epic by certain 
evidence founded on metrical law : whereas Arir6a and like forms 
appear only as fictions of the grammarians. Thus the accusative 
bears evidence to the original distinction of feminines in -tjs from 
those in -w, even more certainly than the nom., which after all- in 
some rare cases exhibits a f even for words in -d/. Neither can the 


conviction about this difference be weakened, if the Aeolic aia 
really belongs as a voc. to avtjt, jast as "^aw^a does to ^ar^ ; this 
would be only a peculiar Aeolic metaplasm, corresponding to aifdot 
beside ari^wy. 

The distinction becomes yet clearer on a closer consideration of 
the Homeric usage. For feminines in -m» I find in the Iliad and 
Odyssey the following examples of the gen. dat. and ace. 

Gen. Anrovs, a. S, (. 327, r. 849 — Topyovs, d, 349 — KoXviLovr. 
a. 557, e. 14, 0. 452, fi. 389, p. 143. 

Dat. xP^ioh 0. 57 — xafjuvol, a. 27 — Aiyr©?, v. 72, w. 607 — UyQoij 
I. 405, e. 80. 

Ace. Aiyrw, ^.497, \.580— Gcavw, X.224 — Hiyp^, X. 287 — Uvdm^, 
X. 581. 

In this summary there occur, out of nine genitives, two in which 
the verse does not admit the uncontracted form, viz. a. 8. Aiirovt sm ; 
(. 327. finiTovi IpiKvlkos — out of seven datives four, viz. <u. 607, A^n)! 
ioa(rK€To\ 1. 405. Hvdol ivi wtrpriiaap; 0. 80, ni;0oi ky ^yaB^ji; 0. 57. 
XP^ioi <^vayica/fy— out of five accusatives one, viz. X.- 227. Unp^ rcre. 
It is clearly seen from this, that the uncontracted forms, although ad- 
missible in the Homeric language, at any rate in the gen. and dat., 
yet were by no means exclusively used. 

Far different is the case with )}ws and alBats. According to Seber's 
Argus, ^fovs is found six times, ac^ovs three times, ijaii fifteen times, 
alioi four times, ijui twenty-four times, al^ui seven times. Among 
these there is one case in which the verse requires that the dative 
aldol should be resolved, k. 238 ; twelve, in which for the same 
reason ijoa is necessary in place of )}J, i. 240, X. 723, at. 255, i. 151, 
306 and 436, fx. 7, n. 368, r. 342—0. 565, <r. 317, yf^. 243. Id by 
far the greatest number of the remaining cases, the forms immediately 
precede the bucolic caesura, where the spondee is no great favourite. 
In but four cases out of the whole fifty -nine is the uncontracted 
form guaranteed by the metre, viz. 0. 470, ^ovs ^ ; 0. 525, i}ovs 
Tpweffffi; 5. 188, tov p* *Hovs licrctFC ifaeiyrjs iiyXaos vios ; v. 171, 
ohS* al^ovs fwipay i\ov<ny. But in the first two cases 9fovs has a 
sense which nowhere else occurs in Homer, that of avpioy. Now 
Zenodotus read in the first passage (and no doubt also in the second, 
which disappeared from the recension of Aristarchus owing to his 
rejection of two verses) &as in place of ijovs, and this very form 
&as, says Hesychius, was used by the Boeotians in that sense. 
With good reason Diintzer (de Zenodoto, p. 51) concludes that 
Zenodotus must have found that strange form still surviving in the 
MSS. ; and I am strongly inclined to regard it as genuine: comp. ii. 4. 
In the last of the passages quoted, alhovt fiolpa is a phrase else- 
where unknown to Homer. In place of this the original reading 
might have been al^oos alvay : comp. iXviBos alaa, r. 74. Lastly, in 
^. 188, recourse might be had to a transposition, *Hoos 6y p lirrecvc: 
comp. Voss. ad Hymn. Dem. v. 66. But setting aside these parti- 
cular considerations, it is no matter for surprise, if in the existing 
Homeric text there should occur occasional violations of an old law 


of the language long thrown out of view. In any case it is evident, 
that for ijus and aiiMs in the Homeric language, the use of the un- 
contracted forms is ficur more common than for words in -in. 

If the question be now asked, on what the peculiar declension of 
the two words depends (I refer to the uncontracted forms iws^ i^oot, 
4oi> ioa), it is certain that the proper stem cannot have been 'HO-, 
for this would have followed the second declension ; but that there 
must have dropped out of ^oos one of those consonants to which the 
Greek language manifests such decided hostility, namely one of the 
spirants. That the letter so lost is not a^ is evident from what has 
been already stated. Neither can it be a F, because in that case we 
should have had a nom. and ace. ffovsy tfovy, following the analogy of 
/low*, fioosy (ioiy l3ovy. Thus the only alternative left is a v, and with 
this supposition the whole declension is in perfect agreement. For 
a feminine stem *H02:- must have led to a nom. with a long vowel 
i/ws, as EYTENES- leads to ehyeyviSy and then in the oblique cases 
with a suppression of the a to ehyeyeos, -ei, -ia. Compare too the 
Sanscrit nom. apsards, gen. -rasas, dat. -ras^, ace. 'rasam. 

That the o of ijus belongs to the stem, had been already correctly 
observed by Benfey (Wurzel-lez. i. p. 27), and this on the ground 
that the o still maintains its position in the compound €iavf6f>o$. 
This name for the ' morning-star/ corresponding to the Attic Iws, is 
found even in Homer, and in a somewhat strange form as a trisyllable, 
II. 4/. 226, rifios I' 'EMa<t>6pos clflri ; it also occurs in Hesiod, Th. 381, 
Hicrey *Etaff^poy, Pindar, on the other hand, Isthm. 3. 42, has 
*Awa(f>6f>os as a trisyllable. Benfey has truly observed, that in the 
last form the w must be wrong, as a composition with the stem 
•must give 'Ao<r<^pos, and so must Pindar have intended the word to 
be written, the oi being erroneously introduced by those who wrote 
under the influence of an Ionic dialect and had the ordinary form 
^EoHTtpopos in their minds. In this the w is quite correct, for the 
Attic cw grows also out of rjo. But such an Attic form in Homer 
and Hesiod, to whom ews is altogether a stranger, is quite incon- 
ceivable. In these writers we should rather expect 'Hwtnpopos, a 
form actually mentioned by Theogn. p. 97. 4, as coexisting with 
*Ewtn^6pos, or rather *Ho<7^/h)s, and this may be substituted in the 
passage of Homer at once without other change, and in Hesiod also 
with the slight alteration tIkt *Ho<r^6poy, But there still remains 
the strange use of the word in Homer and Pindar as a trisyllable. 

The argument which Benfey draws from the comparison of kindred 
languages in favour of the stem 'HO 2-, relying in the first place on 
the Latin aurora and Sanscrit ushas, is less happy. The real origin 
of f/ws shall be discussed in the next number. Ahrbns. 

P.S. — But few parts of this paper will fiedl to win the assent of 
scholars. There are however some points which are open to great 
doubt. In the first place, the explanation of the syllable ik of 
yvyaiKos, yvyaiKi, &c., seems scarcely satisfactory. Is it not rather 
itself a feminine suffix corresponding with all accuracy to the ic of 


the Latin victr-iC', tonstr-ic-, the first portions of which are compres- 
sions of vict&T' and tonsor- ? It is not indeed common for a long 
vowel like the 6 in these words, to disappear in this way, yet the fact 
is almost indisputable in the instance of tonstrina-, doctrina-, from 
tensor- y doctor-, formed like disciplina- from discipulo-. 

Neither can we agree that the theory which derives superlati^ 
forms through the comparative is "an improbable fiction." Tht 
arguments which have been adduced in favour of this theory are fai 
too weighty to be disposed of in so summary a manner. 

Above all will Ahrens find it difi^cult to upset the doctrine main- 
tained by Benfey and others in regard to the close relationship 
between avos-, the Latin Aurora^ the Greek avpiov and tipi. and the 
Sanscrit uahas. At any rate objection must be made to his view, that 
the first r in Aurora is an intrusive letter— eine Einschiebung — (ihii, 
drd part, p. 171). The Latin musarum, generis, and eram, represent 
not so much the Greek fjovtrauty, yevtos, and ea(v), as archaic forms, 
^ovfraa-ttty, yevea-os, and €<r*Q(v), Thus it is the Greek language 
which has lost a a, and not the Latin which has stolen an r. These 
are points which have been long admitted. Now the verb av-w, * to 
kindle, to dry', appears to have once possessed a <r, which is still 
retained in the adjective ai/o'-ri/po-, aus-tero-t * dry*. 

We may also avail ourselves of the information which Ahrens 
himself supplies, when he quotes the Lithuanian auszra (aurora), 
auszrinnis (ostlich), auszrinne (morgenstern), auszti (tagen), for we 
must hold the sibilants in these forms to be original, and not, as he 
would have it, acquired (erhalten). 

Nor does there seem any good reason why Ahrens should reject 
the distinct testimony of Choeroboscus in the passage quoted in* 
p. 164 to the existence of a form of the accusative in olv, especially 
when he himself in p. 168 writes what he conceives to be the 
primitive form of the accusative as Topyfv. The form olv may have 
been very properly called Ionic : the nominatives in -ill occur in 
Milesian Inscriptions. 

It may be thought that if these objections against Ahrens's paper 
be valid, it would have been better to have omitted the parts thus 
believed to be unfounded. To this it is enough to reply, that the 
learned and able author of the De Diaiectis is a scholar who has 
every right to a full hearing ; and we may take this opportunity of 
expressing the wish that he will soon gratify the learned world by 
completing that important work. — T. H. Kby. 

PHILOLOGICAL SOClS&^? ' ^ '' ^ ^ 


" On the Inscription of Sora*." By Dr. G. Henzen. 

As Latin inscriptions of a date previous to the battle of Actium 
are known to be rare, every such fragment is generally received by 
the learned with well-founded satisfaction. We are the more pleased 
therefore to be able to offer to' our readers an inscription, which, to 
the merit of great antiquity, adds that of a subject not commoh in 
this branch of literature. We are indebted for this monument to 
the politeness of Dr. Brunn, who copied it in a garden attached to a 
church at Sora, in the kingdom of Naples ; it is inscribed on a square 
stone, broken in the middle. Although it is damaged in more than one 
place, particularly in consequence of the fracture of the stone, yet 
our learned friend succeeded in making an exact copy, the few blanks 
in which are easily supplied by the help of the paper impression 
which he has brought us. This facsimile we here present to our 
readers : — 



PoLoVcl/ s^ElBERtlS'LVbLti 
TE S Do/s/vpANV/s/P 


The form in eis of the nominative plural of the second declension, 
which occurs twice in our inscription, viz. in Vertuldeis and in /ei- 
bereis, though not mentioned by grammarians, is known from several 
such monuments. Besides those forms of the pronoun is, which 

* Translated by T.Hewitt Key, from the '< Bullettino deir Instituto di Corr/e* 
mdensa Archeologica per Tanno 1845." Roma, mdcccxlv. pp. 71-80. 


arc^ already registered in the dictionaries, as eeis (Sc. de Bacch. 4.), 
eis (hex Servilia, ed. Klenze, cap. S, 17, 19; conf. Marini, Atti, 
p. 569), ieis (Grot. 207, col. 3), together with. etwiem (Orell. 3808), 
I quote Minucieis, CavaturineU, from the celebrated table about the 
boundaries of the Genuates and the Viturii (Orell. S12 i), facteis, 
publiceis, leibereis, ft-om the hex Thoria (cf. Haiibold, Monumenta 
Legalia, pag. 10, etc. Gnit. p. 202, etc.) ; CDL vireis and gnateis 
of the Servilian Law (Haubold, ibid. p. 24, etc. ; Grrut. 506, 
etc.) ; to which may still, be added duomvires from an inscription 
of Cora reproduced by Orelli (3808; by Lanzi, Saggio I. p. 155), 
together with Vituries and Viiuris, Cavaturines, Mentovines, from 
the before-mentioned bronze of G^noa ; forms to be compared with 
qnes, plural of fuis or aliquia of the S. C. de Bacchanalibus. I also 
owe to the politeness of the Count Borghesi the communication of 
an unpublished inscription, copied at Massa in the country of the 
Marsi, by Signor Brocchi, which exhibits the same form in m :— 


Such formations, however strange they may appear, still approach 
the ori^nal type common to the Indo- Germanic languages more 
nearly than the ordinary and so-caUed regular form in t, for we learn 
from Sanscrit, that, as « is the proper sign of the nominative in 
general, so in the plural this case is indicated by the syllable a», 
which in the Greek is only found in the es of the third declension, 
on this account justly considered as the most ancient and regular 
(cf. Kuhner, Gram. Gr. I. § i255) ; whilst in the Latin, besides this 
declension, the fourth and fifth have also retained it. It is true that 
this omission of the 8 begins even in the Sanscrit, for in the pro- 
nouns of the masculine gender, the as gives place to an t, coalescing 
with the vowel of the root, which, according to Bopp (Vergl. Gram, 
p. 261), in the first and second Greek declensions, has entirely ex- 
pelled tiie old representative of the first case. The mode however 
in which that learned man thinks that this change was effected, 
will appear improbable to anybody who examines our inscription^ 
since the termination eis of the second declension evidently shows, 
that the i of subsequent times was not put instead of the s, but that 
the primary form as, changed into es by the Greeks, by the Latins 
into es, was united to the root-vowel, and did not lose the final 
consonant till afterwards. Even in the first declension we may prove 
the ancient existence of that form, as Nonius has preserved to us 
a verse with the nominative laetitias insperatas, absurdly explained 
by the Latin grammarian as an accusative put in the place of a no- 
minative (p. 500, 25, ed. Merc). That the termination es has some- 
times expelled the root- vowel, is proved by the above- quoted form 

In the second line the filling up the blank before the letters 
EIDENS offers some difficulty. As however there is only space for 
two letters, and this space is preceded by a character, which in the 


impresflion appears to be a D» and further, as the Latin verba ter- 
minating in ido, with i long, are but few, it may not be an unrea- 
sonable conjecture, that the word dijido will supply what we need, 
written DIFEIDENS. with a single F, of which custom, even where 
the double consonant appears necessary to indicate the composition 
of the word, the participle AFLEICTA of this very inscription pre- 
sents an analogous example. To this may be added the express 
testimony of the ancients : Semivocales non geminare, diu fuit usitU' 
tUsimi maris (Quintil. Inst. Orat. I. 7, 14); Antiqui consonantes 
liiieras nan geminahant (Mar. Victorin., p. 2456), cf. Fest. s. w. ab 
does, aulas, folium, porigam, torum, and especially s. v. solitaU' 
rilia, .... nulla tunc geminabatur litiera in scribenda, quam consuC' 
tudinem Ennius mutavisse fertur, uipote Oraecus Graeco more usus, 
quod illi aeque scribentes ac legentes dupUcabant mutas et semi 
Ivocales), The examples in inscriptions are too numerous to be 

It is true that the verb dijido is never found joined with the sixth 
case ; yet, setting aside the explanation that re sua asper{e) afleicta 
might be an ablative absolute, there seems to be nothing extravagant 
in the supposition that in such remote times a greater analogy of 
construction may have existed between the simple verb fido, which 
is always* joined with an ablative, and the compound dijido. Yet 
it is not less true, that diffidens differs but little in signification from 
timens ; but such is the pompous verbosity of the sacred language 
of our inscription, that this analogy will scarcely constitute a rea- 
sonable objection to oiir conjecture. I find besides, that it was in 
precisely similar cases of embarrassed circumstances that the Latins 
employed this verb. Herennius, for example, the flute-player, arti 
suae DiFFisvs . . . instituit mercaturam (Macrob. Saturn. III. 6). 

The next lines present a larger gap, but one which is perfectly 
supplied from what remains of the letters, in this manner : Quod re 
sua difeidens aspere afleicta parens timens heic vovit, voto * hoc || 


dwell on the expression voto soluto ; examples of it are sufficiently 
known. On the other hand, mention is rarely made in ancient 
inscriptions of the decuma, and although Festus says (p. 71. ed. 
Muller) decima quaeque veteres diis suis offerebant, I have not suc- 
ceeded in finding among inscriptions any example except of tenths 
offered to Hercules. I may refer to Murat. 307, 5 (cf. Vignoli, de 
ool. Anton, p. 337), where a certain Cn. Flaccus offers to Fortona 
of Pneneste and to the most holy Feronia signa aurea (1. aerea), and 
at the same time consecrates to Hercules decumam partem ; also to 
p. 60, 1, of the same collection, and the Campanian marble of 
Mazocchi, tab. Heracl. p. 452, n. 128. To these I add the Reatine 
inscription TGrut. 96, 7 ; Mur. 96, 1 ), in which a gift is presented 
to Sancus Fidius Semopater de decuma moribus antiqueis, by L. Mum- 

* Nay, at times with a dative too, as in Naevius and Horace ; see Forcellini.— 



miu8 (if Grater's reading be correct), this Sancus being well known 
to be no other than Hercules, as also Semopater is the same as 
Sancus and FHdius (see the passages of the ancient writers in Har- 
tung. Religion of the Romans, II. p. 44*). I have therefore no 
doubt that the ancient marble too quoted by Giovenazzi (Citti 
d*Av6ja, p. 87), which exhibits in the whole construction of the 
words a strong resemblance to our inscription, was also erected to 
Hercules, whose worship moreover was very frequent in the interior 
of Italy. As this book is not much known, at least out of Italy* I 
may be allowed in this place to repro&uce the inscription, which 
unluckily is so much broken, that a certain restoration of it is 
unattainable f. 

, EDIT . L . AVFIDI • D 
. TE . ORAT .TV • ES 
It was copied by Giovenazzi in the cemetery of Bazzano, the ancient 
Vicus Offidius. Last of all I will cite a Gudian inscription, restored 
by the Count Borghesi, which refers to the same thing : — 



It is spoken of by Giidius (p. 341. 1) as in the possession of Camillo 
Pellegrini of Capua. 

Now authors, when they speak of tithes offered to the gods, 

* It will be as well to quote here Oruter's detailed remarka in reference to this 
•tone in the C. V. 6039, fol. 351 : Prope Quintilianum viculum non procul a Reate 
mediis campis munu vetustua conspicitur, supra arcus et gryptas constructus, in 
quo pila haec marmorea dicitur inventa. Est autem plena Tirorum et hominum 
varii habitus choreas ducentium et scalam quandam conscendentium et adscendere 
conantium ; quidam illic mulierls^ habitu manu claYam tenens, cui decuma debe^ 
batur et bonorum omnium voTebatur, Hercules putatur, sed vix prae nimia attri- 
tione agnoscitur. 

t One might think, on a superficial examination of this inscription, that but little 
wai wanting at the beginning of these lines, as tf edit and decvMA might be easily 
restored. However imbr of the third line shows that the deficiency is larger, and 
I do not know whether, comparing It with our own, we might not supply Hercuh * 
MRKito, so that the name of the god would stand in the same place as in ours. To 
the fourth line might be added sitnul, and there might be prefixed to deus some 
epithet suitable to Hercules ; but the greatest difficulty would be to supply what is 
wanting to toy, a task we leave to others more able than ourselves. If however 
in this manner more than one lettor is wanting to the lines, I would cettainly 
supply in the second wum • dircvMA. • 


nearly always mention Hercules: nunores solitos, wys Varro for 
example (ap. Macrob. Sat. iii. 12), dectmam Herculi vovere; and 
again Tertdlian (Apol. 39) has the phrase Hercuhmae diecimae. On 
the Ara Maxima of Heroulfts gen^tds honoured with a triumph 
consecrated the tenth part of their booty to feed the people (Athen. 
▼• 6d)» a rite instituted, according to the myth of this god, i^ter the 
discoinfiture of Cacus (Dion. H. i. 40). If any other deity receives 
the tenth, as Apollo after the taking of Veii (liv. v. 21), we shall 
always find some special reason for it. Besides this, rich citizens 
offered on the same altar the tenth of their fortune to the people, a 
enstom which, according to Dionysius (1. c), had lasted down to 
his time. In fact, not only Sulla, but after him, Lucullus and 
Graaeus gave tithe in this way of their immense riches (Diod. IV. 21 ; 
Pint. Crass. 2), although at that time such consecrations, it appears, 
had already become less frequent, for it was of the tnajores that 
Varro says, they were solitos decumam Herculi vovere nee decern 
die9 intermittere quin poUucerent (Macrob. Sat. III. 12) ; in his time 
therefore the practice was more rare. It was believed, says Dio- 
dorus (1. c), that whoever made a vow thus to consecrate a tenth to 
Hercules, would gain a great fortune ; for which reason such vows 
were made even by people of moderate means, and indeed more 
especially by them, as we learn from Diodorus : oh fidvov rtiv ovfi'- 
likrpovi obffius Kcicrrifiivtty, and from the Gudian inscription of the 
pomarius. M. Octavius Herennius, for instance, a flute-player in 
his youth, after becoming a merchant, and succeeding well in this 
line, decimam Herculi prof anavit (Macrob. Sat. III. 6). That such 
offierings were common enough in ancient times, is also proved to us 
by the feet that in comic language we find the phrase pars Hercu- 
kmea signifying the tenth part, an expression doubtless used by the 
people, or at any rate intelligible to every one : Plautus Trucul. II. 7, 
10, nam iam de hoc obsonio,demina una deminuimodo quinque numtnos; 
miki detraxi partem Herculaneam, And there is another amusing 
passage in this poet, where he again alludes to the same thing : 
Bacch. IV. 4, 15, Sifrugi est, Herculem fecit expatre, decumampoT' 
tern ei dedit, sibi novem abstulit. 

The solemn expression for such offerings WBBpoUucere ; polluctum 
what was so given to the god, or rather to the people (cf. Macrob. 
Sat II. 12 ; Varro de L. L. VI. §4, and ap. Macrob. Sat. III. 12 ; 
Naevius ap. Priscian, IX. ad fin. ; Plaut. Stich. I. 3, 80; Gassius 
Heminaap. Plin. XXXIII. 2, 10 ; Tertul. Apol. 39). This word was 
never used in speaking of simple dedications and sacrifices; and 
where Cato (R. R. 132) makes mention of a sacrifice to Jupiter Da- 
palis, though pollucere in that passage might seem to have no other 
sense than that of sacra facere^ yet the word is used of an offering 
of wine, and the very name of the deity to whom the sacrifice is 
made, i^pears to imply a banquet So Festus also (p. 253, ed. 
Muller), in enumerating the objects that one mdij pollucere to the 
gods, only names things that are commonly used as food ; Herculi 
autem, he adds, omnia esculenta, poculenta. We cannot doubt then* 
that a banquet was always joined with the polluctura ; and, if it be 


certain that the tenn polUtcere was also applied to similar offerings 
presented to other divinities, the above-quoted passages nevertheless 
prove, that this verb referred especially to the worship of Hercules^ 
seeing that those public banquets stand more particularly in con- 
nection with this god. 

This settled, our inscription turns out important enough, pre- 
serving to us the memory of such customs, which, as might be anti- 
cipated, had also established themselves beyond the limits of Rome. 
Decuma facta poloucta, the words run, leibereis luhentes donu damaU 
Herculei maxsume mereto. The mention of making the decuma might 
seem superfluous ; I believe it is mentioned because it was a difficult 
operation, an error in which might excite the wrath of the god ; and 
therefore in the above-mentioned Reatine stone, there is an express 
prayer : perficias decumam ut fadat verae rationis. On the other 
hand the words donu danunt occasion some difficulty. They lead 
us to suppose that something was given to the god, which some- 
thing, presenting itself to the eyes of the person who read the 
inscription, did not need mentioning in it. And this is confirmed 
by the form of the stone itself, which is well adapted for a base. 
To this seems opposed the signification of poUucere, which does not 
permit us to think of a simple dedication of such a gift as furnished 
from the tenth. For which reason I should rather believe that our 
stone had taken part, so to say, in the ceremony or action of the 
poUuctura, so that the donu danunt refers to the same tenth which 
was presented [«t dava in dono"] poUucendo* ; or indeed that after the 
tenth had been constituted and offered, this gift was given to the 
god, not from the tenth itself, but to record the happy completion 
of that ceremony which is the object of prayer to the divinity in the 
Reatine inscription. 

The leibereis luhentes makes a happy antithesis to the parens 
timens and dijfidens ; the sons have been happily enabled to fulfil the 
vow which their parent had made under uii^ortunate circumstances. 
Donu for donum does not require support from parallel instances ; 
it is sufficient to refer to the inscriptions of the Scipios ; and I do not 
know whether it be a blunder of the stone-cutter, or whether in this 
formula an archaism had maintained its place, but the following in- 
scription of Aurelius Verus was taken down by me at the episcopal 
palace at Ostia : — 






* When the present inscription was laid before a meeting of the Institute, the 
learned Momnisen observed, that the case which we have explained as an ablative 
might abo be taken for an accusative. I confess that this idea had also struck me, 
but I had not judged fit to adopt it, because decuma facta, it appears, is a solemn 
formula, and one which cannot be changed, while there still remains the difficulty 
of poilucere, together with the donu danunt. Besides, it would be too far-fetched, 
whilst retaining the formuU decuwM facta, to take the single word poUmcta far an 


in which again the construction of Konoratus with a genitive is to be 
noticed. With regard to damtnt, I could adduce no example of it in 
ancient inscriptions. However Festns (in exc. P. Diaconi, p. 68. ed. 
M.) and Nonius (p. 97, 14), who cites several passages of Pacuvius, 
Plautus, Naevius, &c., make mention of it. In Plautus we have also 
danam for dabo (Cas. II. 6, 22). Neither is dano for do an isolated 
form. In the earlier periods of the Latin language, the prolongation 
of verbal roots by means of a nasal, must have been frequently em- 
ployed, for in every conjugation examples are quoted by the gram- 
marians. These it is true are all taken from the language of poets, 
but these assuredly did but preserve the more ancient idiom. More- 
over, that such was the ancient idiom is confirmed by Festus (p. 162, 
ed. M.), where, speaking of these forms, he expressly says, "Dice- 
bant antiqui: Explenunt (p. 80), solinunt (p. 162), for expleni, 
Solent; nequinont,ferimint,prodinunt (p. 229), for nequeunt,ferivnt, 
prodeunt. These, together with our danunt, are sufficient to estia- 
blish this usage, so far as regards those verbs whose stem ends in a 
vowel ; but even in the third conjugation we find inserinuntur for 
inseruntur (Miiller, ad Festum, suppl. p. 397). 


the final prayer, that for the future also Hercules will be favourable 
to the Vertuleii. Damnari voti, to be obliged to fulfil a vow, is a 
well-known idiom of the language : here we have condemnare in the 
same sense. We might compare with this the phrase which occurs 
at the end of the Reatine inscription : rogans te, ut pro hoc adque 
alieis donis des digna merenti (Ghrut. 96, 7 ; Mur. 96, 1). The 
inscription of Giovenazzi above referred to, in the prayer at the end 
exhibits the same formula : tb • obat, with the difference that the ob- 
ject prayed for does not foUow immediately, but first a species of cap- 
tatio henevolentiae in the words tv • bs • • • devs, &c. — ^The word 
crebro might signify : if at another time we should make another vow, 
then enable us to gain our object. We may here compare Pliny's 
letter to Trajan (X. 44), where we read : Sollemnia vota pro incolu- 
mitate tua , . . et suadpimus, domine, pariter et solvimus, precati deos, 
ut velint ea sbmpbr aolvi semperque signari. However, the vow here 
spoken of is only made in time of trouble — re afleicta, and so it 
would be no fit object for the prayers of the Vertuleii, that Hercules 
should give them occasion to fulfil such a vow ; and it appears to 
me rather, that reference is meant to some, so to say, perpetual vow, 
conceived by the father in his afiiiction, and to be paid whenever 
some special gain might improve his position. Perhaps we may 
compare the above-cited inscription of Muratori (60, 1) with the 
decuma facia iterum dat, and we find the same iterum in that of 
Giovenazzi. And here I think it will be in place to give a conjec- 
ture of mine regarding the nature of the vow and the condition of the 
Vertuleii. Even the great Scaliger in his day expressed an opinion, 
that poUncta was used principally in speaking of the libations and 
hiraf^al which merchants offered to the gods from their goods 
(cf. Miiller ad Festum, suppl. p. 398), an opinion supported by Varro 
XVI. 54) : guom enitn ex mbrcibus Ubamenta porrecta sunt Herculi in 


ara, turn polluctum est. Now we find an actual example of this in 
the case of the above-mentioned Herennius ; and, as it was most 
frequently men of moderate fortune who consecrated the tenth to 
Hercules (this I infer from the oh fjt6yov of Diodorus, IV. 21. which 
proves that such was at any rate the usual practice), it appears 
highly probable that it was especially merchants who did so ; no 
others would have had greater reason to avail themselves of the 
promise made by Hercules himself, according to the myth, 6n fierd 
ri^y iavrov fierdaraaiy els deovs roi$ ehla/xivois er^cKarcvo'ecy *HfKirXet 
r^v ohfflav, ovfifilioeTfu tov fiiov chhaifjLovifFTepoy ^ccv (Diod. IV. 21 ; 
cf. Plut. Crass. 2). With respect then to our inscription, I presume 
that here also we have before us such a vow made by a merchant. 
In the first place the res afleicta seems to refer to mercantile rather 
than to agticultural property, and it is not likely that agricultural 
tenths would be offered to Hercules. Tenths from the produce of 
war are out of the question, neither is there anything else which 
could come within our view. The inscription of Cn» Flaccus had 
reference, it would seem, to a family of merchants, inasmuch as the 
decuma is made ob reditum felicissimum eg Africa Vibi/ratris (Mu- 
rat. 307, 5). I will add to what has been already said, that the gens 
Vertuleia was hitherto unknown, and may well have been a frunily of 
provincial merchants. Lastly the word crebro, if we have rightly ex- 
plained it, would thoroughly accord with what has been stated. The 
vow was made for every gain of a certain amount ; hence the prayer, 
crebro nos voti condemnes. 

It remains for us to define the period to which our stone is to be 
assigned. Its orthography, ei for (, ou for H, e for t in mereto and 
semol, jfs for x, is such as is found at no very remote time. The 
form however of the nominative plural eis, we have never met with 
at a later date than the Lex Thoria and the Lex ServiUa, that is, 
about the middle of the seventh century of Rome ; and even then it 
was an exceptional form. The custom of putting a single consonant 
in place of a repeated consonant, is no longer found in those laws ; 
it is however constant in the table about the boundaries of 
the Genuates and the Viturii of the year 637, and, although the 
danunt appears to be a reminiscence of greater antiquity, there is 
nothing very archaic in the form of the letters (among which I will 
cite, for instance, the rectangular / instead of the more ancient P, 
which occurs for example in the tomb of the Scipios), and this 
makes me believe that the inscription ought to be ascribed to this 
very period, I mean to the first half of the seventh century or a little 
later. In the second place, a negative proof in confirmation of my 
opinion that our inscription is not more ancient, has been pointed 
out by Count Borghesi, in the fetct that the long vowels are no longer 
expressed by repetition, as was the practice of the oldest times. 
Quintilian says (Inst. Or. i. 4, 10^, veteres . . , qui geminatione w>- 
calium velut apice utebantur; and in another passage (I. 7, 14), 
usque ad Accium et ultra porrecias sgllabas geminis vocalibus scrip- 
serunt ; Velius Longus (p. 2220, ed. Putsch.) says, Attium semper 
vocales geminantem, ubicunque producitur syllaba ; and Scaurus (p. 


2255), Accius geminatis vocalibus scrUn natura longas syllabas vobiit, 
which, according to Marius Victorinus (p. 2456), Naevius also, and 
Livius Andronicus did. In the second place however, it is justly 
observed by Schneider (Gram. Lat. p. 96), that even in the inscrip- 
tions of the tomb of the Scipios and in the S. C. de Bacch. the 
custom no' longer prevails. On the other hand, it was still followed 
in many inscriptions of more recent date, and thus appears to have 
maintained itself in use in isolated places long after it had become 
generally obsolete. 

G. Hbnzbn. 

VOL. VI, ^ 



'* On Natural Sounds," by Professor J. C. £. Buschmann. Trans- 
lated by Campbell Clarke, Esq. from the Abhandlungen der Kbrng- 
lichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, aus dem Jahre 1 852. 

The history of philology has at all times afforded instances of the 
ease with which some resemblance may be traced between various 
languages, or between their elements, and of the facility with which 
theories of their relationship (based upon such points of similarity) 
may be constructed, to the satisfaction of the inventor. After de- 
voting some attention to a careful examination of the data on which 
these theories are founded, I find myself compelled in all cases except 
when they rest on an historical basis, and even then in particular 
instances, to subject them to a critical investigation, and sometimes 
summarily to discard them. One source of resemblances in language 
I shall have to point out in the present paper, and for this purpose I 
shall make use of the term " Natural Sounds." I must premise that 
by this expression I do not intend to denote Onomatopoeia — the 
imitation of sound — although the term may seem to embody pre- 
cisely that idea. 

The striking similarity of the words used to express ' flBither' and 
' mother,' in some widely-separated languages^ is unquestionable, and 
has always hitherto occupied a prominent position in the arguments 
adduced in support of the theory that all languages are related — 
that they are all descended from one common primeval tongue. 
This belief, convincing as the above simple fact has hitherto proved, 
must now fade away under the influence of the strong light which 
I have brought to bear upon the question. The sounds (iden- 
tical or similar) which so many nations employ for the names of 
' father' and 'mother' are those which a lisping infant first articulates; 
it is from the lips of children that these words, afterwards incorpo- 
rated into the vocabularies of the language, were in the first instance 
taken. The expressions for 'father' and 'mother' are in a vast number 
of languages either entirely, or in their basis, natural sounds — sounds 
prompted by nature, the result of some emotion on the part of the 
child, and suited to its undeveloped and unpractised organs. They 
either consist entirely of the most simple and most palpable (materielt) 
sounds, or have such sounds for their root. This accounts for lan- 
guages of various races and diverse regions resembling each othei so 
much in these words ; but such similsuity, which is moreover not so 
great as is commonly imagined, is not the slightest proof that the 
languages are related, but is the spontaneous result of natural orga- 
nization. My theory of the independent formation of the names for 
' father ' and ' mother ' among various races by means of the natural 
sounds is confirmed by the remarkable phenomenon, illustrated in 


the following tables, that the forms which should, according to rule, 
aqd which in some languages do actually mean * ifather/ are used in 
other languages for ' mother/ and vice versd. Who can doubt this 
to be simply the effect of mechanical forces ? 

The proposition which I set up may be stated as follows : that 
some of the similarities (not restricted to the two words I have 
selected for illustration) to be met with in languages may be referred 
to the influence of the natural sounds (that is to say, the first arti- 
culations of an infant), and cannot, therefore, be admitted as proofs 
that the languages in which they occur are related : this is my own 
original conviction. These sounds have, however, been already 
noticed by other writers ; even as far back as the ' Etymologicum 
Magnum,' which, besides treating frequently of Onomatopoeia, 
sometimes also touches on the subject of natural sounds. It is there 
stated that "vdirvos ^k &7r6 ttjs twv leaiZQv T(5y fiiKpwy wpotrfwyri' 
aciat, &s ^flirty "OfjLfipot' irort yovyatri iraTrird(ov<ny*, oyofiaroweiroirirai 
ovy fi Xi^is.'^ La Condamine, in his ' Travels in South America,' 
remarks on the diffusion of such forms as papa, mama, through many 
languages, and explains the process (which I shall afterwards treat 
more freely and comprehensively) by saying that parents took these 
words for * father ' and ' mother ' from their children. Singularly 
enough, his attention was also directed to exceptions from the rule : 
but he knew of none, and expresses his surprise at papa never mean- 
ing ' mother/ and mama ' father.' After some remarks on the poverty 
of the American languages in abstract expressions, the celebrated 
author continues as follows : " I have compiled a vocabulary of the 
most usual words in the various Indian languages. A comparison of 
these words with the corresponding words of the other languages of 
the interior, may not only serve to prove the migrations of these 
nations from one extremity of this vast continent to the other ; but 
this same comparison, extended to the various languages of Africa, 
of Europe, and of the East Indies, is perhaps the only means of dis- 
covering the origin of the Americans. A well-attested similarity of 
language would no doubt decide the question. The words Abba, 
Baba, or Papa and Mama, which seem to have been received, with 
slight modifications, into the majority of European dialects from the 
ancient tongues of the East, are common to a considerable number 
of American nations, the languages of which are in other respects 
totally distinct. If we consider these words as consisting of sounds 
which a child is first able to articulate, and consequently as those 
which must have been adopted by the parents who heard them 
nttered to express the ideas of father and mother, how can we 
account for the circumstance, that in all the languages of America 
in which these words occur, their meaning has never been reversed } 
How does it happen that in the Omagua language, for instance, 

• Homer's IlUd, Book 5, line 406 :— 

Niyinos, o^4 rb oUt leard 6p€va Tv^eo* vlos, 
"Otti /idX' oif dfivai6s, 8« dBaydronn ftdx^irai, 
Oifie rl uiv iralSet trorl yovvavi vainrdZovatv 
'"EKOdvr ^K iroXiftoio cat atvn^ Sii'iorfiros, 



in the centre of the continent, or in any other in which the words 
papa and mama are in use, the word/uipa does not mean ' mother,' and 
mama * father,' but that the contrary is as much the rule as in the 
languages of Europe and the East ? It is very probable that other 
wonis are to be met with among the aborigines of America, the 
well-authenticated connexion of which with those of some language 
of the ancient world may throw some light upon a question which 
has hitherto been abandoned to barren conjecture*." 

In this, as in every other case, we see that these sounds are 
pressed into the service for the purpose of establishing or indicating 
affinities between languages, which in every other respect are ac- 
knowledged to be unconnected. 

The expressions for ' father' and 'mother' are not so much alike in 
all the languages of the world as is supposed. I shall restrict myself 
to the illustration of these two words for the present, but shall 
afterwards advert very briefly to other examples. I have compiled 
eight vocabularies, showing four types for each of these two ideas ; 
pa, ta, ap, at, for ' father ' ; ma, na, am, an, for ' mother.' Who does 
not instantly perceive the remarkable law which allots the labial and 
dental mutes (hard and soft) to 'father,' and the corresponding 
blunt t consonants m and n to ' mother ' ? The open syllable (be- 
ginning with a consonant and ending with a vowel) and the close 
syllable (beginning with a vowel and ending with a consonant) are 
equally in use ; and the four types for each word may in theory be 
reduced to two ; ' father ' pa or ta {ap or at), ' mother ' maorna {am 
or an). But in the comparison of languages, the four types must 
be retained.. 

The sounds pa, ta, ma, na, may be said to be the simplest in nature. 
They consist of the palpable (materiell) labiabi and dentals— the 
most palpable of the mutes — enunciated with more or less force (as 
in ha^ da), or without any effort (as in ma, no). And how thoroughly 
in accordance with nature is the feeling that dictates the use of the 
more powerful sounds, the hard and soft mutes, to express ' father/ 
while for ' mother ' are employed the soft and rounded consonants 
that can only just lay claim to the appellation of mutes ! And here 
may we admire another of the operations of that great Nature that 
works so quietly by means of simple and ingenious laws ! 

The annexed vocabularies are arranged under eight types (four for 
each word), and form a list of the words for ' father ' and ' mother ' in 
most of the languages of which we have any knowledge. They thus 
afford a proof that these words are produced by the action of the 
natural sounds. In this process I do not recognize the relationship 
of these words, but lay claim to them on the plea of their indepen- 

* "Relation abr6g^e d*un yoyage fait dans I'int6rieur de I'Am^rique m^ri* 
dionale. Par M. De la Condamine." Paris, 1745, 8to. pp. 55 et teq. 

t Grammarians of the new school would say — the corresponding nasals. But 
*' nasal ** is not an appropriate expression for m, and there is unfortunately no 
general name for the seri«*s of neutral letters (indiferente Buehstabenreihe) which 
closes the class of mutes. 1 have, therefore, made trial of the expression 6/mii/ con- 
sonants (ttumpfe Consonanten). 


dent formation in spite of their outward similarity. In languages 
which are proved to be connected, the relationship in these words 
also, where it is obvious, is not lessened ; but even in these we fre- 
quently observe that the characteristic portion falls out, and an inde- 
pendent element supplies its place. An example of this may be 
seen in the Slavonic languages, which, instead of using the tjrpe 
pa of the Sanscrit family, make use of the independent type at. 
As I have already observed, the conformity between the languages 
mentioned in the tables is not altogether so considerable. The 
different languages must in the first place be separated into four 
types fur each word ; pa, ap, ta, at, must be considered as entirely 
distinct, as also the other four, ma, am, na, an. Attention may be 
directed at this point to the remarkable circumstance, that to a 
great extent the labial (pa for ' father,' ma for ' mother ') is the 
characteristic of the old world, and the dental (ta for ' father,' na for 
' mother ') of the new continent. Moreover, how variously is each 
type worked out in the separate languages ! In one instance we 
observe the simple radical form, in another the fame form enriched 
with the most diverse additions : some short, others long ; some 
intelligible and expressive, others that seem to be a mere increase 
to the original type. For instance* in the Indo-European family, which 
stands high in the scale of languages, affixes may be found which 
either specify the gender or denote the person referred to (Russian 
otets ; the entire series of forms like pater and mater). There are 
many forms in the vocabularies in which the radical natural sound 
can scarcely be recognized ; the introduction of these must be attri- 
buted to the theorizing tendency of the inquirer. I do not deny 
that these forms have been acted upon by other influences, the con- 
sideration of which does not come within the province of our present 
investigation; nor that in isolated cases their derivation may be 
traced, with some modification of meaning, to a simpler root ; yet if 
such derivation were universal, these forms would necessarily, to a 
certain extent, fall into the sounds under consideration. But I do 
not purpose considering the question in detail; and the more the 
mass of languages is separated, the more completely will the object 
be attained to which this treatise is devoted. 

The transposing of meanings to which I have already referred, t. e, 
the use of the real mutes (wirkliche Mutae) for ' mother,' and the 
blunt ones for ' father,' constitutes another cause of dissimilarity in « 
languages. It must not be supposed that all the languages of 
the world can be included in the four types under which the follow- 
ing vocabularies are arranged. On the contrary, we find the most 
varied combinations of the most various letters expressing the ideas 
of ' father ' and ' mother.' I have not, however, noticed such instances, 
as my only object has been to weaken the theory, founded upon 
the frequent occurrence of the letters,^, /, m and n, that all languages 
are related ; and to prove, by a remarkable instance, that many 
causes concur to produce similarity between languages that have 
no relation with each other. 

Considering that our selection has in this manner been limited. 


I think that the following yocabularies afford proof of the satis- 
fiactory state of our information on the subject of language, and 
of the copiousness of the collections which have been amassed 
by philologists, and by industrious travellers from all parts. Where 
the same form occurs in various languages, I have arranged them in 
alphabetical order. Sometimes (but not according to any rule), when 
the idiom is not well known, I have inserted the place or the quarter 
of the globe between parentheses. The forms and statements of my 
authorities are of course not free from faults ; for my own part, I 
am responsible for only a certain number of forms and languages. 
Slight diffierences of form must not be considered too closely; I have 
copied the collections mechanically oftener than I ought to have 
done. On the one hand, one combination of letters may represent 
various forms or pronunciations, and, on the other hand, the same 
word may, ftt)m accident, or from an arbitrary system of transcrip- 
tion, appear under several different forms. Many languages are 
repeated under various forms ; in some cases correctly so ; in others, 
because various authorities (dictionaries and vocabularies) give 
various forms, in consequence of their compilers having comprehended 
the sound differently, or used different means for expressing it. The 
most various modes of transcriptioii and the most various systems of 
pronunciation (German, English, Spanish, French, Russian, etc.) are 
used, but I cannot venture to specify the method employed in any 
particular instance. Fortunately this does not often affect the cor- 
rectness of the vocabularies, for the principal sounds, the mutes, 
are for the most part determinate, and the vowels are of no par- 
ticular importance in our inquiry. In languages which are very 
well known, I have not gone deeply into the dialects or cognate 

The field of our investigations would *be much enlarged if the 
expressions ' grandfather,' ' grandmother/ ' uncle,' ' aunt,' ' father- 
in-law,' 'mother-in-law,' * nurse,' were included in the inquiry. 
They would very frequently be found in the four types I have set up 
for ' father' and ' mother.' In those languages in which the latter 
expressions would not come under -our cognizance, the words ex- 
pressing the older relationship, or the office corresponding to that 
of mother, would appear; or we should find 'flBither' and * mother' 
in one type, and the above-mentioned degrees of relationship in 
another*. By introducing the above expressions, the proof of the 

* Observe the Latin avut (like the Semitic ab) ; the Greek ir&icwot * grand- 
father,' fidfifAii or iidfJLiia * grandmother' ; the German Muhme. Compare also the 
German Jmme, Xante, and the Greek r^i|, rirOif. In Hungarian, atya is * fisther* ; 
anya 'mother'; apds 'grandfather.' No one would commit the absurdity of con- 
necting ap6t historically with avus, ^ 

In Russian and Polish, * nurse' is niania. In Mexican, 'mother' follows the 
American formation na [nantli ; * father ' is tatli) ; but the formation ma occurs in 
' nephew ' and ' niece,' maehtli, of which there is a corresponding form tiackiii 
' uncle.' As maehtli includes both genders, this may be taken as an instance of 
another division of signification which occurs in many languages : via. that the older 
relationship is expressed by means of the strong type, and the younger by the weak. 
Moreover, 'uncle' is also tlatli in Mexican, which must be considered to be con- 
nected with tatli ' fo ther.' 


action of the natural sounds in this sphere, and of the remarkable 
and characteristic apportionment of the letters to the two genders, 
is rendered not only more complete, but also clearer; for the 
dissimilarity of languages in these forms is rendered still more 
apparent, and It is thus proved that the entire operation is an 
independent process of nature, lliere is also an increase in the 
anomalies which occur in the distribution of the letters between 
the genders; in the exceptions to the rule which assigns to the 
masculine the two real mutes (wirkliche Mutae) and suppresses 
them in the feminine. Thus maman means in French * mother,' and, 
in Tamul * father-in-law.' 

I take the liberty of noticing in this place a similar phenomenon, 
even although its consideration may lead us still further from our 
subject. In cases where a root has by a slight change in one letter 
been made capable of two significations, the forms are used to express 
some other natural and corresponding relationships. In the Mohawk 
language, rongwe is ' man,' and yongwe, * woman ' ; in the Oneida, 
the former is longwee, the latter yongwee, * Boy ' and ' girl ' are in 
Mohawk raxaa and kaxaa ; in Cayuga, aksaa and exaa ; in the Seneca 
laiiguage, hujcsaa and yixsaa. There is a similar correspondence in 
many languages in the words used to express these ideas. 

I shall now notice specially the anomeJies I have already referred 
to in the appropriation of the radical consonants to 'father' and 
' mother ' ; that is to say, the cases in which, contrary to the general 
law deduced ^om the great majority of instances, the signification 
of ' mother ' is attached to the types pa or ta, ap or at, and that of 
' father ' to ma or na, am or an*. This seems to me to be, as I have 
already stated, a strong argument against the theory, based upon 
these words, of the relationship of all languages, or their derivation 
from one primeval tongue t> and also an additional proof of the in- 
fluence of the natural sounds upon the entire class of words under 

Many instances of the type ta, including the entire series of 
double vowels (tai, dai, etc.), signify ' mother.' This cannot be attri • 
buted to the soft d or nd, as it is equally the case in several forms in 
which the letter t occurs. For instances of this, observe in the 
vocabularies tlie subdivision commencing with deda. 

Words which in many languages mean ' mother,' but in some, 
' father ' : — mama or mamma ; ina means in very many languages 
' mother,' but in two, ' father ' ; ma, generally meaning ' mother,' 
means in some languages of the East Indian Archipelago, ' father ' ; 
and on the other hand, the words expressing ' mother ' belong to the 
type of * father,' viz. ambu. 

Mam is in many languages 'mother,' in on6, ' father' ; on the other 
hand, ba is generally ' father,' but in one language ' mother.' 

Several languages opposed to one or two : — ami in some languages 

* These anomalies are specified in the vocabularies. I shall introduce many, 
but not all of them, in the following specification. 

t This may also confirm the supposition that at the building of the Tower of 
Babel the meanings of words were changed. 


means ' mother ' ; in one Tungueian language it means ' mother,' in 
other Tungusian dialects, 'father ' ; fit« is in two languages ' mother/ 
in two, * father* ; amay is in two languages ' mother,* in one 'father'; 
in one of the Malayan languages of the Eastern Archipelago it is 
• mother,' and in -another, ' father ' ; muma is ' mother ' in one lan- 
guage, and in two languages ' father.' 

Words which mean • father ' in one language, and in another, ' mo- 
ther' : — nanna, nok, etta. He ; una is 'mother' in one African language, 
in another, * father.' It is remarkable that in Bugis anUfok should 
mean ' father,* as in Javanese it certainly means ' mother.' This may 
be an error of the dictionary ; but yet the Bisayan ambayun, ' father,' 
shows that the form is possible. I do not doubt, however, that errors 
of this nature may have found their way into dictionaries in conse- 
quence of the lines having been shifted either in writing or printing, 
or from some other mistake of this kind. 

But there may be anomalies in gender where the words are not 
absolutely identical in form ; those words also which, undergoing a 
slight change of form, depart from their legitimate signification, 
must be considered as anomalies. The incompleteness of the voca- 
bularies arising from the number of languages which are still inacces- 
sible to us, and the above-mentioned uncertainty" in transcription, 
justify us' in including in this category the instances in which analo- 
gous forms bear opposite meanings. This may be seen on reference 
to deda and the following words in the vocabulary (deda ' mother,' 
dede ' father ' ; tota * father,' toda * mother '). Observe the following 
pairs of words in which the first form bears the legitimate meaning, 
the second the anomalous signification : maman and mamo * mother,' 
mammitn 'father' ; mame * mother,' mammer ' father ' ; moma ' mother,* 
muma 'father' ; man^ ' mother,' mangge 'father' ; amo 'mother,' ammu 
^father' ; ema, emma, imma, ime, are all 'mother,' but ima is 'father* ; 
nina 'mother,' ninnah ' father' ; aanne 'mother,' anneh ' father* ; ba fre- 
quently ' father,' mba ' mother,' in two languages ; pe, in one American 
language, ' father,' be and bi in two others, ' mother ' ; papa, baba, 
bawa,fave, 'father' ; on the other hzxidi, fawa, fafa, papai, 'mother* ; 
bapu ' father,* babu ' mother' ; ab ' father,' aw ' mother' ; abu ' father,' 
aapu • mother ' ; apatsch ' father,' awaz ' mother.' 

The form ama occurs in two considerable groups of languages ; 
and although it should, according to the type, mean ' mother,' in the 
greater of these two groups it bears the signification of ' father ' ; 
moreover, although it means 'mother' in Malayan, it means 'father' 
in a series of cognate languages of the East Indian Archipelago. The 
forms yama, kama, bear the signification of ' father.' On the other 
hand, amma in the languages represented is constantly 'mother* ; in 
one language only does it mean * father.* 

If we compare the words for ' father' and ' mother,' in the same Ian- 
guage, we shall frequently observe a harmony in the structure of the 
two forms : a conformity in one part, and a characteristic difference 
in another part of the word ; and indeed sometimes an analogy so 
complete, that everything in the two words is identical except the one 
consonant which I have given as the natural sound for ' fiather' or 


' mother.' There cannot be any stronger proof that the natural 
process which I maintain is true, than is afforded by the following 
examples : — Latin, pater and mater ; in the Inkulait language (N. W. 
America), takalja ' father/ nakalja * mother ' ; Kuskokwimian, atti 
' father,' anni ' mother ' ; Kadjadc, ataga * father,* anaga ' mother ' ; 
Hungarian atya ' father/ any a ' mother ''*'. Examples are numerous, 
but it is not my intention to give a list of them here. 

But in many cases the analogy lies in a different direction ; in 
many languages one type serves to express both meanings (only pa, 
or ta, or ma, or na, or one of their inversions), and then the discre- 
pancy is found in the subordinate element. The same natural sound 
occurs in both names. A language of this kind is therefore half in 
opposition to the law which selects a radical consonant for each 
gender. By this means we obtain a special justification for a part 
of the anomalies exhibited (supra, pp. 193, 194). At the same time» 
the anomalous form in a language of this nature cannot exactly be 
placed in opposition to a similar form in another language (supra, 
p. 194) retaining its normal meaning. As examples of this exceptional 
mode of expressing /a/A^ and mother may be given ; — in the Tapua 
language of Africa, nda * father,' nta ' mother * ; in Ibu, nna ' father,* 
nnc ' mother ' ; in the Pessa language, nang 'father/ nangai 'mother' ; 
and in Mandingo, fa or fama • father,' ha or bamo ' mother.' This 
phenomenon — the limited use of the natural sounds, — must also add 
to the certainty of the diversity of languages on this head. 

Before 1 bring the vocabularies under the reader's notice, I must 
explain the principles which I have followed in the arrangement of 
them. I have attempted a systematic classification, which, without 
being arbitrary, possesses many advantages, and which serves as an 
example which it may not be unprofitable to follow. 

The principle of my arrangement is this : I consider the conso- 
nant or consonants as the framework of the word, which I maintain 
clear, that is to say, free from affixes, while going through the series 
of vowels. First come the simple vowels in alphabetical order, 
a (also d), e, t, o, u (u), y ; then the double vowels or diphthongs, 
a followed by a, e, t, o,u,y; e followed by a, e, t. o, «, y, &c. First 
come two consonants with a vowel between, then without the vowel 
(tattana, tatna\ This arrangement is subordinate to the greater 
subdivisions of syUabic construction : at first consonant and vowel, 
or vowel and consonant, pa, pe, pi, etc., or ap, ep, ip, etc.; then 
follows the syllable beginning and ending with a consonant and 
enclosing a vowel ; then the same combination with a vowel annexed 
to the last consonant ; then occurs the change in the final vowel, 
subordinate to the change in the first vowel. The order of succes- 
sion of the consonants (see infra, p. 196) determines the arrangement 
of the words where the final consonant is changed. Example of 
this succession : {I) pa, pe, pi, etc. ; pai, pan, etc. ; (2) pah, peh, etc. ; 
pap, pep, pip, etc.; paip, etc. (and so on with the other mutes at the 

* In the same way, in Bitshuana, maasho means ' mother,* and (not falling under 
either of our types) raaeho 'father.' Observe, also, in the Isubu language (West 
Africa) sanggo * father,' nyanggo * mother.' 


end); pal, pel, etc.; pas, pes, etc.; patsch, petsch, etc.; (S)paha, etc.; 
papa, pape, papi, etc., papal, etc. ; pepa, pepe, etc.; pipa, etc.; /Nn/w, 
j9at/»e, etc. (and so on with the other mutes) ; pala, pale, etc.; pela, 
pele, etc. (and so on with the sibilants). The process is continued 
(as in Nos. 2 and 3) as the word is increased by the addition of 
consonants or vowels : thus, (4) papan, papen, pepan ; (5) papana, 
papane, papena, papeni, pepana, pepanu, pepena, etc. This law ex- 
hibits the following characteristics : the succession of consonant + 
vowel, consonant -f vowel -|- consonant*, consonant -{-vowel + con- 
sonant -)- vowel t ; the maintaining of the consonant-outline intact 
through the change of vowels, always proceeding from the vowel 
of the last syUable to the beginning of the word, and then taking 
the affixes to the simpler form ; then changing the consonants, at 
first those at the end, and afterwards the prececUng ones, lliis law 
is followed in the admirable alphabetical arrangement of the Javanese 
language, which Herr Gericke first showed us in the small vocabulary 
to his Javanese Reading Book (Bata\-ia, 1831). Wherever this 
arrangement is adopted, it will offer great advantages in the using 
of dictionaries and in facilitating the study of languages. 

What follows is arbitrary, and may be differently arranged in 
every different language, especially as regards the succession of 
consonants ; but yet an arrangement of consonants in classes, as in 
the Indian alphabets, will always possess great advantages. The 
following is my arrangement of the consonants : (1)^^ ^^^V* (2) the 
mutes ; (3) the liquids / and r ; (4) the sibilants ; (5) the aspirated 
sibilants. The mutes I take in this order : A:-sounds, o-sounds, and 
/-sounds ; each is followed by the blunt consonant (the nasal, ng, 
m, n) which belongs to it. A mute preceded by its corresponding 
blunt consonant I consider as a simple mute : first comes bat, then 
mbai ; apa, aba, atnba, apha ; lata, tanta, dada. Moreover, I sometimes 
do not take into account a consonant placed after a mute : tat, tlat. 
My arrangement of the/»- and /-sounds is as follows \ p\b,mb\f, ph, 
bp,mf', w\ m — tt nt; d; th (but in the vocabularies I have generally 
placed th with /). But although I take the classes of mutes in the 
order k,p, t, I have made an exception to this rule in the vocabula- 
ries, and have given the class to which the initial consonant of the 
type belongs precedence over the others, because the forms in which 
the consonant is repeated, or in which the syllable is more or less 
perfectly reduplicated, are nearly allied to the primitive form. 

I have not been too precise in carrying out Uiis system, but have 
made it subservient to convenience ; I have frequently, for instance, 
brought together sounds which resemble each other : e,g, I have 
placed mna and nga next to na, and have also placed under the same 
heading nj (njae) and n (nua). Moreover, I have not taken prefixes 
into account, when the latter portion of the word seems to be the 
most important ; thus, I have placed y«-/)at under pat. 

* Or, where the word begins with a vowel, simply vowel -|- consonant, 
t Or vowel -|- consonant + vowel. 

t But in the vocabularies I have not taken any notice of a final h ; /a, tah, da ; 
deh, nde. 


The forms are divided into groups, some large and some small, 
by means of brackets. 

I now bring the eight vocabularies under the reader's notice ; at 
first those for father, in the order pa, ap, ta, at ; and then those for 
mother, ma, am, na, an. 

PA, Father. 

ba .. 

ba ... 
mba . 

fit ... 
pha. . 
npa. . 
nmi . 


.phu . . 

mbai . 
bao.. . 

pan.. . 

ban.. . 

Lpiya . 

. Karean, Malayan, Movimi, 
New Zealand, Tunf^sian, 
Timmanee (Africa) *. 

. Bullom, Hottentot, Kiranti 
(India), Malagasi, Shilli 
(Southern Barbary). 

. mother : Mandingo. 

. mother : Bambara, Mandin- 

. Bambara, Mandingo. 


. Burmese. 

. Mandingo. 

. Lule. 

. mother : Otomi. 

. mother : Gahbi. 

. Siamese. 

. mother : Galibi. 

. Akush, Kasi-Kumuk. 

. Chinese, Tonquin. 

. Anam. 

. mother : Ton^an. 

. Minhaesf* sm (Brazil). 

. Magar (India), Jalloof. 

. Jdloof . 

. Fetah ( Guinea ), Caffire, 
Koossa (Africa). 

. Kura, Kyen (Transgangetic 

. Bassa (Africa), Bowrie. 

.Port Jackson (New Hol- 

. Punjs^. 

. Brazilian. 

. Jalloof. 

. Cingalese, Sindhee. 


bab. . . . Arabic, £ 
nee, Ku 
^baw . . Kurd. 

Bumi, Hindosta- 
, Romansh. 

. . Nicobar. 

. . Arinzi, Bengalee, Canarese, 

Gohuri, Gujerattee, Mah- 

bjap . . Arinzi (on the Yenisei). 

• [The original gives Tangus. — Note ^TaANSLAToa.] 

t [Can this be Minas Oeraes ? The Dicclonario Oeographico do Brazil of Milliet 
de Saint- Adolphe gives no such name at Minhaes. — Note q/" Translator.] ' 

papa . . Bullom, Carib, Darien or 
Cunacuna, French, Rara- 
^inian, Macusi, Moza, 
Tamanak, Tivericotti, Ua- 
lan (Caroline Islands). 

paba . . Muysca. 

CMipa . . Bah, Buton, Javanese, Lam- 
Dung, Macassar, Miduntta, 
Malayan, Sumbawa, and 
many other Malayan lan- 
guages notmentioned here. 

ida-bapa. . Cayuvava. 

bappa. . Canarese. 

baoa . . Ako or Eyo, Albanian, Ara- 
bic, Assyrian, Bengalee, 
Carib, Filatah or Fulah, 
Galibi, Hindostanee, Ka- 
byles of Alters, Kura 
(of the Lesffhian family), 
Malagasse, Milchan (Ku- 
nawur), Nepaul(Purbutti), 
Pokomo (Africa), Servian, 
Shilli (Southern Barbaiy), 
Suaheh (Africa), Tatar (of 
theYenisei), Temate,Turk- 
ish, Wika (Africa). 

babba. . Ako or Eyo, SaUva. 

bawa . . Gujerattee, Hindostanee, 

fawa . . mother : Japanese. 

fafa. . . . mother : Japanese. 

papai . . mother : Araucanian. 

babai . . Calmuck ; babajka, Illyrian. 

■baabai . Brazkian. 

have • . Sunwar (India), 
fape . . Seraire (Africa), 
fabe . . Saracole (Africa). 
fafe. . . . Susu. 
babi, babbi. . Betoi. 


PA, Father 

bappo. . Bhatui. 

babo . . lUyrian, Kurd, Sindhee. 

babbo. . Italian. 

bapu . . Bengalee, Canarese. 

bapu . . J 
.babu . . mother : Sumenap. 


pepe . . Koriak. 

bibi . . . mother : Carib, Galibi. 

boba . . Newar (Nepaul). 

bapak. . Javanese. 

bat>am . Kanea. 

bobin .. Wellington Valley (New 

babul . . Hindostanee. 

f fam. . . . mother : Celtic, 
bama . . mother : Fulah. 
fama . . Mandingo. 
bami . . BuUom. 
bamo . . mother : Mandingo. 
.be me . . mother : Arinzi. 

"bok. . . . mother : Javanese, 
beang. . Port Jack8on(NewHolland). 
pai . . . . (pronounce pangi)*, Portu- 


. Ziranian. 
it .... Beloocbee. 
d, fud Ossete. 


fpita . . Sanscrit (nominative), Ben- 
< galee, Hindostanee. 

Ibatja ..Ziranian. 

fbean, 1 Port Jackson (New Hoi- 
's beannaj land). 
Ifano . . Kissi (Africa). 

padar. . 
fadar . . 
pater . . 
vater . . 
fadir . . 
peder . . 
pidur . . 
federe. . 
.pitri . . 



Greek, Latin. 








panin . . Gipsey. 

pahle . . Chorti (Guatemala), 
paylom Huasteca. 
pelar, plar. . Affghan. 

padzu.. Kiriri. 

AP, Father. 

ab • . . . Ethiopic, Arabic, Hebrew, 
Koibal (Siberia), Yumpo- 
kolsk (on the Yenisei). 

aw .... mother : Akra. 

ib .... Assan. 

iip .... Hottentot, Namaaua. 

op .... Assan, Kotowi, Vilela. 

00 .... Imbazk (on the Yenisei). 

apa. . . . Ava, Bhoteea (Kunawur), 
Murmi (India), Theburs- 
kud, Hungarian. 

appa . * Bhutan or Lhopa, Bullom, 
Cingalese, Taculli (North 
America), Tshuktshi. 

aba. . . . Ethiopic, Arakan, Bomu, 
Chalchas-Mongol, Galla, 
Kamash, Serpa (India), 

abba . . Dankali, Galla, Telinga, 

amba . . Limbu (India). 

amba . . mother : Bengalee, Vogul. 

apha, ahpa . . Burmese. 

.awa . . Wallachian. 

aabe . . Chwachamajul (California), 
abi . . . . Olamentke (California). 

abo Gurung (India), Kufaiatsh, 

Lepcha (India), Syrian, 
aapu . . mother : Kurilian. 
abu. . . . Calmuck, Newar (India), 
^ambu . . mother : Madura, Sumenap. 

ewa . 


ebu. . 




,obo. . 

. . mother : Samoyed. 
. . Koriak dialect. 
, . mother : Sumenap. 
, . Arinzi. 
. . Pampango. 

. mother : Javanese (Bh&aa 
Krama), Malayan, Sunda. 
, . Imbazk (on the Yenisei). 

'*' [Ordinary Portuguese dictionaries (such as those of Vieyra and Constancio) 
give this word pai without the tiL — Note ^Translator.] 




AP, Father 
. . Cinealese. 
. . mother : Tsheremiss. 
. . mother : Mordvin. 

ambayim. . Biaayan. 

^ambok . Bugis. 
ambok . mother : Javanese, 
hembok mo^A^: Javanese, 
apang. . Biajuk. 
>paung Silong. 

ipip . . Kamtschatkan. 

abob, aboob. . Hottentot, Korana. 

abam . . Kamash, Motoric (Siberia). 

abami . . Korea. 

ubaba. . Finffo(Africa),Zulu( Africa). 

ubawo . Cam. 


abbada . Koibal. 

abbeda . Motoric (Siberia). 

awatii. . mother : Vogul. 





abban. . 
appen . . 
appin . . 
abani .. 

.ubana. . Haussa. 

ewel . . mother : Wasjugan. 

fajMitsch Kamtschatkan. 
\ ipich . . Kamtschatkan. 
lawaz . . mother : Mokshanic. 

jaba . . Abassic. 

TA, Father. 

tab.. . 
da ... 

^nda. . . 

fde . . . 
deh. . . 
nde. . . 
di ... 

rtai ... 

dai . . . 
ndei . . 
ndua . 

rtat . . . 


tata. . 


. Botocudo, Mandingo, Mex- 
ican (ta-tli), Otomi. 

. Otomi. 

. mother : Tapua (Africa). 

. Ingush, Shilli (Southern 
Barbary), Tshetohentsh. 

. Tapua (Africa). 

, mother: Jalloof. 
, mother i Kurd. 
. mother : Jalloof. 
. mother : Suanian. 
. Hottentot. 

. mother : Bengalee, New 

, mother; Oipsey. 
» mother I Jalloof. 
.mother I Jalloof. 
. mother : Kissi (Africa). 

. Bengalee, Celtic, Congo, 
. Hindostanee, Poconchi. 
. Totonaca. 
. Esthonian. 
. Breton, Welsh. 
. Celtic, Gipsey. 

.Angola or Bunda, Con^, 
Kashubian, Moxa, Pohsh 
(used caressingly), Sapi- 
bocona, Servian, Walla- 

. Esthonian. 

tyatya. . Russian (used caressingly). 

tanta . . Minetari. 

dada . . Mandara, Omagua, Shilli 

(Southern Barbwy), Tushi. 
in-dada my mother : Tepeguana. 
dahdah. . Omahaw (North America), 
tatai . . Mordvin. 
tantai . . Minetari. 
dadai . . Omahaw (North America), 


tate Vilela. 

ntate . . Sessuto or Sisuto (Africa), 
ihn-tatteh. . Quappas (N. America), 
dade . . Hiao (Africa). 
tati .... Bon^ (Africa). 
tatli . . . Mexican (see supra, ta). 
dadi . . . CKpsey. 
tandi . . Canarese. 
tato. . . . Karelian, Malo - Russian, 

deda ., mother-, Georgian, Iberian, 

dede . . Lesghian. 

tita. . . . mother : Pana. 

dida . . . mother : Georgian, Imere- 

tite .... mother : Cora. 

dideh . . Ruugo (Africa). 

titi .... Japanese. 

toU . . . Nez Percys (Rocky Moun- 


TA, Father (cofi/tnifed). 

toda . . fnother : Teutonic. 

tote . . . Frisian. 

a-toteh Cherokee. 

tutia ..mother: KoMtsh (N.W. 

dudu . . mother : Tepeguana. 
tautah . Darien or Cfunacuna. 
.tuatta. . KareUan. 

'tadak . . Kenay. 
daideau Irish. 

tattana Van Diemen's Land, 
tatna . . Machacali. 
tandri. . Telingan. /aM«r: Kliketat 
(Rocky Mountains). 

AT, Father. 

taica . 

.mother: Aymara. 


. Kenay. 

. Inkulait (N.W. America), 


(nakalja mother). 

tuba . 

. Guarani, Tupi. 


. Lithuanian. 


. Lettish. 



'talli . . mother : Telingan. 
talzat . . Mocobi. 
tarei . . mother : Tamul. 
taas. . . . Cornish. 
,in-dadja Osage. 

fat ....Celtic. 
I^aat .... Albanian. 

ata .... Assiniboin, Kirghiz, Moko 
(Africa), Tatar, Turcoman, 

atha . . Akra. 

atta . . . Gothic, Greek, Tshuktshi 
(Latin expression of re- 
spect for an old man). 

ata ... . Dacota or Sioux. 

hada . . mother : Galla. 

Jada . . Tsherkess. 

'ate .... Albanian or Epirotic. 
ya-ate. . mother : Abiponian,Mocobi. 
atte. . . . Tshuvash. 

. . Kuskokvimian, Kwichpak, 

. . mother : Koldtsh (N.W. 

. . Bucharian. 
. . Tatar (about Kasan and 

elsewhere), Tsheremiss. 
. . Tshuvash. 

atti. . 


atu. . 
atai. . 

.atei. . 

ite .. 
ite .. 

. . Ugalenz. 

. . mother : Tatar dialect. 
. . Karaba (Africa). 
. . mother : Kiriri. 
. . Nadovessian*. 
. . Nadovessian. 
. . mother : Zamuca. 
. . Mocobi. 

^aita. . . . Basque, 
aithei . . mother : Gothic, 
aiti .... mother : Finnish, 
uata . . mother : Haussa. 


. Arawak. 
. Hungarian. 
. Lappish. 

'athak . . Unalashka. 
adak . . Aleut. 

atag . . Dacota (North America). 
ahtuch..Minetarit (North America), 
ataka . . Stationary Tshuktshi. 
ataga, adaga . . Kadiak. 
atcucu . Yankton (North America). 

attata . . Esquimaux (Hudson's Bay), 
atatak. . Greenlandish. 
atotuh. . Cherokee, 
etawta . my father : Cherokee, 
idite . . mother : Cayuvava. 
aaten . . mother: Chwachamajul (Ca- 
eten . . Avar, 
edne . . mother : Lappish. 

fathair . . Lish, Welsh. 
< ather . . Gaelic |. 
Laterah. . mother : Pawnee. 

'ateash. . Pawnee (North America), 
otac . . (c=ts) Diyrian. 

* [Vater, in his ' Literatur der Grammatiken/ refers to Nadovessian, Dacota 
and Sioux as one and the same language.^ — Note o^TRANSLAToa.] 
t [The original gives Mbnnilarri. — Noie ^Translator.] 
X [The Dictionarium Scoto-Celticum of the Highland Society, and the Dictionaries 
of Armstrong, M'Leod and Oewar, and M' Alpine, give athair for ' father ' and ma> 
thair for * mother.' See page 202.— ^^o/« (/TRANSLAToa.] 



otets . . Russian, Slovenian, 
etahcheh. . Konza. 

AT, Father (continued). 

atzai . . Cahita. 

Ioza .... Wendish. 
ozha . . Slovenian, 
adja. . . . Fetah (Guinea), 
atsing. . mo/A«r : Cherokee. 

MA, Mother. 


. . Bengalee, Celtic, Hindos- 
tanee, Javanese, Kiranti 
(India), Magar (India), 
Malayan, Movimi, Multan, 
Sechuana, Sessuto or 
Sisuto (Africa), Sitlapi 
(Africa), Tangut or Thi- 
betan (Butan). 

, .father: Ende, Madura. 

. . Akuonga (Africa). 

. . Anamite (orTonquin), Oto- 
mi, Siamese. 

, . . Burmese. 

...father: Km (Africa). 

. . . Karean. 

, . . Chinese, Ton^uin. 

, . .father : Georgian, Suanian. 

mai. . . . Hindostanee, Punjab, Por- 
tuguese, Sindhee. 

mai-ka, min-ka. . Dlyrian, Slovenian, 
Wallachian. ^ 

mao . . Koossa (Africa). 

mau . . Anamite, Memphitic-Cop- 

maau . . Sahidic-Coptic. 

meu, meou. . Bashmuric-Coptic. 

lya . . Brazilian, 
maio . . Wanika (South Africa). 

mi . 
mi . 
mo , 
mu . 

'mam . . Arabic, Breton, Cornish, 

Permian, Welsh. 
father: New Holland (King 

George's Sound), 
mamm . Breton, 
mem . * Esthonian, Frisian, 
mim . . Huasteca. 

mama.. Angola or Bunda, Betoi, 
Congo, Cumanagoto, Ger- 
man, Hindostanee, Hot- 
tentot, Macusi, Mandara, 
Omagua, Peruvian, Po- 
komo (Africa), Quiteno, 
Sumbawa, Servian, Slove- 
nian, Suaheli, Wallachian. 

mama../aM«r: Geoman, Iberian, 
Sumenap, \^^dgiu. 

mamma .Albanian, Finnish, Parechi, 
Romansh, Shilli (Southern 

mamma, .father : Kartulinian. 


mame . . Albanian. 

mamo. . Karelian, Olonez, Ziranian. 

meme. . Bali, Moza. 

memme. Koriak. 

mimeh . Bali. 

mimii . . Votiak. 

moma. . Lithuanian. 

muma. . Wallachian. 

muma../a/^: Georgian, Imere- 

muime • Irish. 

rmammws. . Welsh, 
maman . French, 
maman. .father-in-law : Tamul. 
mammun. .father : New Holland 

mammer. .father : New Holland 

(South-West, Guildford). 

mayo . . Wika (Africa). 

'mak . . Javanese, Semang. 
maika . . Wallachian. 
mang . . Newar (India). 
maiLgge. father : Macassar. 

mawu . . Cingalese. 

mad . . Ossete. 

'mata . . Bengalee, Hindostanee. 

mate ..Zend. 

mahte. . Lettish. 

mati . . Illyrian, Slovenian. 

matj . . Russian, 
.muta . . Wallachian. 

matka. . Polish. 

motina . Lithuanian. 


mater . . Latin, 
mateij. . Slavic, 
mather . Gaelic*, 
mader. . Persian, 
madur. . Hindostanee. 
mathair. Irish, Welsh. 
firiTfjp . . Greek, 
mutter . German, 
madjar . Buchanan. 

[man . . Hindostanee. 
mena . . Ashantee or Fanti. 

MA, Mother (cpmtmued). 

minna. . Fanti. 
minnee . Burum (Africa). 
Lmanha. . Angola or Bunda. 

fmur. . . . Affghan. 
< mair . . Armenian. 
Lmairi . . Ghijerattee. 

rmaacho. Bitshuana (opposed to 
< raacho father). . 

tmitschi./oM«r: Kurilian. 

AM, Mother. 

em . 
iim . 

. Imbazk, Ostiak, PUmpo- 

kolsk, Vogul dialect. 
. Hebrew. 
Rorana (South Africa). 

ama . . Assan, Basaue, Yukagiri, 
Kotowzi, Kott, Malayan, 
Murmi (India), Nepal 
(Purbutti), Serpa (India). 

ama . .father : Abac (Philippine 
Islands), Baschi or Batan, 
Bima, Bugis, Formosa, 
Iloco, Lampung, Lamuti, 
Mantshu, Meni^o, Rotti, 
Sasak, Sawu, Sulu, Sunda, 
Tagal, Timor, Tshapogiri. 

amma. . Bhatui (India), Cingalese, 
Imbazk, Rorawai (India), 
Limbu (India), Malabar, 
Tamul, Telingan, Timski- 
Samoyed, Ug^enz. 

Biiams., .father: Magindanao. 


ama Albanian. 

yama . .father : Cagayan (Philip- 
pine Islancb). 
.father : Mandhar (Asia). 

'amme . . Malabar. 

ami. . . . Ava, Burmese, Tungusian 

ami. . . ./aM«r : Tungusian (on the 

Yenisei) and several other 

amo . . Gurung( India), Lepcha. 

* See Note at page 200. 

ammu. .father : Tungusian (near 

amai or amay. . Biajuk, Sunwar 

amai or amay. .father : Bisayan. 
amao . . Hiau (Africa), 
amia . . Yukagiri. 

fema Tivericotti. 

em'a Finnish. 

emma. . Esthonian, Taiginian. 

ima. . . .father : Andi. 

imma . . Assyrian,Rabylesof Algiers. 

ime Laos. 

umma. . Bhoteea (Kunawur), Liu- 
Riu or Loo-Choo, Milchan 
(Runawur), Theburskud. 

uhma . . Cafire, Koossa (S. Africa). 

umai . . Minhaest («ic) (Braiil). 

umue . . Lule. 
Ijmma. . Shilli (Southern Barbaiy). 

famahun./a/Aer : Bisayan. 
\emja . . Tshuchonic. 

'imaque. Cumanagoto. 

ammang . . Batta. 

imam . . Ramasb. 

amam. . Esquimaux (Hudson's Bay). 

amider . Pehlvi. 

KaLmen. father: Tungusian. 

amin ..father: Tungusian of 

amani../a/A^: Saparua. 

amesche . . Tshuvash. 

t See Note at page 197. 


NA, Mother. 



. . . Maya. 
... Fot (Africa). 
...father: Ibu or Eboe (Afri- 
. . Ashantee. 
. . , Susu. 

. . . Baasa (Africa). 
. . . Ibu or Eboe (Africa). 
. . . Km (Africa). 
. . . Seroa (Africa). 
. . . Kyen(Transgaiigetie India). 

3 1 0; 

'hach-naa. . Maya (hach-yum father), 
njae . . Akra. 
neah ..Wyandot. 
^ oneay.. Akra. 
nii . . . . Koltshani (on the Copper* 

mine river), 
fiua. . . . Congo. 

nah-hah Omahaw (North America), 
nehah . . Wyandot, 
nohah.. Cayuga, 
noyeh. . Seneca. 

. . Mexican (with the ending 

. .father : Albanian, Sorabic, 

Wendish of Lower Lusatia. 



Darien or Cunacuna, Ghi- 
nung Talu, Inrush, Lazic, 
Mizteca of Thmiaco (Mex- 

namiA.. father: Albanian. 



. Nogay TatarT"' — 
. FiUtah or Fulah. 
. Sangir. 




ninnah .fatKer : Blackfoot Indians. 

nine . . Turkish. 

nini .... Malagasi (more frequently 

rent ; — Formosa rena)s 
ninia . . Ualan (Caroline Islands), 
nono ..father: Tarahumara. 
nunoi . . Yotiak. 



nenja . . Malo-Russian. 

benque. Chili. 

nenedauh. .father : Katahba. 

ninesan. Ceram. 

nok Popo (Africa). 

nok. . . .father : Vireinia. 
nakalja.Inkulait (N.W. America), 

(takalja father), 
nang ..father: Pessa (Africa), 
ning . . Chippeway or Ojibway. 
naing . . Irish, 
nangai . Pessa (Africa), 
ninge . . Shawano. 

I'nape . .father : Maipure. 
newah. . Shawano, 
nama . . Benin (Africa). 

(nada . . Cochimi. 
neta . .father : Abiponian. 
nendo. . Pira (on the Ucayale). 
nadro . . Pira. 

AN, Mother. 


. . Chivan, Kenay, Tatar, Tun- 

gusian dialect, Turkinh. 
. . Tuscarora. 

. . Delaware, Kenay (North 
America), Indian (Penn- 
svlvania), Pottawottami, 
Tatar dialects, Virginia, 
anneh . .father : Seneca, 
aanne . . Tshugatsh. 
ani . . . . Guarani (Guyana), Kuskok- 

wimian, Tungusian. 
anni . . Kuskokwimian, Kwichpak. 


anai. . . . Tatar dialect* 
^anue . . Lule. 

ena. . . . Ashantee or Fanti, Notto* 
way (North America), 
Rotti, Teleut. 

enah . . Konza. 

enauh. . Osage. 

enna . . Fetim (Guinea). « 

eenah . . Dacota (North America). 

yena. . Cagavan( Philippine Islands). 

ehneh . . Caado (North America). 


esne ,, father: Tshuchomc. 
eni .... Moko (Africa), 
enni . . Tungusian. 
enai. . . . Tatar dialect, 
enie. . . . Mantshu. 
enniu . . Dido (Caucasus), 
eanuh. . Tuscarora. 

ina . . . . Abac (Philippine Islands), 
Assiniboin, Barabinzic Ta- 
tar, Baschi or Batan, 
Bima, Bugis, Dankali, 
IIoco, Lampung, Magin- 
danao, Maipure, Menadu, 
Sasak, Tu;al. 

ina . . . .father : Ceram, Guarani 

mah . . Oto (North America), Sulu. 

inna . . Filatah or Fulah. 

inai. . . . Tatar dialect. 

inihan. . Tagal. 
.anya . . Hungarian. 

anak . . Aleut, StationaryTshuktshi. 

annak. . Unalashka. 

amak . . Greenlandish. 

aanaka . Kadiak. 

anaga . . Kadiak. 

enaung . Silong. 

inang . . Batta. 

ennat . . Ethiopic. 

indo . . Mandhar(Asia), Pampango. 

indu . . Biajuk, Malayan. 

indayun Tagal. 

indok. . Bugis, Lampung. 

indong . Sunda. 

indung . Sunda. 

indona . Bugis. 

anan . . Huron. 


inan . . Dacota or Sioux. 

inani . . Saparua. 

unina . . CafFre, Koossa (S. Africa). 

ananak. Greenlandish*. 

oni . . . . Ashantee or Fanti, Tungu- 

onny . . Tungusian. 
una. . . ./o/Aer: Aino (Tarakai). 

faini. . . . Yarura. 

Janaha . . Kadiak. 
aneheh . Wyandot. 

I have already remarked that the influence of the ni^tural sounds, 
that is, of the sounds uttered by a child, on the formation of words, 
is not limited to the words expressing father or mother, or the older 
degrees of relationship ; the expressions for the ' female breast' must 
undoubtedly be included in the same category. They resemble in a 
remarkable degree the words for ' mother.' Thus, in Latin, mamma is 
used for the ' breast ' only, while in Greek, ftafifia or iianfAr^ means 
'mother' and ' grandmother' as well as the 'breast' of the mother. In 
the Bay of St. Vincent in New Holland, amma, the word which in so 
many languages means ' mother,' is used for the 'breast.' Sometimes, 
however, the word follows the type for 'father,' in which case a change 
in the vowel gives it a feminine character. I refer to the Low 
German Titte (Anglo-Saxon tit, English teat) and the Greek rlrdfi 
(also TirOds); which mean the ' breast' (also the teat of the breast)t ; 
tItBti also means ' nurse ' and * grandmother' J. The Etymologicum 
Magnum derives the cognate fortti rnOh from the natural sound : — 
TtiOi) €K rov rri, ii Xiyovaa rf flpitpei Xa/3e, OiiXaaor. The meaning 

* [The learned author might have included in his long list the English words 
pa, papa, father ; da, dada, daddy t ma, mamma, mammy, mother, — Noie of Trans- 

« t Compare the expression used by German children ; iUiih maehen (the accent 
on the last syllable) for to tuck, 

X To Uke an instance from another sound : compare the Polish tys, sys, * breast ' 
(caressingly), also suckling. 


of ' nurse ' seems to be ascribed to the word, for it proceeds : — iy ^i 
rf pfiToptKf evpoy tnjfialyeiy ri^v Xi^iy fi6fAfjLTiy, ^ irp6$ irarpds 17 fin^pot 

My attention has also been directed to a correspondence in very 
various languages in the words answering to the German Miez, * cat/ 
According to Klaproth, mishik is ' cat ' in Turkish dialects ; in Otomi, 
michi (pronounced mitshi) ; in Wallachian, m^zaf. To these in- 
stances may be added the Mexican miztii (in which tit is only an 
ending) ' lion/ the diminutive of which, mizton, is the word for < cat ' ; 
and the Polish word (used caressingly) for ' bear/ nUs'. I abstain 
from following out the inquiry in the last two illustrations, and from 
searching for other instances. 

I am glad that the process which I have developed presents a sim- 
ple proof of the independent formation of substantives, for a certain 
systematizing philology has of late years, with absolute exclusiveness, 
set up the theory, that the roots of all language must have been 
verbs ; that substantives and adjectives, and indeed all other parts 
of speech, are derivaia verbalia. This philosophy, endangered by 
strong arguments, repeated from time to time in a thousand different 
shapes, which advocate the direct origin of several other parts of 
speech, and which its very advocates would gladly believe, if the mania 
for systematizing allowed them to do so, — this inflexible philosophy 
has gone so far as to maintain that pronouns, and even interjections, 
may be traced back to radical verbs. This ethereal system is widely 
difl^sed among us, and seems to pervade the instruction in our 
(German) modier-tongue. The philosophy which decrees that no 
substantive shall be primitive or radical, is too subtle for me. On 
the contrary, it seems to me natural that when language originated, 
objects and qualities would to a certain extent receive names sooner 
than actions or conditions. Thus we read in Genesis (chap. ii. 
V. 19, 20) : " And out of the ground the Lord God formed every 
beast of Uie field, and eveiy fowl of the air ; and brought them unto 
Adam to see what he would call them : and whatsoever Adam called 
every living creature, tiiat was the name thereof. And Adam gave 
names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of 
the field." Such are the words of the Bible. It would be more 
correct to say. that no one of these three principal parts of speech 
required the aid of any other to call it into existence, but that all 
were ^ually provided for in the first creation of language. 

Although language is most intimately connected with the spiritual 
nature of man, yet it is essentially a natural product. It must be 
considered as a product of nature in its phenomena, in its individual, 
and especiaUy in its collective capacity. The duty of philosophy is 
to make itself acquainted with these phenomena by raising them to 
a higher sphere. But philosophy errs from its path, and does not 
attain truth, when, for the sake of its abstractions, it ignores realities 

* ' Grandmother,' which is the usual meaning of rifOf) (or r^Oif) ; Tfi$la and 
rriOit, on the other hand, mean ' aunt.' 

t y it used for the vowel which occurs at the end of the Wallachian alphabet 
between ja/; and j'a, and is called jus, 



and endeavours to stippress the teeming world of facts; when it 
shuts out from sight the precept which every leaf in the history of 
science impresses on our minds — that, with our imperfect knowledge 
of earthly matters, all general theories must be received with great 
caution, and must undergo considerable modifications as our expe- 
rience becomes enlarged. Manifold are the peculiarities of speech. 
What in one language is unprecedented, in another may be law. 
The philologist who maintains the absolute verbal nature of roots is 
opposed by the whole family of Malayan languages, in which the 
primitive is par excellence at once a substantive and adjective, and 
can only be made into a verb by special treatment or by a modifica- 
tion of form*. This language probably had the same peculiarity at 
its origin. 

Is it right, it may be asked, to limit the process, as I have done, 
to the sounds uttered by children r or can the effect of what I call 
"natural sounds" be traced further? My theory of the phenomenon 
treated in this paper, expressed more precisely than hitherto, is, 
that objects were named by means of sounds and words which were 
taken from, or suited to children, which were said by, or to children, 
or in child-like fashion. Several distinct processes are here men- 
tioned, but they are very similar and lead to the same result. The 
system of philology to which the ideas here expressed owe their 
origin, does not presume to limit the freedom of developments, or to 
pass a positive opinion on individual instances. 

The theory which I have endeavoured to develope must not be 
confounded with Onomatopoeia on the one hand, nor with the sym- 
bolic representation of ideas on the other. The extent of both these 
fields of observation is already very great and very indefinite. But 
limited as this view of the natural sounds is, it yet enables us to 
gain an insight into the infancy of language, into its elementary de- 
velopment, which leads us to the conclusion, that similar words have 
been produced' in the same manner and to an indefinite extent by 
corresponding emotions, which again have accorded several types to 
the various races, without the resemblance justifying any attempt to 
represent those races as connected. 

*^ To show the indefinite nature of the parts of speech in this language, and the 
preponderance of what I may call the substantival power, I shall adduce one ex- 
ample only, the Malayan word adkit. It mean^ * sickness ' and * sick ' ; but with the 
addition of a verbal syllable, or even without any addition, it represents the verb ' to 
be sick.' Example of the substantive : ^hat sdkit kapdUt, remedy for headache ; — of 
the adjective : pdit sdkit or sdkii pdyah, ver- sick: sdkit de tampdri, wounded by 
blows ; — both substantive and adjective : (1) sdkit dti, resentment, malice (i. e. sick- 
ness of the heart) ; (2) malignant (i. «. having a sick or wounded heart) ; — verbal 
meaning (with a particle lah) : idlu sdkit matilah rddja Uu, then the king became 
sick and died ; — (without an aflll) : sakit atina akan 6rang itu, seperti de pdgut Ular 
rasdna, their hearts were embittered against that m&n, as if they had been bitten by 
a snake. The parts of speech in this language may be classified and distinguished 
by means of derivative forms. Thus from sdkit are derived : peiidkit, sickness, in- 
disposition, lamentation ; penakttan, sickness ; mendkit, to malce sick. There is no 
further information about the verb neuter. 


Abraham, Rev. C. J. ; short Vocabularies of the Mallicolo and Erromango 
Languages, 59. 

Achaemenids, pedigree of the, 20. 

^schylus, his truthful account of the Battle of Salamts, 101, &c« 

Ahrens, H. L., Ph.D.; on Feminines in u> and un, and on the word yvvti : with 
Comments by Prof. Key, 155-177. 

Amphictyonic League, and the meaning of the term Amphictyones, 51-58. 

a/i^i and irepc, distinction between the meanings of, 55. 

Analytical and synthetical languages ; on the alleged distinction between, 121-124.^ 

jinge, angel ; on the origin and primitive meaning of the word, 41-49. 

Aorists in -Ka are earlier than those in •<ra, and not, as Bopp supposes, later, 37-39. 

Auxiliary verbs, reason of the use of, 123-4. 

Bartius, king of Bactria, 21. 

Bartiusor Gomates the Magian, 15, 22, 25. 

Behistun, the Rock-Inscriptions of, 13. 

Bible, — on iu phrases ' threescore years and ten ' and ' God save the King,' and the 
non-occurrence of ' Us ' in the first authorized version of 161 1, 7-11. 

Blakesley, Rev. J. W.; an Attempt at an Outline of the Early Medo- Persian 
History, founded on the Rock-Inscriptions of Behistun taken in combination 
with the accounts of Herodotus and Ctesias, 13-26. 

, on the Position and Tactics of the contending Fleets in the Battle of 
Salarois, 101-115. 
Bopp, his view of the origin of the Greek aorists in -ca disputed, 37. 
— , his classification of Languages disputed, 118-126. 
breattf the names for, resemble those for mother, 204. 
BuBCBMANN, J. C. E. ; on Natural Sounds, 188-206. 

California, New; on its Languages, 72-86. 

Cambyses, character of, 21. 

Case; whence the name arose, 121. 

Case-endings and Prepositions identical, 122-3. 

eat, similarity of the name for, in different languages, 205. 

Celtic words used by early English Writers, 129-137. 

Chinese ; discussion of the doctrine that this language is wholly monosyllabic and 
devoid of grammatical formations, 118-120. 

Cicero; some remarks on his Speech * Pro Plancio,* 139-142. 

Clarke, Campbell ; a Translation of Professor Buschm ann'b Paper " On Natural 
Sounds/' 188-206. 


Comparadval Bufflzes in Sanscrit, Greeic, Latin, and Gothic, compared, 157 note. 

amdemnaret used for < obliging to fulfil a vow,' 185. 

Coverdale ; we prol>ably owe the phrases ' threescore years and ten ' and * God 

save the King * to him,' 7-10. 
Cynosura, the true position of, 103, 114. 
Cyrus, his acquisition of the throne of Media, 19. 

danunt for dant, and examples of similar prolongations, 185. 

Darius, his account of himself in the Behiston Inscriptions, 15, contrasted with 
Herodotus's account, 16 ; the two salient points of his life, 23, 24 ; Heniy VII. 
the English Darius, 24 ; his temperate use of his power, 25. 

Davies, Rev. J.; on Celtic words used by early English Writers, 129-137 (pern, 
129; kam or com, 129; bragare, brazare, 130; mittan, 130; flasket ius^ 131 ; 
pelum, 131 ; hobelarii, 131 ; capull, 131 ; kendel, 132; greece, grise, 132; imp, 
133; crowd, erowder, 133; clutter , cluther, clodder, 134; braggot, braket, 134; 
kecks, kex, 134 ; tarre, terry, 135 ; lob, 135 ; tackh, takel, 135 ; bugs, bug^-hoo, 
bugle-bow, boggart, 136; (urval, arvel, arwel, 136). 

Delphi, meetings of the Amphictyons at, 52. 

Derivations of single words : — 

age, 97. 
almond, 41. 
angel, 41-49. 
ap'ply, 128. 
arval, arvel, arwel, 

ballast, 87. 
box, 88. 
brag, 130. 
braggot, braket, 

bugs, bug-a-boo, 

boggart, 136. 

cam or kam, 129. 
capull, 131. 
character, chart, 

clutter, cluther, 

chdder, 134. 
count, 95. 
crowd, crowder, 


de-ploy, 128. 

em-ploy, 128. 
envelop, 149. 
ev-en, 97. 
ewer, 89. 

fag, 146. 
feather, 147. 
/e«6;^, 144. 
fetch-candle, fetch, 

>Se;tfe,' 146. 

fidge, fidget, 146. 
;SWip,/ip, 144. 
;2a5^, 144. 
flaccid, 145. 
/oc* (O.E.), 145. 
flag, 144. 
flagrant, 145. 
/at/, 145. 
yfap. 144. 
/<»rae, 144. 
flank, 145. 
>Iar«, 145. 
flasket, 131. 
;2a//er, 146. 
/e<^eJ, 145. 
flee, 145. 
/e«*. H7. 
flicker, 145. 
/•iV, 145. 
flit, flitter, 147. 
/oo/, 147. 
>^Ar, 145. 
flog, 145. 
/oorf, 147. , 
flook, fluke, 145. 
>tM«.silk, 145. 
flounder, 146. 
/cw, 147. 
>?tt//er, 146. 
fly, 145. 
/o^, 146. 
forlorn, 151. 
/ouf/, 145. 
/if^/fmon, 128,145. 

^nor/, snarl, 88. 
gor«tf, 91. 
greece, grise, 132. 

haberdasher, 91. 
A«n^, 34. 
Aen^f, 33. 
hengle, 35. 
Ao56/«, Ao55y, 131. 

Imp, 133. 

Ar«cAr«» kex, 134. 

i^doMT, 149. 
lack, 150. 
/(V, 150. 
lam, 149. 
/am«, 149. 
/an^ifA, 150. 
lank, 150. 
2a/), 149. 
lap-wing, 149. 
/ofw, 149. 
2a/cA, 150, 151. 
latchet, 151. 
/a/e, lazy, 151. 
/eoA^, 150. 
/eo^A, 151. 
leave, 151. 
/ee, 150. 
less, 151. 
/fl, 151. 
/»e, 150. 
light, Uft, 89. 
/tm5, 149. 
limber, 149. 
/tme, 147. 
limp, 149. 
linger, 150. 

Zip, 149. 
/i/A, /t/Atf, 152. 
i05, 135, 149. 
lobe, 149. 
logger, 150. 
/otter, 151. 
fc»W» 150. 
looby, 149. . 
/oMe, 151. 
/op-eared, 149. 
lorn, 151. 
/OM, 151. 
lounge, 151. 
/ott;, 150. 
lubber, 150. 
ftf^, 150. 
/t(ii^«, 150. 
lye, 150. 

mtnn-OMr, 127* 

open, 126. 

pageant, 90. 
pen (head), 129. 
periwigs 87. 
p/y, 128. 
p<>p/^-tree, 146. 
pw/, 91. 

quick, wick, 97. 

rocA, 90. 
reckon, 126. 

saunter, 149. 
«eii>, «eti;er, 88. 
etmp/e, 127. 


slack, 148. 
tlade (prov.), 149. 
*^, 148. 
slake, 148. 
slap, 140. 
slatttry (prov.), 

sUd, sUdge, 149. 
sleep, 147. 
sUet, 148. 

a6«<efliliw, 97. 
adopHo, 99. 
cu/atloH, 95. 
aqualis, 97. 
€estwue, aetat, 98. 
^nwm, 97. 
oifc or Aa/«c, 95. 
aUbi, aUunde, 96. 
asBore, 94. 
am-es, am-itis, 94. 
oii^^, 42-9. 
ofiiiiw, 94. 
applicare, 128. 

ayyeXos and ay- 
yopM, 42-9. 

Afi^iKTioves, 53, 

av^M, 98. 

y\a^, yXv^, 46. 

sleeves, 148. 
«fee«»^ilk» 148. 
«/m«y 147. 
sling, 148. 
«tinAr, 148. 
«/•/>, 147. 
slipper, 148. 
«fi/Airr, 149. 
slop, 147, 148. 

«fop«, 147. 
shpe, 147. 
«loM, 148. 
<2o9efi, 148. 
slouch, 148. 
«loii^A» 148. 
slow, 148. 
«A<&6er, 149. 
«/tig, sluggard, 148. 
«/ur, 149. 
«/tM^ 148. 


arduue, 94. 
armen/iMK, 93. 

eauda, 95. 
cento, 153. 
circulator f 153. 
circumforaneus, 152< 
com-e«, com-tt-t«,95< 

/a«, 146. 
Jtabrum, Jtabellum, 

fiagrare, 145. 


flamma, 144. 

t7l»c, M/ie, Aic, 96. 

toMttm, 149. 
to&or, 149. 
&'miw, 147. 
linquere, 151. 
fo&iM, 149. 
dw and <evM, 89. 

ypa^, 46. 
yvvil, 159. 

evOev, 96. 
eTurXoov, 128. 

i|Xi^, i^Xicia, 98. 


Keipta, 47. 
Kevrpiav; 153. 

ov/Mi, 95. 

<rroa, ffroia, arwi, 

«/»/, 147. 
sparr-ow, 127. 

/ocJfcfe, /oArel, 135. 
<arr«, terry, 135. 
too/, 204. 

u^ojr, 98. 
wharf, 89. 
wheedle, 146. 
iDi^, 87. 
window, 127. 

oet-lmm, 98. 

pappus, 146. 
popuhit, 146. 

scalpo, 46. 
seulpto, 46. 
scribo, 46. 
simplex ^sim' 
plici-s, 127. 

ii6t»e«6t, 96. 

rirOif, 234. 

Xapaacbt, 47. 
X^CT " Aer-f, *«*-, 

x9ov-»Attmo, 97. 

^Xeyctf, 145. 

eim^fach (G,),fach^L, plica, (orij^nally) a flat sarfkce, 127. 
rif, the old form of the uom. plur. of the Latin 2nd decl., 179. 
Erromango language, short vocabulary of, ^9. 

Father and Mother, — the names for them among various races are formed inde- 
pendently by each race, 188 ; four principal types for each name, pa, ta, ap, at, 
for father; ma, nOf am, an, for mother, 190; vocabularies illustrating these, 
197-204 ; the labial and dental p and t, generally used for the father, the liquids 
m, fi, for the mother, 190; exceptions to this, 193 ; generally the labial (pa for 
father, ma for mother^ is characteristic of the old world, and the dental (ta for 
&ther, na for mother) of the new, 191. 

Flap or f/loA:,— on words admitting of being grouped around this root, 143-152, 
with a list of the hundred and twelve English words so to be grouped, 158. 

to give the sack, meaning of the phrase, 90. 

Ovd save the King, origin of the phrase, 8-10. 

OuBST, E., on the etymology of the word Stone-henge, 31-5. 

ywif, the crude form and cases of, 159, 177. 

Hbnzbn, O., on the Inscription of Sora, 179-187. 

Herbert's (Mr.) derivation o( Stonehenge fVom Stone Hengest disputed, 31-35. 


Hercules, custom of oflRmng tenths to, 181, &c. 

Herodotus, his account of Dmrius estimated, 17. 

, his account of the Battle of Salamis examined, and compared with iEschy- 

lus's&c., 101-115. 

Hieromneroon, the duration of his office, 58. 

hoe Imeiseit^' §ee, see, it is getting light,' IS4. 

its, not in the first Authorised Version of the Bible, 10, or in Shakspere, 1 1. 

Key, T. Hewitt ; on the Imperfect Infinitive, Imperfect Participles, and those 
Substantives which foil under the definition Nomen Actianit, 63-72. 

; miscellaneous remarks • on some Latin Words (armentmm, 93 ; tmmu, 94 ; 

amare, 94; amea, 94; alee or halec, 95; odulari, 95; eauda, 95; vMacwAt, 
alicubi, alibi, inde, unde, alieunde, &c., 96 ; iatie, illie, hie, 96 ; ahstendut, 97 ; 
aqualitt 97 ; aesiious, 98 ; oestrum, 98 ; adoptio, 99), 93-9. 

; on some alleged Distinctions in Languages believed to be without foundation, 


; on the Etymology of airXoo«, ^cirXoos, eiriirXoov, &&, 127-8. 

— ; on the Etymology of trroa, trrota, Dor. vrma, 138. 

; on the Etymology of cireumfiiraneus, circulator, cento, 152-4. 

•^— ; some Remarks on the Speech Pro Planeio, 139-142. 

•»— ; a Translation of^ and Comments on, Dr. Ahrenb's Paper ** On Feminines in 
-w and -4M, and the word yWfi,** 155-178. ' 

— ; a Translation of Dr. G. Henzen's Paper " On the Inscription of Sora,*' 

/ and r, changes of, in Sanskrit, 43, Romance, 44. 

Languages all formed from monosyllabic roots, by agglutination of syllables, each a 
self-significant word, 126 ; the usual alleged distinctions in languages shown to 
be groundless, 117-1 26. 

Languages not necessarily related because they possess similar words for the same 
objects, as these words were probably formed independently, from Natural 
Sounds, 188, &c. 

Latham, R. G. ; on the Aorists in -ca^ 37-39. 

; Remarks on Lists of the Personal Pronouns and Numerals of the Mallicolo 

and Erromango Languages, 60-2. 

; on the Languages of New California, 72-86. 

Latin fifth declension, 158. 

— second declension, nominative plural in eis, 179. 

Leake, Col., his wrong account of the positions of the Fleets before and after the 
Battle of Salamis, 107, 111 ; and of the situations of Cynosura, Ceos, &c., 103. 

Leducq, H. ; on the Origin and primitive Meaning of the word Ange, 41-9. 

Lhuyd, not Pritcbard, the first to notice the relationship between the Welsh kwjfnt, 
ynt, and the Latin -nt, 137. 

Logical Phraseology ; su^estions of names for Predicables to express every way 
in which we can predicate or deny one notion of another, in which some is 
notM, 28-30. 

Malayan languages, the primitive roots not verbal, 206. 

Malden, H. ; on the Amphictyonic League and the meaning of the term Am^ 
phietyones, 51-8. 


Maliieoto language, short Vocabulary of, 59. 

Medo-Pertian History; — an attempt at an outline of the Early Medo- Persian 
History, founded on the Rock-Inscriptions of Behistun taken in combination 
with the accounts of Herodotus and Ctesias, 13-26. 

Members elected: — Dr. Altscbul, 51 ; O. Ferris, 31. 

menf process of its change from man, 121. 

Natural Sounds (not the imitations of sounds) and the words formed from them, 

OnomatopcBia ; course of the extension of meaning of words formed on this prin- 
ciple, 143. 

— , the distinction between this and Natural Sounds, 188. 

Persian army, movements of, before the Battle of Salarois, 112. 

Plancius, some remarks on Cicero's speech for him, 139-142. 

poUueere, use of, 183. 

Polysynthetic or polysyllabic languages, 124. 

Pronominal roots not distinct from verbal roots, 124. 

Provincialisms and court-language, relative purity and value of, 125. 

Pylagoras, the duration of the office of, 58. 

Pylie, near Thermopylse, meetings of the Amphlctyonic Council at, 52. 

Salamis, on the Position and Tactics of the contending Fleets at the Battle of, 

Sanskrit feminine nouns in 4, 156. 

ScaUage or SceUknge, the etymology of, 35. 

Schlegel, A. W. and Fr. v. ; their views of the classes of Languages discussed, 

Shall and fViU, on the use of, 1-5. 

Sora (in the kingdom of Naples) ; Remarks on a Latin Inscription of the first half 
of the seventh century, 179-187. 

Stonekenge, the etymology of the word, 31-35. 

Themistocles ; the true estimate of the causes of his success at Salamis^ 115. 

Threescore years and ten ; solemnity and beauty of the phrase, — first used by 
Coverdale, 7. 

The Vertukii of the Sora Inscription, 185. 

Verbs not the roots of aU language, 205. 

WATTa, Thomas ; on some Philological Peculiarities in the English Authorized 
Version of the Bible, 7-1 1 ; (Coverdale*s ' threescore years and ten ' (7) and * God 
save the King* (8-10); *its* not in the authorised version on its first issue in 
1611 (10), nor in Shakspere, 11). 

Wedgwood, Hensleigh ; on the use of Shall and Will, 1-5. 

; on English Etymologies, 87-91 {Jfallast, 87 ; to hox, 88 ; fetch-candle, fetch, 

88; gizzard, 91 ; to gnarl, snarl, 88 ; gorse, 91 ; haberdasher, 91 ; Ught, lift, 
89 ; pageant, 90 ; to pout, 91 ; to rack off, 90 ; to give the sack, 90 ; to sew, 
sewer, 88 ; wharf, 89 ; wig, periwig, 87). 


Wedowood, Hbnslbigh ; on Words admiCtiDg of being grouped round the Root 
Plop or Plakf 143-152 (list of the one hundred mnd tweWe English words so to 
be grouped, 152). 

will, on the metning and use of, 1-5. 

Word-building by addition of affixes, and by inflection or motion,— on the alleged 
distinction between, 120-1. 

Xerxes, his pedigree, 18. 

— ^, lines of march of the divisions of his army before the Battle of Salamis, 112. 

-w and -4M, the Gztek Feminines so ending had a crude form in -oc, 155-177. 





Part I. English — Circassian — ^Turkish. 
Part II. Circassian — English — ^Turkish. 

With a Preface, and a Table of the Alphabet adopted to express 
the Circassian or Addee-Ghey Language. 



[!%€ firnt part of the follawinff Dietumary by Dr. Loewe wa9 
laid before the Council by one of its Members at its Meeting of the 
Wth of March 1853, vnth a recommendation from the Member that 
the Society should undertake the expense of printing the materials 
collected by Br, Loewe, inasmuch as there was then no proper Dic- 
tionary of the Circassian Language, and one would be of great service 
to our Officers in the War with Russia, as we should certainly have 
to act with Schamyl and the Circassian tribes. On this recommen- 
dation the Council resolved to act, and accordingly printed the first 
part of the Dictionary — the English^ Circassian, Turkish, — and the 
Introduction, ^c, to the whole, allowing Dr, Loewe to have addi- 
tional copies from their type printed at his oum cost, Dr, Loewe 
subsequently resolved to print the second part of the Dictionary — 
the Circassian, English, Turkish — for his own use, and he then 
allowed the Society to have copies of this second part printed from 
his type at their cost.^ 












Member of the Royal Asiatic Bodety of Great Britain and Ireland ; of the Asiatic Society 

of Paria; of the NumLsmatic Bodety of London; and of the Syro-EgypUan 

Society. Oriental lincfuist to Mb late Boyal Highness the Duke of 

Sussex ; Author of " Letters firom the East," " The York Medal," 

"The Origin of the Egyptian Language^** "Observations 

on a Unique Cuflo Gold Coin :" Translator of 

" EfiBs Dammin" and " Matt^ Dan," 

Ae. ^. Ac. 





It is generally admitted, that the tract of country known 
as the Caucasus affords to the Philologist, as well as to the 
student of Ethnography, most interesting and important sub- 
jects of inquiry. Already in the time of the well-known 
Aboolf)^d£, who wrote his work on Geography in the 

year 1321, the Caucasus, or Dj^bfl el CiitSk {jjj^\ Jjc»-) 
has been denominated, on account of the numerous languages 
which were spoken there, " Dj^^ el Alson" (^-JXl Jj^)> " ^^ 
mountain of languages;"* and the researches and inquiries of 
modem geographers and historians most completely confirm this 
view. According to the treatise entitled '^ El&zeezee," (iOUll) 
quoted by Abool£Sd£, th^re were not less than three hundred 
dififeient languages erpoken by as many different tribes inhabiting 
the districts generally spoken of as the Caucasus ; and this esti- 
mate is fully borne out by the accounts of recent authors. From 
all we can discern of the past, it appears a settled fact, that in the 
remote ages of the world, various great waves of population flowed, 
so to speak, from that mountain, and gradually overspread the 
earth. The nations and tribes thus descended have been able, 
with more or less distinctness, to trace their genealogy to the 
descendants of Noah; and to the greater and lesser immigrations 
from Central Asia, the present Teutonic and Scandinavian families 
in Europe undoubtedly own their origin. The author of the His- 

iA ijUU Jjbl j^\ Jjo iiLUs^ 

G^ographie d'Abonlfeda, Texte Arabe public d'apr^ les manuscrits de 
Firis et de Leyde, &c., par M. Reinaud et M. le Baron Mc Q. de Slane. p. 71. 


tory of the Empire of Trapezunt calls the CancasuH the gate through 
which the first glimpse of culture from the East penetrated into 
Europe. Ritter is quite certain, that the aborigines of the Greeks 
ought not to be looked for in the Peloponnesus, nor in Attica or 
Doris, but in the valleys of the Caucasus ; for he maintains, that, 
in remoter ages, certain tribes, either with a view to conquest or 
in the pursuit of agriculture, came from the neighbourhood of the 
Caucasian isthmus into the cis-Euxine countries near the Haemus 
and Olympus.* The Caucasus therefore claims the attention of the 
Scholar more than any other spot on the Globe. 

But, notwithstanding the acknowledged importance of the 
Dj^b^l el-Alson very little information has hitherto been obtained 
in comparison with what has been achieved in other branches of 
philology. The impracticability of much intercourse between 
Europeans and the people who inhabit the mountain chain of the 
Caucasus, and the great difficulty of acquiring their respective 
languages, have hitherto presented almost insurmountable impedi- 
ments in the paths of the studious inquirer. I therefore cheerfully 
responded to the call of the Philological Society of London to fill 
up, to a certain degree, the gap which remained in the field of re- 
search since the time of Klaproth,t by placing before their learned 
members and the public at large my " English-Oiroaasian-Turkish, 
and Circassian-English-Turkish Dictionaries" which I trust will 
assist to lift the veil that has so long hung over the Caucasus, and 
facilitate the acquisition of a language spoken by its earliest 
inhabitants. To make it more easy for the student to penetrate 
into the spirit of the Circassian language, I deem it neoessaiy to 
say a few words respecting the locality of the different districts 
which the Circassians now occupy; their religious observances, 
and the opinions of European and Oriental Scholais concerning 
their language. 

* V. Der KaukaflUfl und das Land der Eosaken, by Moritz Wagner, pp. 
19 and 20. 

t Chora-Beg-Mursin-Nogma, in St. Petersburg, is said to have composed a 
Qrammar and Dictionary of the Kabardian language. SjSgem and Dubois de 
Montperrenx have made interesting researches respedang the West-Caucasian 
languages. The latter is of opinion, that the languages spoken by the Cir- 
cassians, K^b^rdians, and Abkh^ses belong to the Tshoodish stock, and bear a 
close affinity to the Finnish language (v. Wagner's " Der Kaokasus," p. 20). 
Unfortunately, I have not been able to see any work written by these authors. 


The Circassians call themselves the people of Addee-ghey (which 
word I take to signify '' Mountaineer,** or *' Highlander," from the 

Circassian "Attfighdgh" (cUUuO* "height" of a place), and 
occupy the territory of the Caucasus situated between the rivers 
Ssotscha (pr. Ssotah£) and JAhi, the Lower Kuban (pr. Koobin) 
and the Black Sea. To this teiritory belong the following pro- 
vinces: — 

The province of the Besstinfy (pr. B6steen6-y)y situated between 
the Urup (pr. Goroop) and Chods (pr. Kh6ds).' 

The province of the Machothi (pr. Mlikh6t-hee), between the 
L4ba and E&rs. 

The provinces of the Jegerukai (pr. Y6gh€rook£i) ; the Ademi 
(pr. Ad^mee) ; and the T^mirgoi (pr. Temirg6i), situated on the 
coasts of the rivers L&b& and the Kuban, on the north-western 
boundaries of the province of the ISigKi, 

The provinces of the Shane (pr. S-hfinQ ; the Gatjukoi (pr. 
Gfityook6*i) ; and the Bsheduch (pr. Bs-heydookh), between the 
Schaoughwascha (pr. Sh£-o-oogwfeh£) and the Afips. 

The province of the Abasech (pr. Abdsekh) is bounded west by 
the district inhabited by the Schapsuch (pr. Sh£psookh) ; south 
by the district of the Schapsuch and the TJbych (pr. Oobykh); 
east by the Schaougwascha j north by the province of the Gatjukoi 
and that of the Bsheduch. 

The province of the Ubych, dtuated between the Schapsuch 
and the Dshighethi (pr. Ds-hig-het-hee). 

The province of the Schapsuch, which is bounded east by the 
province of Ubych, west by the province of Natchokudasch (pr. 
N£tkho-kood£sh), north by the Kuban, and south by the Pontus. 

The province of the Natchokuadsch (pr. N6tkho-koo-£dsh), 
situated between the Taman, the Kuban, the province of the 
Schapsuch, and the Pontus. 

The province of the Karatschai (pr. KlLrat-tsh£Y), near the 
sources of the Kuban and the province of the Nagai (pr. N6g6*i.)* 

The province of the Nagai, between the Kuban and the Libl 

Since the appearance of Sheykh Manzoor the princes and nobles 
profess the Mookhamadan religion, and belong to the sect of the 

• V. Die Volkcr des Kaiikosas, by Fr. BodcnstctU, p. 171. 


Soonites, bat the mass of the ptople adhere faithfully to their 
former idolatroiu worship. Their principal deities axe : — 

I. Sheebley, the god of thunder, war, and justice. To him all 
the warriors address their supplications previous to their going to 
battle ; and if the result of the war be favourable they sacrifice to 
him the beet sheep of their flock. Should there be any thunder 
and lightning before the fighting commences they regard it as a 
good omen. The tree struck by lightning is regarded as holy; and, 
under its branches, the greatest criminal finds safe refuge. For 
the same reason they also consider a man stricken to death by 
lightning as holy, and he is interred with unusual honors. 

n. Tleps, the god of fire. The worship of this deity is pro- 
bably a mutilated fragment of the fire-worship practised by the 
Guebers ; and of this old worship there are still many traces among 
the various tribes that live high up in the mountains. 

m. Sseoez^res (pr. S8ey-6-s*t86r68) the god of the waters, rivers 
and winds. To this deity the sea and the clouds show obedience ; 
at his command the great masses of snow fall from the icy tops of 
the mountains, and springs of water flow spontaneously from the 
rocks. The husbandman who prays to that deity for rain, pours 
a libation over the parched vegetation of the field. The young 
woman, the wife and the mother, if the objects of their love and 
attachment happen to be at sea, entrust their sacrifices to a river 
discharging itself into the ocean, believing the waves to carry the 
holy message before the deity, whose throne is in the deep; and 
Sseosz6res, on his part, makes known his answer to his devout 
worshippers by the rushing winds or the moving clouds. 

lY. Sekutcha (pr. Sey-koo-fkhi) the god of travellers. He 
extends his dominion over those who travel on foot, and favours 
particularly the individual who sets out on a holy pilgrimage. He 
rewards hospitality with blessings and prosperity, whenever it is 
practised cheerfully and disinterestedly. On the arrival and at 
the departure of a traveller, the master of the house always offers 
a libation to this deity. 

y. Mesitcha (pr. MeyH9ee-t*kh£) the god of forests, is wor- 
shipped in the shadow of groves ; these being generally conseciated 
to him, as well as to the other deities. As far as the foliage of 


the tree selected for worship extends, the criminal who there takes 
refuge is sure to find a safe asyhim ; as it was formerly^ in the 
temples of the Greeks and Romans. Under the shadow o£ the 
consecrated oaks in the forest, the old men of the tribe assemble 
to administer justice. There also counsel is held respecting war 
or peace, and it is in such a consecrated spot that the people 
assemble previous to their going to battle.* 

The Circassian language is considered one of the most difficult 
in the world ; it differs both in the nature of the words and the 
syntactical constructions from all other Caucasian languages. 
More than this, the pronunciation is so difficulti that even the 
most distinguished linguists find it hard to imitate the sound of a 
syllable as uttered by the mouth of the Addee-g^iey people. 

Klaproth expi^sses himself on this subject in the foUowing 
words ^'La langue tchearkeese est une des plus difficiles du monde 
it prononcer, et aucun alj^abet n'en pent compl^tement peindre 
les sons. Elle o£fre sur-tout, dans plusieurs lettres, un*claquement 
de langue impossible it imiter, et une modification excessivement 
multipli6e des voyelles et des diphthongues. Plusieurs consonnes 
se prononoent si fort du gosier, qu'aucun Europ^en n'en pent rendre 
les sons.''t It is related among the Turks, that on one occasioui a 
Sultan of great repute for his learning sent an eminent student, 
belonging to the College of the Ool£m& at Constantinople, to the 
Caucasus, for the purpose of there acquiring a knowledge of the 
Addee-ghey language, with the ultimate intention of compiling a 
Grammar and Dictionary. After being absent for a considerable 
time, he returned to his master hopeless of success, and carrying 
in his hand a bag of pebbles. '' There," said he, shaking the bag, 
^ I can give you no better imitation than that of the sounds of the 
language spoken by that people.''^ 

They have no Alphabet of their own ; no Grammar or Dic- 
tionary; no literature whatever, except some poetry, in which 
they give vent to their feelings, on occasions of victory or defeat ; 

* Die Ydlker des Kaukasos, by Fr. Bodenstedt, pp. 201 and 202. 

t Voyage au Mont Caucase et en G^rgie, par M. Jnlei Klaproth, tome 
■eoond, p. 881. 

X Speuoer, in lus « Travela in CircasBia,'' vol. ii., p. 176, relates a nxnilar 


but they are suppoeed^ as I stated before, to be the original 
inhabitants of the Caucasus. On this account alone the student 
should endeavour to form a better acquaintance with them than 
he has hitherto attempted ; because by such knowledge he may be 
the means of supplying the long-required link in that chain of 
languages by which some of the first races of mankind com- 

I have composed this Dictionary, together with a Grammar 
and Dialogues of the Circassian language, whilst in company with 
five, ten, and sometimes twenty of the Addee-ghey people. I 
communicated with them in the Turkish language, and put down, 
in writing, in their presence, every word which I heard fix>m them; 
I then read it over to them, and made them translate the same 
into Turkish, so that I could convince myself of having expressed 
with correctness every soimd as it fell from their lips. I was not 
satisfied with one examination of each sentence, word, or syllable, 
but I caused my companions, on various occasions during a period 
of six months, to listen to my reading and pronouncing their 
language, and made them always translate it again into Turkish. 
Sometimes, I used to invite new comers from their different 
provinces, and I had the satisfaction of hearing them translate the 
Circassian words which I read to them by such Turkish words as I 
had in my manuscript. 

I have adopted the Arabic Alphabet with some of the Persian 
and Turkish letters, so as to enable me to express every sound of 
the Addee-ghey language. With regard to the mode of tran- 
scribing it by English letters, I thought it best to approximate it 
as much as possible to the usual English pronunciation, that the 
English student may acquire a knowledge of that language with 
but little trouble. It will, however, be necessary, that he should 
pay attention to the following remarks in reference to the pro- 
nunciation of some of the vowels.and diphthongs and a few of the 
consonants : — 

The letter " a," when it is to have the sound of ''a" as in 
" barter," is expressed by the accent above ; thus " £. " 

^i," when representing the sound which it has in the word 
"be" is expressed "ee" except in monosyllables as "it," "fit" 
where the letter retains its usual form. To express a sound like 


that which "ey" has in "money," "honey," &c., I have invariably 
adopted the diphthong "ey." 

" o" represents the same sound which it has in the word '^ abode," 
and whenever particular stress is to be laid on the sound it is 
followed by the letter "h." 

" oo" represents the sound it has in " moon." 

" 4" gives the sound of the French " u," as in the word " bu," 


" eu" expresses the sound which that syllable has in the French 
word " peur." 

"g" when it represents the sound it has in the English word 
''get" is expressed by "gh," and when it is to have the sound like 

"gh" indicates the guttural sound of the letter "r" as pro- 
nounced by the natives of Berlin in the word " Braten," " Brunnen." 

"kh" expresses the sound of the "ch" in the German word 
" Buch" or that of the " j " in the Spanish word "junta." 

I have affixed to this Dictionary a Table containing the Arabic 
Alphabet with some of the Turkish and Persian letters, together 
with their names and the corresponding English letters. The 
student, or traveller in the Caucasus will find this exceedingly 
useful, as he will have the opportunity thereby afforded to him 
of making the Circassian Chief or Priest of the community 
pronounce the Addee-ghey word by pointing it out to him in the 

In conclusion I have to observe that in the whole of the Dic- 
tionary as well as in my Grammar and the Dialogues, there is not 
a single word which I have copied from any printed book, or 
manuscript ; but that I have extracted, as it were, every word from 
the mouth of the Circassian and tested the accuracy of my pro- 
nunciation in the manner before described. 


May, 1854. 


The i^ (Fdihhd) -^ expresses the sound of d in " farm;" as 
P\ {dldr). 

The a^^ {Kisrd) -^ represents the e in " met;" as ^rjjj 

^ y ^ X 

{b^dSdey), and the short i in "pin;" as ^^ («»); preceding ^ 

(y/f), it expresses the long ee in " bee;" as Jijj\ dreeshir. 

The <u^ (JDhdmmd) -^ sounds like the u in "bull" or "pull;* 
M aJJah^j {sood-Sdo). 

The syllable ^^.\ represents either the sound of ouy or the 
sound of euy (ou is invariably pronounced as in the word " our,' 
and «tf as in the French word " peur"). 

The letter . (wdv), preceded by a consonant, expresses either 
the sound of o in the word "bone,'' as Itii {ghotd), or the French 
u in "bu," as jiLi (skw-ish), 

^-^ represents the sound of eye, 

~^^ »S^ {Midddh) signifies extension, and extends the sound 
of \ (fl), over which it is placed; thus c-^\ {ahh). 

-^ ^ UJb {Hamza) softens the letter over which it is placed ; 
as in ^jlJ {tcain), 

"^ A^i VV {Teshdld) — to make the letter sound as if it were 
doubled . 

-^ ^ >- (Dfcan) is placed over the letters which have no vowel 

The following words will show the student the mode in which 
the Oriental vowels will be represented in this Dictionary :— 

^\ ^ij^\ C^l <^j\ ^j\ ^^\ L^l C^l C^l C^l 

eye-b ouy-b eub ub oob ob eeb ib ^b ab 

Vnactieu . . . u 





r^ ^'"^"^'Tl' % ^^-^'-5 


S 8 S .a a 1 .1 ^ ^ 


p^a^ ^^^^v^^v:^^-:J3^^ i ^-^'^^^ 


^ ^ -V -V TZ M O O^ 


i =^rf.^ ^- f I ^ " 


1 - <§ 1 1 

j 1 t f 1 2 1 1 § 1 



1 ^•i'^f-g''^.^. 3'M- 




^ § 


^ J pS 


- a 


V/» V/» < \y» ^^ 

'<* \A fk^ «SX — « 

't)^^'^-i «_^^-« "0 

■o ^ ^ -"O -D 

3 -N 

:^ ^>5\:^"^ t^"^ i;^^^^^' 

W O Sf CO " 

J I I ^ ^ 

a Jz; ^ SB >- 


Page tine 


xxxiii 8 for JuS^x»^ read Jt^yVi^y .0 ' 

4 /or if^jSjjb\^j read ^rytJblj 

7 /or khadshe read Ishidahey. 

XXXV 1 for Jii^^\j read ^J^J^\!o\j 


3 /<>*• cf^ ^'^^ lS^^ 

7 far itsh^niHsh^rmish ihsht^sh read itsh^nee-sh^rnish- 


8 far dBhehiBimem read dBh6h6nnem. 

10 far ^l^yturf r«K^ ^ ^^Uu-> 

12 far seffe-kahbz read s^ffd-kahbz. 

15 far shay eefish, shay read sh^eje eefish, sh'eye. 

19 far zeesh^re read zeesh^rey. 

xxxviii 7 /or TmjUs^ skhdrwa read TmUs-* skliirwA, 

9 /or ^zdjahb read ^zdjdhb. 

18 far ehkdtz read ehkdtz. 

19 fw boshoojetlagho read boshC^y^tUgho. 

20 far shigorsehn read sheegiirs^hn. 
xxxix 16 far sdmekd rwd sam^ko. 

17 far meg&zweh read m6giizw6h. 
xl 1 far 8herdt read sh^rdt. 

4 far ^^ read ^^Jlt 

xli 13 far ^Jt read ^^It 
xlii 7 far pshikho read psheekho. 

9 >• c^U? »wki ^^it 

15 far za£8h6 read z&^h6. 

18 y<>r ^.U^ ^\f read ^J^ jljS 


Page line 

xliii 3 f(yr aehtlo read s^htlo. 


9 for ^U? Ttad ,J^ 

10 for ^^ read ^^\ 
xliv 4 /or ^^ read ^^It 

11 for pshahsi read pshahsee. 
23 /or ^^ read ^^\ 

xlv 1 for UyLp reflk/ Uyu^ 
7 /or nahsh rMkf nahsh. 

17 /or C)jjjj »^«(i v^.5j 

xlvi 5 /or ^^ read <^^lt 

10 /or zeyeesha read zejeesh^. 

11 for 8h6gha read shoghA. 
xlvii 5 for shekoo read sh^koo. 

1 6 for ^^ read ^/£ 

20 >/• ^^ read ^^ 

li 12 /or sigA rtfod seegft. 

25 /Or yJ[J noo-ej-soo rcoci ^ly noo-ey-su. 

lii 5 /o»* ^^j rcflki ^^Ij 
15 /or zehr r«a<2 tkhx. 

21 /or ^^j^ r«Ki jjTjL 
liv 8 /or bxegh read bz6gh. 

Ivi 12 for }hJLiJ^ read ii^.U» 
Ivii 1 /or iJLijljj^ r«wi <LiijUf 

2 /or Uogba read tloghA. 
Iviii 7 /or ^y recki ^^U 
lix 12 /or iiiljj ^'^wi <L2»\j 
Iz 7 /or dAkatkha reoi d&kdtkhd. 

10 for tsdgha read tB6gh4. 
Ixi 16 for dJJj^ read c)j^ 


Pa^e line 

Ixi 23 for ^^ rmd ^^\J:, 
Ixiv 22 for kittpaghe read kittpdghej. 
Ixvi 15 for pahboosh read pdhboosh. 

17 for yeehpaboosh read yeehp&boosh. 

18 for bezer read b^z^r. 

24/or ^./tu} V. - ]\J^\h read ^^EUjL - ]\J^\^ 

bcvii 1 for ^^j read ^^\j 

6 for rejkdh read reykhdh 
'^ /^' (JTjT read ^^\\ 
Ixix 24 /or ^^|j mwi ^^\j 

Ixx 9 /or ^^11^ r«K£ ^^It 

20 /or zeeghadshas read zeeghddshds. 
Ixxi 1 for ^^It mwi ^^It 

Ixxii 1 for ^UuTjlt - ifjurjlt- mrc^ c^U^^^lt - ^^^^It 

CO o ^ o 

Ixxiii 19 /or ^.^isll^^it read ^^^\y^^ 

24 for ^y read ^^U 

Ixxiv 8 /or ^l^j read ^\jbj 

21 for j^^\^ read ^U. 

Ixxv 15 for T^»flxt^^ fif'z'show-dh rcoci Tj^«U*-Arf s'z'ahou-dh. 
Ixxvi 5 for ahsh reoc^ dhsh. 
13 /or ^^ rtfCKi ^^It 

Ixxvii 15 /or ^^^ read ^lU 
Ixxviii 12 /or mehfok read m^hfok. 
15 /or ^li rM(£ ^SU 

•O .•-'O 

Ixxix 5 /or i^XpOjJ^ r«idl i^uS^y, 

Insert after line 21 as follows :— 

Tribute, «. <d?<Ll sheytey (Giro.), -\^ j^j (Turk.) 
Ixxxi 4 /or 4^j\j^j[; '"^'^ c^^^l^Jt* 


Page line 

Ixxxii 4 for tzshghdgd rtad tz'shghdgii. 
13 for etkhoo read 6tkhoo. 

Ixxxiii 15 for ^j^j read ^^\j 

20 for ^^ read ^^It 

21 for sikwehslogha read sikw^hsloghd. 
Ixxxv 11 for 28h6 read a*shd. 

Ixxxvii 7 for ^y mi^ ^^(i 
bcxxviii 19 for ^J read ^Aj 





Able, a. (apt, fit) 

^\aJ^^ w^hUi 


Able, v.n. to be able 

^JU j^aaJ psee sbooney 

\iXAi ifsA 


6^\ dhpsey 


About, prep. 

df JhK.^I> tshitlem ghey 

u^j? - ^^ 

Abridge, v.a. 

iUil^-t.Jiii tVshee-efm6 


Absent, a. 

waI* iJLiiSi or v.^v« ^ 
yeeh mep; tipsh^h voonem 


Absurd, a. 

jW ir«Srdr 


Accept, VM. 

Uy^ JylS k^booloo tzogha 

cXrl JyS 

Accommodate, v.o. 

(one's self to dr- 

Accomplish, v.a. 

^4-i»«l oohshoohn 

Account, v.a. 

^^ u5^^ (XSr! 

cXrl ^^Uut>. 

Accustom, v.a. 

^^^ y6hs6n 


Acbe, 8. (pain, 

mouy Az-zey, w4t-we ghood 


Acquaintance, s. 

IjlXm^C^Lm} so^tsheedd 


Across, €ui. 

Across, ad. (ob- 


Address, a. (a di- 

Adorn, v.a. (to 

Adrantage, s. 

jJbLj^ boott^y 
<Li*U nAhshey 

tshitley ookoodsbook 
U^ Uli fti<i^ tsoghA 

Advise, v.a. 

. .r ,. /ddhshee) 
t?!^-;^ v^^^ tye«-w6khj 

CX«;ij t.i-*i-3i 







After, prep. 

^Uu yeytdhney 


- *jf 

Afternoon, a. 

.^jIaj - ^ji ifLi 

^y . 

. ^jS£\ 

sh^doosh, yey-ken-dee 


Afraid, a. 

j^^tuJblL-i* shtdbsh 


Again, ad. 

«UU- Jl> yed khan§h 


Again (once more) 

^Us- JjJ^ egrizskhdghe 


Again, ad, (more) 

bUL yetkhdnd 


Against, prep. 

c ^ o o 

m6sh6dshndt, tleyn6gh 

^^* '^J? 

- i^} 

A^inst, prep, 

i^Uu^JJbjt ^hdsheendt 


Age, ». 

dem tshee nemtsheerey tsoon 


Ah! int. 

jVj v46h 


Air, «. 

»ly, Bhoo6y, ,lj wih 


Aim, 8. (end, de- 



Alas ! int. 

^l^lj vAcfli 



jh>l eezdhk 


All over 

^^mu psonghee 


All together 

/pi*A*j p86rik 


Almanac, s. 

<ul}jjj^ roonidmey 


Almost, ad. 

l3y».*^jU md<lafaokhoon£ 


Alms, 8. 

^^ ree 


Alone, a. 

<U^ iaJ^ »J >^ fit sh6in6h 





Already, ad. 

JJ^ hegh-ded 


Also, ad. 



• -'^ 

Alter, to, V. 


c^.^ j^yy* ^[/viLkr j»jU 

b&dem n^mtsheere shoghon 
sbib ghdtleemey r^khon 


Althongh, ad, { 

Always, ad. 



Uxm) seb-k&h 
t6nba dzokb songhee 

Amusement, 8 

ooshoogbey weygbotsoon 


Anchor, 8, 

(MM.lj UlS kdbd woors 

lSj^^ i^^AJL^ 

Ancle, 8. 

lS^^ l5^ *^®® yeybook 


Angel, 8. 

dijX* m§bieekey 


Angeb, 8. 

jmSjX/% m^laeeksher 


Anger, s. 

4M {^'t^'hT'"} 


Angry, a. 

UL»j^|^ rfigoos&gbi 


Animal, 8. 

^jjjjj billim 


Answer, <. 

Ujby boobsbd 


Any, a. (any < 


(^s^OJ^j zaypit 

^ V^ 

Appear, v. a. 
come in sight] 

Appearance, 8 

Apple, <• 


jjTjIijUj «6ghat-louy 
UltUj z^kbdtldghd 

Application, <. 


,11, y^gd 

/* 9 



Arise, v,a. 

Ann, 8. (the limb 
from the hand to 
the shoulder) 

Army, *. 

Arrive, v.o. 
Arrow, s. 
Artery, s. 
Artilleryman, a. 

As, oonj\ (like) 

As soon 

Ashes, 8. 

Astonished, to be 

At, prep, ^near to, 
in, by, on) 

Attempt v.a. (to 

Autumn, s. 

Avaricious, a. 

Awake, a. 

Away, ad, (absent; 
be gone, let us go) 

Awry, ad, (ob- 
liqudy, asquint) 

Bachelor, a. 
Back, 8, 



A^ . . . f kheezo 1 
r^^ If^ \kh6gh6sh6/ 

A 6h 

^J diey 


^ biey 

iOc^LoL ts&ee -pey 
J^di^ ^ topoo-dsh6 

b^d6 derato psheekho r6kh6 


Jsmam) ses-wed 
<JL^|j ydsh^h 

y^ ^^ jij \zoo-dgha J 
J^\^ kdztsho 

shagho, gh&tsh&hpey 

^IjJ^^yC tSOOpgOtSUsh 

\jJLi\ y^^ kouy eehshooyd 
^1^ n^kwdh 

iUjUl^ I?U k&t shILhdbtey 
^_ ^A-v^ tsheeb 





Back, ad. 

JLib^\^\ oh-oohsh 


Backgammon, 8. 

<Uj pshey 


Bad, a. 

b6bzAghey, bzaghey 

^ _ Ui 

Bail, 8. (surety) 

^...*, sh^hs^ 


Baker, <. 

tshdkh zkhdsheyree 


Balance, t. (a pair 
of scales; the dif- 
ference of an ac- 

t^rdzoo, w§z-ney z6kho8hee 



Ball, 8, (cannon- 

^JUjJs^iJ^ shey-ee-pish 


Band, 8. (a bandage 

1^ pkd 


or tie) 

Baptism, s. 

pseemee ^gootshoo tet 


Barber, <. 

n-i^^ ^.^ skhoo eepsee 

• j>J. 

Barrel, t. 

^Jij^ kheekdee 


Bath, 8. 

aI^ hhdmdm 


Bathe, v.a. 

^A-(-jUUj1 oghafaskin 


Battle, 8. 

\j|j zdhwah 


Be, v,n. 

jji4^3i r6khoon 


Beam, t. 

^jtlLlrrft tehga-tlesh 

<dA^ _ j^i 

Beard, 8. 

sbdghft, shdkey 


Bea8t(of burden),*. 

sh'shee goobzdghey 


Beat, V, (to strike) 

J^^^ yeywdn, ar^ ydh 





Beautiful, a. 

JLuJblj d&hshey 


Because, conj. (for, 
on his aocount) 

ij^ L^^ <UjJ ^JJJ 

b^d6 d686h glib sheez^h 



ji^^^ wosh^kir 


Bee, «. 

,Llj bshey 


Bees, $. 

iJUiJ^ b'shey-sliey 


Beef, «. 

Jjua:*t tsbey-mil 


Beer, «. 


Before, prep. 

6ph6d6d, ep^h61i 

J5^ - .>J 

Begin, v. 

Vb -^ '^^ 
b6hse s6hghu-zdz6 


Beginning, $. 

&reerdft, bohl shiidet 

Behold, VM, (to 
look upon) 

Beliere, v. 

^\Uk» y^ptley 
iijy^ m(ibbkey 

Belly, «. 

ajLk} neebey 


Below, ad. 

iijU 2^1 oob sheygey 


Bend, vm. 

^rrLjU^; z^bghazkhd 


Better, fl. (superior) 

metn^fer, zefer zogha 


Better {c<mp. deg.) 

Cl^j4^ jib bdsh-shoodet 

Ji^ J^ 

Between, prep. 

^J:.U^lB^l et-k&htsh 






Between sunrise 
and midday 

Ijljl^ii rokhw4hd& 


Big, a. 

^^yh^, {gh^iet} 


Bill of exchange,*. 

t^ J^ [^'^^] 

^/Jkcl^ ''^^^ 

Bind, V. 

y.y^ ^^^ spee 8h6gh6 


Bird, B, 

^ bzoo 


Bitter, a. 

^ J digh-ghee 


Black, a. 

Uj4-i shoodzdh 

ifU-. — *^ 

Black Sea, $. 

Ij^l^J^ shish-oozd 


Blind, a. 

.,*,„.» nes-shu 


Blood, «. 

rf>\S kleeh, J^ kleh 


Blow, 9. 

iU>Jj nedshey 


Blue, a. 

iU;U-» skhdntey 


Blunt, a. (dull) 

pew b'dsbee neb 

Board, $. (nonrish- 
men^ to liye in a 
house and pay for 
lodging and en^) 

Board, s. (a flat 
piece of wood) 

t^^*. i-t/t*» sbehnisht 
yt^l^ pkh&mbii 

Body, 9. 

jts>.^.U> wetshooz 

iXu>^ ^ '^^'3 

/ny, *;y, Jl^ 

'J> - «/" 

leegbanee shore sho-ey-oo 

Ito^jl ^dshoo* 

Boil, V. 

a>^3j-xLm} steer-rookho 


Boiled meat, «. 

1^ JjJ liz-shooa 

(^\ U-nAjM 





Bold, a. 

J^ JJ^ tlookhooz 


Bokier, s. 

^^-^ iV « steesh6ghd 


Bond, «. 

skha-tsbes psb6bnsht 

i}i Jj^ 

Bone, 8. 

^Uj pshdb, U*t/ kutsbd 


Book, 8, 

keetkb, tsheetlisb 

<-..>lI^ _ <UmiJ 

Boot, 8. (ooToring 
for legs) 

Bosphorns, the, 8. 

Bow, 8. (a fiddle- 

Bow, 8. 

JUjU, sbdnney 
^y,^ shooghoon 
^^^Uuuij psheeudbsee 
jb ^Ulj z&ghan dAk 

Boy, 8. 

(J^J^ - u-^>^ 

Brain, 8, (brains) 

8&htsook, ^sbkbdkdtz 


Bread, 8. 

o • o 

tsb&kbA, tsbouykb 


Breadth, 8. 

cljjUjI^ sbAbgb4d6t 


Break, v.a. 

\i,u..i seeUti 


Breakfast, 8. 

•• • " 

J31 u5^ 

Breakfast, v,n. 

JJl ^j^ 

Breast, 8. (bosom) 

A«^ bgb6, U^iud sib-kbA 

{jMff — ^j^y 


^il.utUj z6gb4bs6f6 

,j^ — 4^ Jiy 

Bridge, «. 

^/ kofihr 


Bridle, 8. 

\y, BhiiAli, T^ 8hd-4h 

^ - u^*^ 





Bring, v.a. 



Broad, a. (large, 

ui^G, 8h&bgh& 


Bronze, «. 

J*, J dflherz 


Broom, t. 

U-yUU; pkhdnshookhd 


Brother, a. 


ietzsh^, s'shey 


Brother-in-law, «. 

jytou^ sib-shok 


Broth, 8, 

4JUji leb-sey 


Borden, a. 


.UL; yit-8h6 


Bofiiness, a, (buy- 
ing and selling) 

J,^ ehen-ten 

tA^j (>5\ 

But, conj\ (except) 

j|j^\ - <^fUs- - M^^ 

_ U _ LI^U 

shey-eb, skh^gh^, oozdk 


Butcher, a. 

tsher zoo keerer drdr6y 
^^^.iiajL^ khsdbtfihee 


Butter, a. 

^ - (>L11L^ 

- i^V. <-^^ 

tkhoo-tdatoh, tkh6 

^V V" 

Button, <. (a knob 
for the &stening of 

yyli? tshoo 



Buy, v.a. 

iUjlit tkhdbshey 

jA' uy^ 

Calf, «. (thick part 
of the kg) 

tleey-ey kdp, tley giLp 


Calf, a, (the young 

A<I sh'key 


of a cow) 


Calf's head, a. 

Us>d <i^ shkey 8kh& 

k^V yljj^ 

Camp, <. (the order 
of tents for floldian) 

jjy\ - u^'ty^ 

VOL. 71. 

gheezoo ghftdet, dz^hsh 





Campaigo, t. 

s\^\^j «^-woo-d 


Can^ v,n, (to be 

^^yuJ kenp6khookh 


Candle, #. (taper) 

Uilal^lj wostdghd 


Candlestick, t. 

westagha tdghdn^p 


Cannon, 8. (a great 

c^y top 


Cap, *. (the Turk- 
ish oap) 

JiX) . lib ^ ^b 

- j^ - trj 

pighd, pagha, p&hoo 


Carcass, s. (dead 

^jU. khdd^h 


body of an animal) 


Care, «. 

ittfb — cij.LJ 

Carrier, «. (one 
who earries) 

jiS--\ ^U hdn zekhreer 


Carry, v. (to con- 
vey by l^d or 
or water) 

m^giishey, h'khA 

-jLI jjU _ -0/ 

Cartilage, «. 

yo-oort, shagh£zm& 


Cat, 8. 

JIJ kettoo 


Catch, V. 

juu^l oobid 

tK?'' - tK> 

Caps, 8. 

pS^hdsh6r, pdghoshey 


Cash-box, 8. (mo- 

iJaJU; p'khdntey 


Castle, <. 

^13 kaAley 


Castle, «. (the in- 
terior) of the Dar- 

^;a»I^ JoS^ 

danelles, on the 

woot-keebz boelushkhamoo 

European side 
Cattle, 8. 

„jJLu billim 


Cause, s. (reason) 




GaTero, a. 

/^ • "a fi*U /teheeghol 

^j^ - c:;^^ 

Cease, v. 

^j:^.,j^y^^ kakhoonsht 


Celebrated, p.part. 

bony dhzee tl^hferit ' 


Certain, a. 

Ujuw? tseepkd 


Certainly, ad. (in- 

Chain, a. 

c:^ojj Ǥpp^t 

yuJ psdh 

Chair, «. 

a^U; pkh^teyghey 


Chamber, a. 

Jij^\ ^tsh^sh 


Change, v. 

^jJcJiyi^! eykhohsheen 


Chaste, a. (pnre) 
Cheap, a. 

n^ms^in bd^ zey<5ghoshey 
in-sapee ohsheetok 

Cheat, a. (a fraud) 

psee sh^h ghs^bash 


Cheek, a. 

j;^ n^hk 

Cheeks, a. 

■* ^ ** • -^ X 
nek kher kleesheedey 


Cheese, a. 

<UAb p^hyey 


Chest, a. (a large 

Child, a. 

<l1uU; pkhantey 
d'yaley(ordj&ley), tsh'ahley 

Childhood, t. 

^Si^-^*kx--. sitr-shey-l&gh 


Chimney, a. 

j^j^\ ohdjok 







Chin, 8. 

L:, J dshft, ^ J dsh6 

Choose, V. 

.]j; y6hi!^kh 


Church, 8, 

dsh&mey, meyshitter 


Cipher, «. (the cha- 
nuster (0) in nnm- 
bering; the initialfl 

a^<0 yeyhtshey 



of a penon*8 name) 


Circle, 8, 

^U.^ khdkheye 


Circumstance, «. 

Ci^^j^ Jake, iTM 
z^rr^h shittem y6tsht 


Citizen, «. 

sh6har mookeye-key 


Clandestine, a. 

iUutf s6hpey 


Clean, a. 

2jjl5 kdhbzey 

cJie _>^- 

Clear, a. (plain. 

-^J^VJ^. - ^x) 

*j'^T - j^\ 


oohshoo, birghillu rokhood, 
bish ghildey, oshok 

Cleft, 8. (flaw, 

UU kagba 

j^V - d;^. 

Clever, a. 

dp h6ghee k'eye-key 


Cloak, 8, 

ya tsoo, ^, tsee 


Cloth, 8. 

<jG<l:, sh^hkey 

ui»^ - ^J^ 

Cloud, «. 

woz shabshey, w&shabshey 

CJjly _ fci-JjJ 

Coarse, a. (gross. 

^^•\ ooghoonmey 


thick, rough, rude) 

^ -^ -^ 





Coffee, 8. 

2f^j kdhway 


Cold, a. 

tshee-ett-shi, tshee-yej, 


Collect, V. (to 

Colour, s. 

ji^j^ ogh(Jyd 
^^^1 ^zsh 

Comb, «. 

4^t« mdhshey 


Come, «. 

Aj^I^ kdhkooy6y 


Comfortable, a. 

seegoa psh^ f6d6t 


Command, v.a. 

a^l^ k£cegli6y 


Commerce, 8, (traf- 

Common, o. 

Jo ^ alien ten 
>^.*.I^ nemtshoohz 

Companion, 8. (as- 

Compare, v. 

^^U ^JA^ &hz6h ghdsen 
peddey y^booghdz sli6n6r 

Compassion, 8. 

j^ ^j^\j^ j/good shouy-oo 

r-j - ^-^^-o^ 

Compel, V. 

L-K^yLju^ sib-sboo gbeesd 

dJ^l j^j^^ 

Complaint, 8. 

bokbdot (or bordot) touy-yeeb 


Compose, v.a. 

J<Gj\j woo-key-n6r 

clX^i^ cJJU 

Confectionary, 8, 

'T-^y^ 86-sbookb 


Conjecture, v.n. 

lclie:-v- 86teh4gM 




Conquer, v. 
Consolation, s. 

Constantly, <Md. 

Content, a. 

Continent, «. (land 
not disjoined by 
the sea from other 

Convent, s. (a re- 
ligious house) 

Convince, v. 
Cook, 8. 

Copper, «. 

Copy, 8. 

Com, 8. (seeds 
which grow in ears) 

Comer, 8, (angle, 

Corpse, 8, (a dead 

Cost, v,n. 

Costnme, 8, (cha- 
racteristic dress) 

Cough, 8, 
Cough, V. 

Council, 8. (coun- 


^^ shoon 

tkhoynseesha ghd, kdkdsh 
z^hpeet^ z6hp4t 

^^j^AV tsheeley 

JLjIx^ monster 

l^^ e/^J *^ BeynB gh6tka 

shoonaz, lizkhd sheyrer 

dghdpley, w&hptley 
CL^*^ <^jurf seefeytsAret 

^^ ^^ ^ bemshesh 

2^J2^ls^ kh&hdey 

yeyzogha seplinisht 
aj^j^lj ddhshey 



apegey, waps'gey 

nahsib yoo-or6kho 
Ul. .,\^ buy-orookho 








Count, V, 
Countryman, 8. 
Couple, 8, (a pair) 
Courage, 8. 

Course, 8. (run) 

Court, 8. 

Courteous, a. (civil, 

Cover, v.a. 

Covering, 8. (any- 
thing that ooven) 

Cow, 8. 

Craft, 8. (cunning, 

Create, v.a. 

Creation, «. 

Creator, 8. (God) 

Creature, 8, 

Credit^ 8. (belief, 
trust reposed) 

Crooked a. (bent, 

Cross, 8, 

Crown, 8. (a dia- 
dem worn on the 
heads of Sove- 

Crown, 8, (the top 
of the head) 

, JiA^ ^....j^ tsheep-tshee 
iiAjbfti^^y u6kh6sh 

jyL tghok 

tldkhoob khdded 
^^•i ghotshee 

<U*t tsbey 

iiAUUbU ^dL tley zansh 

^IL tikh 

^1^^ tsbooan 

^ sh'kdh 

jJbl^bu? tseppashoodhz 


m\^ fcftjj 26gh<J khw6 

o o 

^Jiijuwt.t 6t-eif-d& 
i^N,^ ^j^Jlt tlouy oosh 

x\Xsv\ bittey 
Jb^A^J dshoowdhr 
Ij Iff- ^^1^ tlees-hd pd 

t^h'khi sheegoo-a yookdshee 

^j^ - 









Cruel, a. 

Cry, V, (to scream, 
to bawl) 

Cucumber, s. 

Cudgel, t^. (to cane, 
to beat) 

Current, a. (valid) 
Curse, v.a. 
Curtain, a. 
Custom, «. 

Customary, a. 

Cut^ v.a. 

Damage, «. 

Danger, g, (peril) 

Dance, $, 

Dance, v. 

Dark, a. (dusky, 

Darkness, s. 
Date, 9, 
Daughter, 9. 

Ji^ tl^hsh 

oghon, m61i-k*u6h 
^^^>J^J^£j n^hsheeboog 

u'^ y6-wdn 
^alj dl6gh6 


shdbbzey, shdbzeh 

sh&bzeh shtd, ^eygha 
^^^jcij^ poob sheen 

jr> .^ U tzogho 

iLuJJUutf ts6peezy6gd 

^^^^1 oohghee 

m6zdhsh6, atshiler-bo- 

m6zdbsh6, meysAshey 

^ya ^Ij 2^JJj 

b6dd6 ddsh tsoghey 

psdhsey, soopshdz (or 


Its « 




> - >*. 





Dawn, «. 

kh6b^^ neyf^r^^hd 

vj-*^' 0/ 


mdhpey, m&ifey 


Day after to-mor- 
row, «. 

n&hsheb nftsh-mlsh 

U>A^^ j6 ^jij;li 

Day before yee- 

Dead, a. 

Ult tldghd 


Deaf, a. 

^AJ deygoo 


Dear, a. 

4^U IWj 
wdhdbd gbdtl^kh^ 
\^^1L^ b<Stldpgd 


Death, b. 

^2^jU hddeygho 



<)UJutJ? tsheepey 


Decent, a. 

^t.^L...^. p^hsoowdbsb 

Deceiye, v. 

l.v,>^r^_^>^ sibgbobsd 


Deed, «. 

'LI sh'ehee 


Deep, a. 

^ J kooh 


DefiNioev «. (pro- 

Defend, v. 

UJd» tenbd 

<U^ Ika^ t^nba-p^a-shey 

Degree, «. (step) 

^^^j dereku 







Demand^ «.a. (to 
Mk« to require) 

Departure, «. 

juM^ klissed, JumS k's6d 
(jli' ,Jlu beenee kesh 

Derision, «. 

j^li-«x« mis-khirfesh 


Desert, s. (wilder- 
Desert, 8, (desert- 
ed plaees) 

Desire, «. (wish) 
Destroy, v. 

ifjj<U meyizey 
^^jy!y b<%6dshee 

"i * 'I^Ul Jflit-sbizl 

JlsLjt ohkb&ner 

Devil, ». 

^UaJJli sheytdn 


Devotion, 8. 

<UJ« 4ac ^(§h sb6m6h 


Dew, ». 

yJjJ»U wAsbeedeer 

Diamond, «. 

^jyyl;^\ elmds 


Die, v.n. 

U^ia^j dsh^Ud^d 


Difference, 8. 

UUl shgb^iS 


Different, a. 

J^dJ^ ij z4h-sb6b-shoo 

AAmJ . (j^^ 

DiiBcalt, a. 

^ been 


Dig, •.a. 

^ tr6h 

tr'jli _. j^ 

Dignity, *. 

IcJJb • witlogha 


Dinner, s. 

zookhoo-gbet teeshey-isbt 


Dirty, a. 

i^^y}i k&b-zep 

Disadvantage, «. 

J^\j a^kh^r 


Disbanded troops 

^'^^"'^ yb '"^^^ ""'** 






Diaoouise, s. (oon- 

?/ ^ tleeniwdh 


Dishonourable^ a. 

jjjj j-Ltf t8§fee bwe-ydh 


Dispate, «. 

^ }if AL ij « ir^jl Jj 
zdabw^y, sey-sh&h-^ooHser 


Dlstribate^ v,a. 

dtu*m ^ 

- ^^9. 

gksh^h, oobtshdtey 


Do, V. (to act any- 
thing, either good 
or bad) 

Dog, 8. 

Ui, tsh^ 
U. khAh 



y.lfiL kh&sh^r 


Dollar, 8. (Spanish 

^jJ^JU i\J^ pdr6h shoots 


Door, 8. 

<U^ tshey 


Doubt, 8. 

tshihA peesee ep 


Down, a. 

aLA*^ ayshay 



^y^jj.^^) {m8k£^} 


Draw, V. 

j^j^ry koohdeo 


Drawing, «. 

1* yeyhstd 


Dream, «. 

IcjL. ULi» t8hih& 8l($gha 


- c^^ 

Dress, 8. (clothes) 

shooghoon, sh6ghen 


- Vx,y 

Dress, V. 

XyyJouuJj aeeshisldh 


Drink, v. 

25^ yesh-wey 


Drive, v. 

^ Jut tshoopen 


Drop, «. 

ylk* metkoo 





Drunkenness, s. 

Dry, a. (arid) 
Dncaty «. 
Dack, 8. 

Dull, a. (stupid, 

Dumb, a. (mute) 
Dung, #. 
Dust, $. 
Duty, s. 
Dwelling, s. 

Dwarf, «. 
Eat, 9. 
Eagle, 9. 
Ear, #. 
Ears, «. 

Earth, $. 
Earthquake, s. 

East, 8, 


(jww^ ghoos, jy, ghoox 
^^ J dis 
UlL tlagha 

i^^a^j e^kw^hkdy 

^l4-Si vjinjuT shit shoo~d 
<0 *-i dioh-y6h 
^,v^fl*^7 tsheepey 

* I * * \U Jhadsheel 

* 1 4 Jw fhadshool 
U-r- r-^^ t shoosh / 

^ji^it ^ tley tl&khsh 
yM^i* .^ Vi t^sh^sht 
ji.l jb bzoo-oosh 
^J^IL t^hkoom 
^J^U? t^hkoom 

y&tta, wdhtey, y&htey 

. ''i • ''av / tsher- \ 
^5?^^^^^ igh&seeseej 

tshig-w^r r^soe seegh^ 
ij^\sb h&hnshey 






Easy, a. 

^'iy k61dee 


Edncation, s. 
(briogiDg op) 

k&nghey, tsh&nkey 

Eight, a. 

^J yee 


Eighteen, a. 

c^l i^j^ ^gtMj psee-kouy-ee 


Eighty, a. 

^^kjsjTulj] dt-shit-ley 


6t-8hit-ley zeerey 

y ur-^ 


dt-shit-ley tkoorey 

i^^ u-^ 


dt-shit-ley sheerey 

^y cT-^ 


6t-shit-ley hitley 

C^yJ ^j;*X- 


6t-shit-ley tpeyrey 

CA^ ttT^ 


6t-shitrley shoorey 

^\ ,J»^ 

Eighty, seyen 

6t-8hit-ley bleerey 

C5A» ,^;«X- 


6t-shit-ley yeerey 



6t-6hit-ley ghoo-ghoorey 

Jj*> cT-^ 

Eight hundred 

L5r *^® 


Eight hundred and 

1/J \j^^ lT^ "^^ ^'^ '^^'^ 






JuL^ meenee 


Elbows, 8. 

seelee&n, lee^hn 

CiL*;0 - CJ-^0 

Eldest brother, «. 
Eleyen, a. 

s*shooltl^hil, s'shilt-l^h^ 
^^xilx-. eeekiz 

Ell, 8. 

sj\jj\ 6ndiz6 

»j<^l - ^j\ 

Embarrassment, 8. 

koohb sh6 s^n^r 


Embrace, t;. 

^jAj ^s\ dhpleey65h§k 


Emperor, 8. 

^lljU padeeshah 

Empire, 8. 

A^^ tsheehley 


Empty, a. 

A-uLi net-shey 


Enamoured, a. 

JT'^^ ^ {dstfc} 


Enorease, v. 


Enemy, 8. 

^n6k6-aree, 6-ish 
•juwJjJJ yedzeeshoo 

Enough, a. (suffi- 

Enquire, v. (to ask 

■Aw' n6hsin 

Enter, v, (come in) 

^j^»J aykdte 


Entire, a, (whole, 

Enyirons, 8, 

^,^^1 eei^pit 
\Jl)^Jl(1 idahinna 

cJ>1 _ ^ 

Envy, 8. 

\j)\tL J^ehgAwdh 1 




Error, s. 
Eternity, s. 
Even, a. O'nst) 
Eyen, a. 
Evening, s. 

Every, a. 

Evil, 8. (misfor- 

Evil, a. (ill, bad) 

Exact, a. (pnno- 
tiud, earelol) 

Examination, «. 


\f^fJ ^%r%\ oghddi-shd 
Ci^j a§pp6t 
.UljuJ nib-shee-yey 
iJjuU^ edghdygd 

Exchange, v.o. 

Exchange, «. (bar- 

Excase, v. 

Exercise, s. (prao- 

Exercise, v.a, (to 

^ dshped 
UUJ? tsbdM 

<iiJ^^ *U*^ psay-oreek 
^f if^ bzeygbdghey 
i^\j) bzdgbey 

AsiUgbiddt, (isiipghdd&t 

tlera beeiey goos dikheyieb 
gwey nemtsbeerem yob 
oob tsbeee 

^l^ kbosb 

sdzdghee sitsbo wdsbd 
^ ^1 Y^ tsooneb 

(jyyUJj adgbds 




Expense, «. (cost, 

ExtiDguish, v.cL 
Eye, ». 
Eyebrows, s. 
Eyelid, s. 

Face, 8. 

J'aint, a. 
Pair, 8. 

Fair, a. (weather) 
Faith, 8, (creed) 
Faithful, a. 

Faithless, a. 

Fall, 8. 


False, a. 

Fame, «. 

Family, «. 

Far, a. (distant) 

Fast, a. (firm, 

Fat, a. 


^LjjJj Jj^V ^^^^^ ^P~^ 
^JuJJLjJb\j tdhdshish 
<0 n6h 
i^oi ii\j n&h ptsey 

nem k6tn>or &dey 

thtshooz, n&hpey 
UamJj r^bs6ghd 

J\!)j p^dyir 

it^lji^ mSfMftshey 

toW ©©hm&n, ^ J din 

tz6p6hzdnsh, sahpeyzddshey 
-rJJbltf tsdhey zeem6r 

mLjJj yMeesho 

JLuaJuumij Jj w^dAsheenisht 

^^mA-i m6hbs^ 

jl 2fL^^j^ goohshdh dz 

(^^pirt Jj yil-yihsoosh 


(Quy^ seehtey, ^i^ajo peehtey 
^Ui? tah^h 

JUft J*l 





Fate, 8. 

i^.^ou»*U ndhseeb 


Father, s. 

cs^lL tdht, i,U^ seeyfit 


My father 

i,lju» seey&t 


Thy father 

-LUL, ses-yftt 


Hifl father 

^[i JLX-ll asheey^r yAt 

cr-VV tJ^' 

Our father 

^\) J?U-. seey&tem yAt 


Yonr father 

^U-iyu«-. 86sy6rseeAt 


Their father 

iff\j M/tuh!h\j y&teeshem yAt 

^vv ^>^ 

Fathers, s. 

yLvtbwi seey&teesh^r 


My fathers 

Thy fathers 

His fathers 
Oar fathers 

YoDr fathers 

see-y&teeshem y&rt 
seyseeyatim yfiteesheer 

see-y&teeshim y&t 
JL>Uw*-» seyseey&t 

Their fathers 

Father-in-law, «. 
Fatherland, «. 

yateesheerem y&t 

.^^ 4 J see \ 
CHj>^ L5:f tshoowebah/ 


J^^l eet-sheeW 

Faolt, s. 

If U,^lj rdghoshdgd 


Farour, ». 

vj:^^ s6hpit 


Favourable wind 


JjJ.\ i>«i« mfeffes-oonded 



Fear, «. (dread, 

Fear, v, (to be 
afraid of something) 

Feel, V. (to be 

Feet, 8. 

Fellow, 8. (a mean 

Fever, 8. (ague) 

Few, a, (a small 

Field, 8. 

Fifteen, a. 

Fifth, a. 

Fifty, a. 










Fill, v.a. 


L^U mdhsbthd 
«^ia-^UU ydghdahth^ 

<^li, tl&hkey 
jil dtler 

C u^^lt tdkh<iy-y4 
a^^t« mdhtshey 

J^jyc.^ bughodshee 
v_qV*/ -... I psee-kootf 

<ut tpey 

cJyuA seynook 

»jjj cJyu» sey-nookaeerey 

'>r ^^ {i^r^ } 

'.^ ^^ {ZoTy } 

ir^^ cJyuj sey-nookyeerey 

sey-nook ghooghoorey 
j^^.jj yee-zooshAn 



^^^ J' 





Find, v.a. 

Fine, a, (pure, 
thin, without mix- 

Finger, #. 

Fire, s. 

First, a. 

Fish, 8. 

Fist, 8. 

Five, a. 

Five hundred, a. 

Five hundred and 
one, a. 

Five thousand, a. 


Flat, 8. (a level) 

Flask, 8. (flagon, 

Flee, v.n. (to fly, 
to run from danger) 

Fleet, 8. 

Floor, «. 

Flour, 8. (the flne 
part of ground 

Flower, ». 
Foam, 8. 



W*y sA^^rjl 6ghoteeni8ht 
U^*wj psoghA 

efkhab, epkhdb, 6b-kh&d 

m^hzwd, mA-asej 
CLJJk^ hegd^t, ^j zee 

*, J zeyshee, iUit tzey 

^jtl 6tziin 

iUt tpey 


^ oU t\ m titf 

1, ^ ^-A-L^ meenootp 






4UJty(l^ tl6gh(idnshe 

^dUjjUj z6ghAbilU6 
j;j ;U-ls k&-kh&-zik 
i^Jitj dshug 
is' ^jU hAdsheegA 

«JxU ♦^^--tj ret-khoo bdghey 

i>«^i — 

L5^ - J^^ 





Fog, «. 

Fold, V. 
Food, «. 
Fool, 8. 

Foot, 8. 
For, prep. 
Force, «. 

Forehead, «• 

Foreign,a. (exotic, 

Foreign country 

Forest, 8, 
Forget, V. 

Forgiveness, 8. 

Fork, ». 

Form, «. 

Fountain, «. 

Fountains, 8. 

Fort, «. 



pshdhw^h^ psAgho 
jJ^4sL ^L^ shah khoosh 
Jt^^,,^,.>^t see-shest 

se7kdk6kh, zlgwddy^ga 
ylt tldk6 

^\ijl ookdhts 

b6s-t600ghey zeyshdkhA 

meynfthtey ket-shey 


ijljjb\jb hdhtshey 

nemtshiret shil 

^^ meyzee, ^^ m6hz6 

shoogoob shey-sheener 
^^^xti sht6hbshee 

C^^jb tooghok 

<UtJbbl^ kdddhsh^ 

^yiy k61leeghey 

<uX)1^4j kd-lleogheyshey 

wooner boo in neetsba 









Four, a. 

^ tley 


FoarteeD, a. 

Jl>ya**j peee-kootl 

'^ji'^ c^y' 

Fourth, a. 

ili tley 


o^ 'IW'' 

Forty, a. 

jkv-^i,ji dt^hitk 



'^-i ji^.i {t:5;?} 



,> jud,,i {j£j::jj 



.^ ,ji^y {"i';*! 



1% ji^.i {'s?i 

"^Ji^ ^ 


'^ j^,^ {t1^y\ 

cA> J/ 


.j^ jL^ji {ti^^j) 

i^^ ^ 


.^ juii,i {tSiJ^) 

^'^^ lV 


.^. ,>^,. R^^) 

/- ^ 


6t-shitk ghooghoorey 

Jy> J/ 

Four hundred 



jy. ^jj'i 

Four hundred and 

]j ; ]^jl Jk*> sitl orti zeerA 

Four thousand 

JtJu^ meenooU 

Cjuj CL^jJ 

Fowl, «. (a hen) 

j^" - j> 

Free, «. 

.jj\ jUl dzid-eezdh 


Fresh, a. (hrisk, 

lA-v.*uJuJ nib-sheesh^ 



^ ^ ^ 


Fresh butter, «. 

^^ tkhoo 

l/V. ly' 

Friday, $. 


^y/ ^«^ 





Friend, s. (relfr- 

Frigate, «. 

Frighten, v,a. 

Frightful, a. 

From, prep, (of) 

From me, ahL ccue 

From theOj ab, c. 

From him, ah. c. 

From US, ah. e. 

From you, ah. e. 

From them, ah. c. 

Fruit, 8. (com) 

Fruit, *. 

Full, a. (replete, 

Fund, 8. (stock) 

Funnel, «. 

Fur, 8. 

FuBi], 8. 

Fusileer, «. 
Future, a. 
Garden, «. 

&ahnk \ 

UIjul-. sib-ldgh^ 
i^yUili kdleednoos 
^idi^aft* m^hshtey 
vr^u.i^liMi^ heysht^ynsht 
(JLjJl^Js^ meehshish 

uTylj wdrfghA 

*iU«i? terrogasher 
j^^\j wdhyem 
il<0 t^U»\ dsh^-ee yee-6r 
^j deyzee 
UU 6h%h^ 

yee-zey-roo-khoo, yeehz 
^Lrwvr^L^l eehtsh^hn 

^l^ kh^hnee 

c-^« J^ gheydoob 

j;j1yL» skoo^nk, or sk^v^nk 

jliyLii sh-kong^ 
*xi Vn j^ »^ k^hooghesht 
<UJbL^ sh^htey 

J^jjf - 

>4J>« — 





GkLrlick. 8. 


-I I 

Garrison iroop^ «. 

<• • 

^'****:^^ L^J Iseenisht/ 

Gate, 8, 

<Ul? tshey 


Gender, «. (race) 

mdtlouy eedsbee nemshoo 


_ (.>*a»- 

Generally, adv. 

U.«0 yeykhd 


Genus, «. (sort, 
kind, spedee) 

German, *. 

j^jl ^/£ tlouy-fish 

nemtsheereh fi&kiim kikey 
(like fin "bind") 


German, a. 

^^<^ nem-tsbeedjey 


Gift, s. 

.jdajui^ mee-y6-te 


Girl, 8. 


Give, V. 


Glad, a. (joyful) 

;t2»jjurf sidsbaz 


Glass, 8. 

y:j\ dbkoo 



Gnat, 8. 

ifjjb bddzey 


Go, V. 

/'v. y^^' J^^ ™^^^ 



aJJud? tshen-ney 


God, 8. 

,U; pkhAh 

SiiS. - 


God (Creator of 
the UniTerae) 

C)jjJ-8 J-sUi^ i^jlyt ' 

t'b&dee keygh&so soreek 

God£ftther, 8. 

^^Ujli^ tl6kdrk^gh6sh 


Going, «. (walk) 

\^\,% magoo-dh 






Gold, t. 

Jj J diz, ^Jjj^^ dish 


Oood, a., po8. deg. 

souy-yey, shoodet 
CL?J«^ s-hood6t 

lP^ - X^ 

Goodness, «. 

UL»«^ shoosdgha 


Goods, «. (mer- 

Goose, $, 

ij^ sh6hkey, ^ lim 

^Vi» - JU 

Grace, «. (favour) 

nowsht kh^^sht 


Grain, «. (com) 

iUat^ kotzey 


Grandfather, «. 

(j^Uktbuuj psee-ydtsh 


Grandmother, «. 

^ybutf see-ydnoosh 

Grape, «. 



Grateful, a. 
Gratis, ad. 

jldlL yu-i /U-^ yLi 

sh-shoo zghagoo sh-shoo 

\1 \ r.\\ i nafeeloo 1 
h^V M^ [ r6khoo.6 I 

Grease, «. 

^/^ tkh6g68h 


Greasy, a. 

,U*1? tsh^h 


Great, a.,po8,deg. 

&soodet, bahsh ' 
CL;j^-i> shoodet 


Greater, comp. deg. 

'^^^ cPV {.tJ^ly} 



see-y^htem yahtee 






\*^ t t A . fseehz-sh^i 



Gieen, a. 

<U}Us-» shkh^ntey 


Greet, v. 

„ \ M ( sel^m ) 


Grey, a. (hoary) 

»yUljj wAhshwey 


Ground, s. (bot- 

v^j i6pp6t 

- J-1 _ J^- 

tom, fonndfttioD) 


<d.^^ -. c^J 

Grudge, «. 

irvi' ^^^^o^g^ee-eehrey 

c;:*^ - u»> 

Guest, «.(ciistomer, 


^jU. kli^dshe 

V- ^-^ I plaghft J 

Gunpowder, 8, 

jiKL sheyner 



s'kh&hzee, yeehz 


Hair, *. 

shitzey, s-kh&htsee 

ury - J5 _ ^L. 


Ujby noohk^ 



jy LS^L sA-At nok 

u^L ^jlr 

Half moon 

J J ^^U m&see nok 

^' r-^^~ 

Hand, 9, 

The .1 or is pronounced 

as the • in the Turkish 

word cJjy* o'^ *s the 
m in the French word 


Hand, v. (to de- 

j^y^lS ci^lj^ 










Handicraft^ s. 

j^Uacy^l ohpeekhzdn 


Handkerchief^ «. 

^^pLlL? 6tietsh 


Hard, a. 

jL5 - ioL:. - iUli 

shAf6, shdpey, keytoo 

^ - ^j- 

Hatred, «. 


sipyeeh, sid-shdz s^p 


Haughtiness, «. 

bdtsoopis^ weedeygooshd 


Have, tr. 

^^^ rokhoon 


He, she, it, nom. 


luiK.rf seeshft 

y - Jj» 

He, pro. 

^ khu 

J^^ - J^ 

Head, a. 

tshkhii, y^kotah feym&ter 
Ul sh'khd {or sh'kh&h) 


Heal, V. 

Uiij 4^dlj dahshoo-zogha 

Healing, a. 

m J^^ tloosh-ogha 


Hear, tr. 

jJiU yayddh 


Hearing, «. 
Hearken, v. 

&ghor oldee tleyser rookh6 
^.JiU yayd6h 

Heart, «. 

tS/1 eg, ^f ghej 


Hearth, «. 

jl^l ddjiik 


Heat, 8. 

<0^l5 fAh-bey 


Heaven, 8. 

iUi^lj - L5^y^ U^V 

was shoohey, w&hsey 






Heavy, a. 

Hedge, s. 

Height, 8. (alti- 

Heir, «. (inheritor) 

Hell, s. 

Help, 8, (assist- 

Herb, «. 

Here, ad 


Hide, 8, (skin) 

Hide, V. (to con- 

Hideous, a. 
High, a. 

Hill, 8. 

Him, pro., ace. 

To him, dot. 

Himself, herself, 
itself, nom. case 

His, pron. 

zddhd, wah-tow'y-yey 

^^' \ ^\ iWoo-touy-) 
^y ^y' yj \ ghoo-kee I 

^UlLi ^ttagh&gh 


itsh^ni-sh^rmish ihsht^sh 

dshehennem, &r&ree I 

U ^ <Uuj seeyey pooyah 
i^^ oohtzey 
<Ll^J<t« mehdehshey 

y ^ y 

oogoobzee eygheekho 
i)L^ sh4h 

J-2j\jli ghad-eslil 
^c^l eye-ee 

atta, &t-ha-det 
UbjS^lt t^ghez-y6gh6 

^1 Arey 

^^^1 dshyer 

y-*tf s6r4y 

-rf -J^ - cr^Ji 


- JV 







History, 9. (story) 



Hither, (ui. 

^j^ maydayshay 


Hold, V. 

Jajujkj\ oohbeet 


Hole, 8. 

J^j\ oghan 


Hollow, a. 

J^j\ ogh&n 


Holy, a. 

Tyijlj* hodishooi 

Holy-day, 9. 

Honey, 9. 

<J1»1 4^\jjj byram&ftee 
tooia shoogboo, shouy-oo 

Honour, *. 

c c 


j\^\ _ yoy 

Hoiu>ar« r,«#. 


Hvx^|\ *. 


Hv>rj«N^<vI vr. *. 

>vO^,^ 3fc^?*?-lw*>-i3eT 



^s^ *-"'-*V* 


^c F^^Wj 

w^' - e^^ 

KsNtTv 4k 

w.'N^W ,ff-t 3I» :«dLlifi 


llsSfc^ 41 

K.«iRW,s^ < 

^^^\ W^Mh^frfV*^*^ 






How, ad. (in what 

La^ jJju» seedoo shit 


However, a{f. (not- 

How much 

^jju* seed6h 
j^UJa> yet shdhsh 

Hnmble^ a. 

^..'i.U^ ket-shee 


Hamonr^ «. 

i^Jj^ kehf 

Hundred, a. 

jj^yi^ khdsh^d 


Hundred and one 

1/4 '^ ^^ 
khdsh^d seer^ zeer& 


Hundred and two 

khdsh^d seer&t ora 


Hundred and three 

khosh^d seera sheera 


Hundred and four 

khosh^d seerd tloorA 


Hundred and five 

khd8h6d seer^ tpeyrey 

U^. jil 

Hundred and six 

kbosh^d seer^ shoorey 


Hundred and seven 

kh68h6d seerd bleerey 


Hundred and eight 

khdsh6d seer^ yeerey 


Hundred and nine 

khdeh^d seerd ghooghoorey 


Hunger, «. 

^j^ neydshee 


Hungry, a. 

J^j^ neydshee 






Husluuid, 8, 

Husband's bro- 
ther's wife 

I, pera. pro. 

^ Ji, Uee-y^h, Jj yil 

jj^ ^ L5^ tshee-yeey sur 
ifji^ sayray 

I myself 

,j^ sejrree 


Ice, 8. 

\\k^ mil-lee, JL« millel 


Idea, «. (fancy) 

f^S^ s^hgub 


Idle, a. 

\jjI^Un-) skhdrwa 



Idol, 8. 

c^Ujjl 6zdjahb 


If, conj. 


Ignorant, a. 

^ILlj dshieeley 


111, a. 

^^ zweg 


Illness, 8. 

L U*J ul oozeeshell 


Imagination, 8. 

^U^ sldghagh 


Imitate, v. 

,j\j ; zee^pehro 


Important, a. 

In, ad. (denoting 
immediate entrance, 
as " come in") 

Inclination, «. 

tshitlish, oppoo 
^J^^b\ ehkdtz 

•ilkj^*^ boshooy^tlagho 

Injure, v.a. 

^^^^^jj^ shigursehn 


- cA;!;^ 

Ink, 8. 

4_^^ merkeb 


Inn, 8. (hotel) 

4^ In^^li J^^y* 
shd^tez zdeesheer^li tcrer 






Inspector^ «. 

iajuj: rep-pit 


Instead^ ctd. 

ituLjb pdhbshey 


Instraction^ «. 

O y o ^ 

<U^U Lu-ajl oossAghdssey 


Intention, «. 

j-wJbl vji^JbbJ ni61i6t Ahssfi 


Intercourse, «. 

iwjji y j\£, ^ g6nney / 


Interest, «. 

ij^\^ keer&bshey 


Interpreter, 8, 

^ULst tilmdsh 


Investigate, v. 

U^^^/^:??i {gc^&shl 

Iron, 8, 

iJlLys, gbootshey 


Islandi 8. 

koos-khd, koosra 


Janissary, 8. 

AjjJ^ yen-shee-resh 

Jejune, a. (empty) 

li^J^^ goohnetsh 


Jest, 8. 

UXaM^ s6mekh-kooyah 


Jew, 8, 

jybU y^hood 


Joke, #• (sport, 

Joy, ». (joyfulness, 

^^U> s^mek6 
2fjjyL* meguzweh 

Judge, 8. 

^jliUl? teekad^y 


Judicious, a. (pru- 

j\jj^ goorzoo 


Juice, 8, ^sap in 

Jump, V. 

,tLjU mdpsgliey 

Just, a. 

itiJuUbU zalindflh^ 

^> - J^ 




Justice, s. 

CjLl sberdt 

Keep, v.a. 

^uJU megbee-kee 

crry J' 


idjU oo-ikk6y 


Kind, a. 

j^jljjr^ tlouyfish 


King, s. 

^j^ psbee 



CT^J^*^ r^b^oohn 


Knee, s. 

<UJ|/IL tleygudnsbey 


Knees, s. 


itljJljudL tleeb&ndshej 


Knife, s. 

,j^j^ soozee 


Know, tf. 

z*sb6gb6, skbdner 

j;^'lt - cUj 

Knowledge, s. 

^^lii etldbs 


Known, poM^ par*. 

^^ hMiH 

llit _jlL 

Known, a. (cele- 

Labour, «. 

Um» soobka 

Labourer, s. 

jL5»<U meyshAk 


Lamb, «. 

Jjuurt see-nel 

^J^ «-Ciy 

Lame, a. 

<U>>17 tUhshey 


Land, a, (conntrj) 

^\h,a tshiU^h 


Language, «. 

t«^ bzegh 

41,U _ Ji> 

Last, a. 

,^1,1 ft-tah 



^j dleykee 


\ v 






Late, a. (deceased) 

Ult thighs 


Laugh, V. 

»\^^ weegoozay 



Lavish, v. 

Uy.lj rdsh6gh& 


Law, t. (rale) 

j^ ^ tloh dz 

ts*j^ - D^^ 

Lay, V. 

J^ yeehl 



*iU*J psAshee 



^^Uj dshdss 


Learn, v. 



Leather, s. 

^•w shooway 


Leave, If. 

^^;^J^ sheeneyhsh 


Left, a. 
Lend, v. 

Lent, 8. (&sting) 

4^ uoi - j<^^ 

pehriz, yooy-bitt6 


Letter, s. 

Jj^ tflhtl 

Letter, $. (iu the 

Liberal, a. (ge- 

Lid, 8. 

Uj.'t. V.L, stishogha 
c^ltU^ shkhdtdp 

Lie, V. (to tell an 

Life, «. 


^->J nivsh 






Lift, V* (to heare) 

Light, «. (a spark 
of fire) 

Light, $. (clear- 

Light, a. (not 

Liffht, V. (to kin- 
Lightning, «. 

Like, a. (resem- 

Limb, «. 

Limbs, «. (mem- 
bers of a society) 

Line, «. 

Linen, «. 

Lip, $. 

Lips, ». 

List, ». 

Little, a. 

Little, a. (insigni- 
ficant, unimportant) 

Live, V. 

Living, part, a. 

Load, «. (harden, 

Lock, V. 

^\ 6ttey 


iJUL^l leyhpney 


^Uij nef-ney 

' o 

A.^tlV-*vVwj psindshey 
irJutfU ghdsdey 
^dju^ shibley 

b6dd6 derdto pshikho r6kh6 


2^JuujUiG feymdhtshdey 

tlony oozereehs 
U^J^ oghoon 
Jul^^iU meyghootsher 
2r^j^ oobaey 
(j^^ <— ^yj^ o-koof-dree 
yL\ \j JjJ>yLt tshfthlza^ho 

tzook, tzick, tseegoodet 

LT^-- J)j5 {ebee-immeel 
^jUl ^hdzin 
if Lj psdghd 
A*.^ i yeehtshey 






cri^^J - 






Long, a. 

kdkhd, k&h&det 


Look, V, (to ob- 

Look at me I inierj. 

AL^ sehtlo 

<-T^::* O^^ isep-peyli 

Look on, V. 

JLilj^l^U, seyeer-shey 


Look up, V, 

jJiU • ci^j^ 



Looking-glass, s. 

J;jijl ohghoork 


Loose, a. (slack) 

^Ib tdskh 


Lose, tf. 

ifj\j3f^j\ ouy-keeyd-d6h 

iiXfj\ t_-*** 

Loss, «. 

j\j\j «l«ir 

uVj - V 

Load, a. 

^JU, tUghoo 


Love, «. 

jLlJjy bozdshAz 

Vi-^^ay* — j^^ 


jLl JJU» sid shdz 


Low, a. (inferior, 

c:J jU \ju«iU gh&spd h&det 


Low, a. (not high) 

«U*u-:»! esh-shey 


Luck, «. (fortune, 

Lakewarm, a. 

v^^U n&seb 
^^Ij wdhbey 

Mad, a. 

zeykaik6h, i^kwdi-key 

J'* - J^^ 

Maid, 8. 

tley-deymook ps&s-dey 


Make, i;. 

U^ sogha 








tsiffey, tseep^h, E^ffey 

j\ _ ^oT _ ^1 

Manifold^ a. 

cAij ^ tA:tj ^^ 
tlouy-ish tlee-ish 

^jjj jljjj 

Manly, a. 

jj Ji, tleeded 

J^ - ^} 

Manner, «. 


jUi* _ jjyi 

Mariner's compass 

U*U XlS kdWd-m^hmd 


Market, $, 

^ beyxeyr 


Marriage, $, 

c^UlJb c:.^ljl ,^^mJ^11j 


Married woman, $, 

(jju^ <U idt tley-yey-8008 



C)jJU;b ydrmdlik 


Mast, $. 

jjJUwU k&kh&neez 


Master, «. 

\j\ i^JSj seyzee &zA 

4«>-1,£k- Uuil 

Master, $. (lord) 

^ pshay 


Maternal uncle 

^jJjUj zeeydnesh 


Matter, «. (affair, 

Mature, a. 

^^ koppoo 
\^JU rokhoo-4 

Me (to), dot, case 

^^^iU» eeysee 


Meadow, ». 

aj^j^ mdkshey 


Mea^^, 8, 

^lOmA^U? tamishkey 

Meal, «. 

lA^j' c^^ ouy-oohsh 


Mean, r. (to think) 

iTiijLl ^^4^1 dhrot shdzoh 






measure^ v. 

Uy**^ ts.sh6gh£ 


Measure^ «. 

^^U, shdhbkh 


Meat, 8. 

aj ley, \ lee 


Meet, V. 

CJj^Ujy 8hoozer-6gdt 


Mellow, a. (tender 

<UUy^ . iUUJi? 



tshdhey, s'shahbey 

Melon, i. 

jjljbU nahsh 


Melt, V. 

V4;jy. ^ tes 

J^j' «-»>t 


yuuuat tseepey sh^r 


MercHant, t. 

0- >* 

LuijJ detshoo-d 


Merchant-ship, s. 

U^^LijJ detshookhd 


Merit, s. 

36b6boo-feykhoo, s^b6boo- 


Merry, a. (cheer- 

Midday, s. 

IjjIju- Jy boz seypdyoo-d 
Oi (*J' ^^ loom yooi 

Middle, s. (inter- 
Tal, medium) 

C)j jjj j^ ©ygo «>ug 

U„1 - \j\ 

Middle,*, (centre) 

JL;bl/ »Jj^lP^^^7 ga^&roo 


Midnight, s. 

sheyshnock, Bh'kh^sbnock 

^ ^A 

Mien, s. (look. 
Mild, a. 

sh^hbey, sdhbej 





MUe, 8. 

Jjc^ mil 



shey-s^nnee, shdh, shey-zen 


Mindednes8,*. (in- 

Mine, «. 
Minute, 8. 

iUuJjl^y bokhatree-yeh 

sheetloayish bozshey 
Kljj zddkd 

Miracle, 8. 

<Li»*lj y boh ddhshey 


Mistress, s. 

J^u^^ boh-zee-sh&z 

<G,ujb« _ jljjU 

Mix, V, 

UjUj zeyeesha 


Moderate, a. 

Ua^ sh6gha 


Moiety, «. 

yjJbJ\ aynoohk 

c-Lai — . <^,b 

Moist, a. (wet, 

Mole, 8. 

<uL» sdbeh 
JUn. Vm) sish-khdl 

Monday, «. 

billif^, biUip^^ 


Money, «. 

ajo pArey 


Month, 8. 
Moon, 8, 

mdhzey, m^see 
v?\U mft-dthee 

zeys^hzey wdshoomshey 

Moonlight, 8, 

2[yd1jiU meyz^hwey 


More, a. 

J jj bedded 






More beantifol, 
camp, deg. 

deysheydeydo dfihshey 


More humble, 
comp. deg. 

Jt^JbiJ^y bdk^d-shey-det 


Morning, #. 

ddghdm, yeekee shekoo 

<JLft3 ney-fey 

Morrow, s. 

^jlU yihoosh 


Most, a. 

shdbgh^ seykdhd^t 

c:^U _ j^ cJ\ 

Moet frequently 

... ( kheezoh i 

J- J-» 

Moth, «. 

Jjbb hdbloo 


Mother, «. 

^Ut teedn, ^b y^n 


Mother-in-law, «. 

jilj^ l5^ "^^ shoodsh 

w ^„is 

Mountain, 8. 

^J^ meyzee 


Monse^ «. 

j-tf ,^i^*3 deyshee tsoo 

^V - J*^ 

Mouth, 8. 

^ shey 


Much, ad. 

JJJj b^dd^d 


Muddy, a. 

Multitude, 8, 

^y, sherkh 
JJ<0 beyded 

Murder, v. 

^^\ oohkey 


Music, 8, 

UJuuio pshinndh 


Musket, 8. (wear 
pon, arau) 

iUJbt fthshey 



Mastaches, «. 

Hntton, 8. 

Nail, 8, (on fiDgers 
and toes) 

Naked^ a. 

Nakedness, $. 

Name, $. 

Name, v. 

Namely, ad. 

Narrow, a. 

Nature, $, 

Navel, $. 

Near, a. 

Necessary, a. 

Neck, «. (the nape 
of the neck) 

Neck, i. (wind- 
pipe, throat) 

Neck, i. (stub- 

Need, «. neces- 

Needle, 8. 
Neighbour, «. 


pddshey, beeyfck 
JjJiU mey-lil 

CO ^ ^ ^ 

ghootshooghoon, tleb-zdn 
^^Luj psdhney 

UjlxS^ sooghid'hd 

U tsdh 

1^^ U <l,a^ ptsey kA wdh 

a^ ayghey 

•-iairj aey-shoo 

JJulI sh6nd6d 

neebinsh, neez&btsee 

[^a^ tidghd 

<Ual? teepey 

eddee, zeymer, pdoomey 
jlLirLwwj psdhtdk 

j;^t«J dm&hsheck 

<L>bbb p^dyey 

Iam)5w« mdhstd 

^^!ju»U mdsddsh 


JlajL toghno 









Neither — nor, conj. 

seedit— seedem 

<jG . <U 

Nephew, #. 

Jjj.4sJat teepkhor^l 

_ u;> 

Never, ad. 

djJLyX) neebsheeghey 


New, a. 


aooh-det, tsheyritsh 


News, $, 

j\M^ khdbdr 


Newspaper, «. 

seedee kh&bershee 

vf^ - ^j^ 

Night, #. 

kayshey, tsheytshee 


Nine, a. 

^Sy booghoo 


Nineteen, a. 

y^AA*j psee-kpo 


Ninety, a. 

^ ^ 
L5*04^' ^goo-ghoob-ghee 


Ninety-two, a. 

^-goo-ghoob-ghee tkoorey 

U5^^ CT^}^ 

Ninety-three, a. 

6-goo-ghoob-ghee sheerey 

^j1 cr-5> 

Ninety-four, a. 

6-goo-ghoob-ghee beetley 

OijjJ ^j;-J> 

Ninety-five, a. 

6-goo-ghoob-ghee tpeyrey 

U*^ UT^J^ 

Ninety-six, a. 

6-goo-ghoob-ghee shooroy 

^1 ^^ 

Ninety-seven, a. 

6-goo-ghoob-ghee bleerey 

^J^i ^^ 

Ninety-eight, a. 

»^. of^yi^^ 



d-goo-ghoob-ghee yeerey 



Ninety-nine, a. 

Nine hundred, a. 

Nine hnndred and 
one, a. 

Nine thoaaand, a. 
Noble, a. 

Nobody, pron. 

Nobody, «. 
Noon, #. 
Nose, #• 

Note, 8. (ticket, 

Notify, V, (to re- 
port, to teU) 

Nonght, «. (no- 

Noorisb, v, (feed, 

Nourishment, a. 

Now, ad, (at this 

Number, s. 
Nut, 8. 
Oath, #. 

Oato, «. 

6-goo-ghoob-ghee ghoo-goor^ 

yjs*rf seeboo 

I . ♦ t ^ (seeboo 6r&J 
l;ij bj' .^ { zeerd ( 



•o o 

boht tlouy mood shooz 

t^ ^f^ « ,1 dreeshet 
^ *^ 

JU^ tsheyghai 

«0 pey 

v_ ^^nti shgh^b 

tj?J jii? 15^ tehee tlee see 

bdhkd Bhoo2-khdkoo 

.: zoo 

Ix JLi sf6ghd 
Uufti^ shoonnd 
^^ h6gb-ghee 
t^ J 4U9 tldh lony 
^^J^J deshwee 

t'hdh, t6zgh&ghey 
<Usi^llL tsh&khey 


^ n.fij'ti S 




Obstinate, a. 

"**^ ." (a6hpitmes-| 


OceaD, s. 

liM.x-*-y bdHBhiph-khd 


Of, prep. 


Of me 

^rfiU seysee 


Of thee 

J» t-^\ j^j woh-ee-sher 

Of him 

yu:,! &sheeyer 


Of us 

^^ t^Mh^r 

^y. - r-^> 

Of you 

yu*-* 86s-y6r 


Of them 

\jLiJ^ dsdreesh 


Of this 

^y moo-ehee 


Offend, tr. 

ytJ? \j\L p^ 
sigii shdbrd tsho 

j<C5,j *^u. 

Office, 8. 

^ZJ^\ 6hf6ddet 

Often, ad. 

mdhnoo, mdhnee 

*> o^ - <>- 

Oil, 8. 

^b ^\^^ «eyeetin dagh 


Old, a. 

»j wy 


Old, ad. 

dey mdhzee tshissoo boh 
dookhi k^khd 

^Ui*.< JLI 

Old age 

tley taogh rokhoo-d 

Old man, «. 

j_pjj lieh 

j\jjfi>-l — ^J* 

Old woman, #. 

»^Ui noo-ey-800 

.» *^^ 





Omelet^ «. 

ILjl ^b yAnkee-dtA 



<Lilj2rb p^hbehey 


Onoe^ (td. (one 

lilj ^\ ^gHee «dghd 


One, a. 

^; we 


One after another 

sekke zony eehshey 

**i*l'^^ ^ji 

Only, ad. 

ptdney, ps^ney 

jJLa- _ u:-JL. 

Open^ V. 

oohehey, oreeeheenieht 


Open, a. 

.yLfcjl oohahoo 


Opening, a. (aper- 

^m 6gh£n 

Jf _>< _ ciJo 

Operation, t. (ef- 

Opinion, $, (mean- 

zehi shooto Bh6z6 

Order, «. 

^jj^yoj zeeghd-hto6h 


Origin, a 

i^\fj;j «ee-6b 


Orphan, #. 

khimishk, pshft-shey 
jl^yl ^U. kh&m-6heekh4d 


Otherwise, ad. 

teebsowy fi^tshiin 

CO o 

ei(i6hahin feebso fetshun 

jLtf'i ^;^ 

Out, ad. 

L-^J^ytJl ^tahoob 






Out, pron. 

Expressed by a repetition 
of the nonn to which the 
prononn belongs, adding 
the syllable ^^ "em" as 
an affix to the first nonn, 

Jt,b y&t, "father" 

1 ^k 


1 ^ >.bU 

Oval, a. 

jj/i.UA it-shooz 


Over, prep. 

o •« •# 

y^y^\ ookootsho 


Oven, f. 

i^\^ khdkey 


Ororthpow, v. 

lUia^ yeetshey 


Own, a. (self) 

^ y^hshee 


Ox, «. 

«lyut tshoo-ey 


Pack, #. 

<C?2^Li shdtey 


Pain, ». 

aOJ^ y6tl6rkey 


Pale, a. 

t • . A • jRbd shiiz 
^^JJjr--^^ I rokhildl 


Palace, «. 

*lj)yuJ*jl oohnesh-wdh 


Palate, «. 



Paper, #. 

Jjii? tshool 



JL^jjT gweehshey 


Pardon, s. 

. / .{ir (sht'khol 
U-t^ri^^*^ ipshishf 


Parson, «. 

shilley yey-y6-ooriz 

4j^blj ^d,^^ 

Par^ «. (a portion) 

iU*Jb^Ul; tdgh^guebey 

u^U iUa:.^ 





Party, s. 

y^idJb tley-nkli6 


Passport, 8. 

j^<U yeelik6h 



Pastime, «. 


Pastnre, v. 


Paternal aunt, 8. 

.^ ^Uk teedteyshookh 


Paternal uncle, 8, 

^jJtfcLbj zeeydtesh 


Patience, 8. 

2^^^ sAWroojBey 


Pattern, #. 

^ir;; bzegh 


Pavement, 8. 

A.^jlj woo-tzey 

^ . 

- (V***^ 

Pay, V. . 

yeyteen^r, steezoosho 


Pear, «. 

^jyS^ hhUzd 


Pen, 8. 

Jj k^lem 


Penurious, a. 

pilhghey, hdrdt 


People, #. 

ts^yfd, ts^p^ tsheehley 



Pepper, #. 

^ijuJ:* shib-shee 


Perceive v. (to 

Perfect, a. 

UU-i sghdghd 

r **. ♦ 1 - f tdm^ 1 
^^i^l^ r^ l6r6khoodr 

Perhaps, ad. 

yjjlytJj tshoo-^z-z^h 


Permission, 8. 

Person, 8. 

Aaa/JT j\ eezn ks6d 
^^ tzeypey 






Persoade^ v. 

«ta ^ ^ o 

dsh^ 800 r6khooa 


Perrerse^ a. 

z^pdghdzd, z6fdgh^iA 


Physician, s. 

2Ubt ^hzeh 

^..^Jud? . ^»j^ 

Pie, «. 

^U khAldh 


Piece, i. (part) 

c^UlJ bzeedh^b 

<^b - ^b 


y^ kdh 


Pilgrimage, <. 

(jAtJbA^U) jlib hddsh^hsh 

d^^ - f; 

PiU, #. 

^UaLjlj woot-zey 


n&ch, «. 

CJ^-*^. yey-pesk 

PionB, a. 

JJ;Ujo yee-ghdr-d6d 


Pipe, «. (to smoke 

Pistol, ». 

jlLJ looldk 
*lk2»u^b bye-shtah 

Pitcher, $. 

ij¥^y>- khoshoon 


Place, #. 

8hii-6pl, shigh 

Plague, 8. 

<if l^^juu) seeboobzdghey 

Plwn, «. 

tiil^J J koozkhdsh 


Plan, 8. 

ajuolt tsheepey 


Plaster, #. 

ytJby pooshoo 


Pkte, «. 

jJ^Ll shoo-dh-zrf 


Play, «. (game) 



[See the word " Hand."] 



Play, V. 

Pleasure, «. (fa- 
▼oor, Jdndneae) 

Pleasure, <• 
Pledge, <. (pawn) 
Plum, s. 
Pocket, <. 
Poet, 8. 

Point, «. (a dot) 

Point, «. (a sharp 

Point, V. (to 

Poison, «. 

Pomp, «• (magni- 

Poor, a. 

Port, #. 

Portion, «. (part 
of anything;) 

Possessor, «. 
(owner, proprietor) 

Possible, a. 

Post, «. 

Potato, «. 

Powder, «. (guu- 


i^yi ^ ghjBe-yogh 

UiJj dldghA 

L^^ <^j^ *>^7 keyP^ssee 


Jy^ pkh6hbool 


c^^J djib 

* /' 

tl6 giibzii tla fthze 
jUUyML^J lit-shdghdzdk 

Vsw^Mij psoUi& 

h^gheessee shousht 
^jj^ tsheyrddsh 

iJLy^K^ tkhdmish 

^^ khootley 

dj^^^»\ ahg6hshey 

^jjA iz-yeh 

CO o 

tkhdhzey neebsheedshey 
JL^ ghogool6h 

j^^Jolt tsheerdk 

y^ shoonoo 





Power,!, (strength) 

wahtshey, quadshey 


Power, t. (^Iblence, 

li^ tlogha 

Jij - ^J^ 

Praiije, t. 

^.^jkUi shitkh6 



^o>sstj--» shootkhoon 

1 '^ ^ 

cXaj^ j.Jt. 

Pray, V. (the prayer 
which the Mookhii. 

Uj-ijU^U ndkhdzshoghd 



five tiinee a dfty) . 
Pray, v. (to en- 

^^y .a^, {,S^^,} 


Prayer,!, [to God] 

a^j doo-g6kh6 



-^ ^ 

Prayer,*, (request, 
demand, petition) 

yX ijj\y^ 8d« Ifigho 

jW - Vj 

Precious stone, «. 

<Cib »Jj^ mooiey dftshey 

^U» jLUii 

Preference, s. 

£dr6tl6r po ghoobso 

<tf U j;Jt. m6drep kighey 


Preferable, a. 

'<_>! <^»^ lAhshey 6b 

Pregnant, dl^ 

jjj JijytJ? tshoozeelpen 

4l.l* _ AJ^ 

Prepare, v. 

^^ (sK^-l 


Prescription, «. 

^JLiJ? tsh6y 


Presume, v. 

<j?;jl 2r^ shooh kvm^ 

CXajI {j*Am 

Pretty, a. (hand- 

a;^yb ddhshey 


Price, «. 

i^\^ w&hsey 


Pride, «. (haughti- 

a;^*biL tMpdhshey 


Prince, «. 

<L1j pshey 

ifJ^Afl - cJj 






Process, «. (law- 

Profession, $. (han- 

Promise, v. 

^Li sh&hs 

^UjujS^ yAgopee8ey( 

j-^t»« jl^lS k&r£r p6tsoo 



Pronunciation, «. 

seeehey gOslU ^dashey 


Proof; t. 

nouy koobsheesa 


Prophet, $. 

peygh&mbersher, r^sool 

Jj-J - ^rf^ 

Property, t. (for- 
tiind, power) 

Prostitute, $. 

Ajjl ^j^v^ tsh^hnooney 

Proud, a. 


Pl?ove, V. 

^^j ^ k^) 

cJ^J c^UJl 

Province, t. 



Provision, «. 

jtj^ lij «6a-khd«ir 


Prow, «. 

^Uji koo-hdb-hey 


Prudent, a. (wise, 

Publicly, (M?. 

^^ koobzoo 
beegillee, beegoolloo' 

Punish, V. 

gdtshd-ooz speykhoo 

CXJ^ ^JUA>. 

Punishment, $. 

jU^ tlohghdz 


Purchaae, v. 

l^ <Uu«) . ly A*,^ 

JA' uy^ 

i*8hey-p6^, s-sh^h %ii 






Potrid,a. (corrupt) 

Quarrel, <• 

Quarter, $, (ward, 


Question, $, (in- 

Quick, a. (speedy, 

Rage, $. (fury) 

Rain, s. 

Rain, v. 
Rain-water, s. 
Rainy weather 
Ram, «. 
Rank, s. 
Rat, «. 

Raw, a. 

Reach, v. (to at- 

Read, v. 
Ready, a. 

ijuji kiss 
A]j ydh-oo 
IS^ tsdghd 

iLJiiCi^^ kh^dshesh 
cJytJuutf fl©6 tshejrrek 
ijjjjl«j> y6-iib8h 

kheez&y khuzeh 
meysey w&h-heeyey-bzaghey 
wdshghey, wdsh^h 

ijyyju^jlj wdh-ships 

yJltU kdtldgho 
•L^V bdghoto 

t86kh6, kwdhi tzoo 
^LU.nlr^ tadnney 


UJ(i>*Jbj-l shfthsl&ghA 
<^^ y^hghey 
tiJJyjl^ kh4«rdet 


A 2 




Ready money 

Real^ a. (tnie) 

ReaaoD, $. 

Receipt^ t. 

Recite, v. 

Red, a. 


RefiiBe, v. 

Regiment, «. 

Related, a. 

Release, s, (from 

Religion, $, 
-Remain, v. 

Remainder, «. 
(what is left) 

Remind, vm. 

Remove, v. 
Repas^p <. 
Report, v,a. 

Reside, v. 


^U^ 4juL)1j sJjSjb 

h^gd^d^h wdst6n6h 

<j^l 6p-hey 
^^ goobaegh 

i_,\U^i.^^.j^ tsheeileb 
l5f l^^j dftkatkha 
^^jdt tleeshee 

v^ Jftfw ^ •; sogho kh6dee 
^ r »LVm *ir ghdbesh-det 
UIajj reebl^hd 
^j^ <— jul ^ bo-ohp-kohn 
^jju J deeneeyejr 

khaidh, kejlee 
bo khdtir jee-ydkb 


jjjy*,^^uJ9 tshee-sh6hifi 
Ajuai^ sboonnej 

khdbdree ket f<§rdkh6 
J^ teyhz 







Reeembling, part. 

• j^ fedd 




Restj «. (repose) 

^^5; (jwy bos rdkhdt 


Rest, V. (to lie 

c^iW l/^tt} 


Reeurrection, «. 


Revenge, «. 

teedteys zood shogh^ 


Revenge, v, (being 
aboat to fight in 

JhjJ^Lj psdhteek 

Jij^ »i^? 

conaeqaence of a 
Reward, «. (wages) 

^U. khdhp^y 


Riband, «. 

Juulj psheener 

jjj _ 4 b — Jo^ 

Rice, t. 

^j^ pirdsh 


Rich, a. 

Jj^^b beye-d6d 


Ride, V, (on horse- 

U^aJa sheysoghd 

CXaJ -iCil 

Ridiculons, a. 

^^^^^^3Jr^3 weegoozwensht 


Rifle, «. 

CJsjji^ jd skii-wenk 

yy cJjii; 

Right, a. 

UlJajU z&nt-sh& 


Righteousness, «. 
(trath, justice) 

leemee yeekhdk oomish-ree 

<4/^ — <J^ 


^y, shouy 


Ring, 8, 

^Jall elteen 

*^ - <^Jj:: 





River, $. 

^l^ tshftee 


Rivers, $, 

yi*jjl^ tsh&isher 


Road, 8. (path, 

Roast meat, s. 

^y^ 6gh6goo 
lJu^ ldghdz-sh& 

Robber, $. 

ox o 

jjIuaJUwj psee-shddz 

es?=i-^ Jji 

Robbery, «. (prey, 

Room, 8. 

^^c-^J «6r6b-kh6sh 


^j^^U hatsh^sh 

Room, $. (spaoe) 

^K,*, sh6p6h 


Root, t. 

,j^£\ et-libs 


Rope, «. 

(^IS^^lo- kh<[y-k4b8 

ja^ *>i^ 

kdAbsey, gA-psey 

V^J - w^y' 

Rough, a. (not 

Roand, a. 

liU'i ket-tet 
^]jy^ khoordhee 

RouDd about (on 
this nde, and on 
the other side) 

Rout, i. (uproar) 

ifiX^ifj\ ^hd6mayd6 

^ ^ ^ 

Rudder, «. 

y^hney ydhtey mafey in 
UjiXuid k&h&tldkd 


Ruin, «. (invasion) 

2rLijJ;» sheehzey 


Rule, 8. 

^ tley 

*;*U _ ^yU 

Rust, 8, 

^jJ^jj3 kirshey-y6h 


Sabre, «. 

sesh-khem, pee-yoobsho 






Sack, «. 

Ijjj dzoo-d 

ji^ - *-^ 

Sacrifice, i. 

^b^y koorban 


Saddle, $. 




JJJul^ kk&needz 


Saints, s. 




zogho, shogho, shoogoo 


Salute, V, 

J^^ r^ IsJIiSh} 

cX.^j C^ 


j^^.l. wootioo 



\^\Z pehdkhoo-d 


Satiated, a. (»- 



Saturday, i. 

l5]/iU mdfizdkd 

^_juJ^l u*«»- 

Save, V. (to spare) 

«doo boo^hAtshey ney-peye 

cXajI t>W 

Save, ad. (ex- 

Say, V. 

jjlJ^ n^kmtsliir 

Say, r. (to caU) 

4S\x- 8Mghey; 


Scarce, a. (rare) 

^ te6kh, ^ tefer 

jJU _ CJ^Xj 

School, $. 

, ,-»i^ in6kt6b 

Sdssora, <. 

CkW 16h-nist 



tr''()i (•jyyji ^--»^^ 







shey, psee, shoo 



jJby muhiir 


Seat, i. 

^U; pkhdteygoo 

^/ - (.liU 


i^»*j^ tees 


Second, a. 

yt tkoo 


Secret, a. (secretly) 



See, V. 

LcjLmi sloghoo-d 


Seed, <. 

a;^iU m^yshey 


Seek, V. (to search) 

^c;. At tlookhoon 


Selfishness, «. 

Sell, V. 

U^iU. saynJghd 
<U^ sh^hn^h 

Send, V. 

* • " • '"^ 


Sense, <. 

Jjglj/" goobshiz 


Sentence, $. (from 
the jadge to oon- 

Sentence, t. 
(maxim, a saying) 

Sentinel, $. (guard) 

^jSJii,^ eetlesh 
ir^l Ahzey 

Series, *. (row) 

Ls^j reppet 


Sermon, 8. 

yeypende kittpaghe 


Serpent, s. 

<dj bley 






Serrant, 9, (maid) 


Servant, 9, (male 
or female) 

Set oat» V. 

peh^r^k, peheyrdkhii 
khiz-m^t^h psheer^khd 

Seven, a. 

<dj dley 


Seventeen, a. 

jbj^^uu psee-koobel 

^^•M uy' 

Seventh, a. 

4dj dley 


Seventy, a. 

j^jlL^jl dt-ahit-Wain 




dt-shit-ldsin zeerey 

••0 fa t^ 

V^ cAA! 


dt-shit-ldsin tkoorey 

t/i' cA^st 


dt-shit-ldsin sheerey 


^j^ cA<w 


dt-sbit-ldsin bitley 

CUyJ jjSviu 


ot-ehit-ldsin tpeyrey 

U*^ tA<4 


dt-ehit-ldsin shoorey 


i^' tA<^ 


6t-ehit-168in bleerey 

cj^ tA<4 


dt-shit-ldsin yeerey 

jC j_A<u 



ot-shit-ldsin ghoogoorey 






Seven hundred 

Jjuu. seebl 


Seven hundred and 

t^. « ! u. f seebl ord) 

Seven thousand 

Jjuuu^ meeneebl 

CJjo ^Jj 

Shade, s. (shadow) 

tdgh^, kdtdhsey, mdghoo 
^\jd^ m^zdsho 


Shame, 8, 

^Uc-jy boob-ghdn 


Shape, 8. 

t^'f v^^^ itri 


Sharp, a. 


Sheep, «. 

iOJiU may-Iley 


Ship, 8. 

khds-shey, gahd 

Ji^ - ./ 

Shipwreck, 8. 

^ly, shd-eye 


Shirt, 8. 

^if g^n 


Shoe, 8. 

^^U paboosh 


Shoemaker, «. 

yeehpaboosh, tsh^djsey 


Shop, 8. 

jj^^ bezer 


Short, a. 

k^htshey, gh&sftgh6de1; 
2r^Lj ps&hrey 

^Joi . iC^ 

Shoulder, «. 

<uli, tdhm^h 


Shoulders, 8. 

iUlk^ st4hmey 


Show, V. 

ghatlou-oo, y&z-gh&t-loo-yee 






Shriek^ <. (scream^ 

Shat» V. 

Side, s. 

jyX pl^ook 

o^. - -!> 

Side, at one's, $. 

Sight, $. 

jij\ aydash 

Kuatc^er fejmdtsn reykdh 

Sign, $. (token) 

(jIjI ,^j\ ouy-ish 


Signature, $. 

jjJbiU meyhiir 


Silent, a. 

i^^^j Lii^gooshdreykhoon 

jAjl u«j- 


^L> ddnee 


SiUy, a. 

ss^h-zd-kooz eghor^b 


Silver, $. 
Simple, a. 

teesheen, tish-ney 

Single, a, (indivi- 


to tntDflgreas) 

Sin, $. 

UyuJi r^bsoghA 

^y ^jJl^ teeypee bz^gh 

Since, ad. 

J^UjJ^ meyd6z-ghd&z 

ir^ w** 

Sincere, a. 

*r^!>^" IfeeShey} 


Sing, ff. 

^Uj J !r^j weyrey d6ghdn 

&*/^ Jj 

Sister, $. 

tsheebkb, tshee-ydkh 


Sit, V. 

ixuJUs^jl oos-khdnsht 






Six, a. 

J^ shoo 


Sixteen, a. 

(ji/ori p*^''^^ 


Sixth, a. 

<Ll shey 


Sixty, a. 

\^^^ Atahkh 



w ^.' (r^( 

^ j>L*^l 


^^ \'^\ 

jo^ uiA<ai 


A A a\ \ { fitshish 1 

^y ,>^i 



c:.^jj (jijs^l 


.^ ^^ {^S^ 

^^ ^^Ik^^l 


,^^ ,p^,^ {J,tiV 

1 J!\\ fj^\ 


,^: ^,1 {£^^1 

^Jl» JiLXci\ 



P> Ji^\ 


otshUh ghooghoorey 

jyjle- ^/Up31 

Six handred 

^^ soosh 


Six hundred and 

, . ,' . » ' /8008h oral 

^ J*i ^^ 

Six thousand 

^-yu^ meenikh 


Sketch,!, (a rough 

(, I, _ V 


* • • • ^"^^ -^ X 

mees6gh^ig(in seeneesht^h 

Skill, «. (art) 

fju^j aeetleys 

Skin, 8. 

gy*t shooway 






Slave, f. 



Sleep, 9. 


W.^.U tshee-y^ 


Slender, a. 

^^U jSi^ psogookdkh^y 

A^ ^ 

Slipper, <• 

Uui tflh^ki 


Slow, a. 

makdshey, mdhbdr 


Small, a. (narrow) 

2jj^y boo-ghoo-aey 

jlt _ j^\ 

SmeU, i. (scent) 

^fft.ftA,-f meeshoo 


Smell, «. (the 
power of smeUuig) 

^y'ly budgiin 

•uU c;:>jS 

SmeU, V. 

key-feem, keypeem 


Smoke, s. 

•iLlj p8lidgh6 


Sneezing, «. 

<Ua*jU m&hbskey 


Snow, t. 

• ^ 
woo-dh-see, weyfbee 


Snaff-box, $. 

^y katejr 


So, oJ. 

y^l^i toihrey 



^L» sAboon 



s4bbey, m&dsbey 


Softly, ad. 

Softness, t. 

ij^^ mdhtshey 

jjltob <U*L:i shdhbeypdhsh 

Soil, «. (dnng) 

^ ^1^ shweye-yee 


Soldier, $, 

J J? t^jlj »>uy-Adl 






Solitary, ad. (re- 

Some, a. 

jUju«» seehsdk 

Somebody, $. 



Someihing, $. 

j^j reegwdr 


Son, i. 

sim-shdghd, shdh-wdh 


Son-in-law, $. 

^l^ teemil-kh8 


Sorrow, «. (afflio- 


^j digghee 
J^^^^ tlouy-Osh 

Sool, 8. 

^ psey 

■ c,^ 

Sound, «. 

I^^U mdhkd 

^^^MMMd ^ ItXtf 

Sound, a. (healthy) 

^1^1 ^zsh&boo 


Sour, a. (acid) 

^Y^ shogho 


Source, «. (foun- 

South, 8. 

i^^ <Uj psey kooldghey 
^^li k&b-leyshee 


^Uj^ khob-sh&hyee 




^^^^tlcy toghl-shee 


Sow, 8. (a pig) 

}iy^ kobzey 



4*j bshey 


Speak, r. 


Specially, ad. 

seeshp6hd6h "shutob 


n^mtsheero sheetob 





Species, «. (a kind, 

j^^U^£ tlouy<l8h 


Spectacles, $. 

fJjUjj n6hreef(§l 


Speech, $. 

\j^£ gooshd 

Speed, 8. (haste) 

CL?JJ|^ kh6z6det 


Speedy, a. 

jj^ h6gh-d6d 


Spice, $. 

LaUji yrfgh&s8& 


Spirit, 8. (mind, 

Splendonr, 8. 

<Uj pB^h 
llrLb d/ikhshd 


Spoil, V. 

ISiTjl dhkdh 


Sponge, t. 

J^Ual c->l5 kdb shtdmel 

jU -^j- ->;^ 

Spoon, 8. 



Spot, 8. (stain) 

A>A^^ eed^hshee 


Spring, «. 

<UJjU ^h&tshey 


Swear, v. (to take 
an oiUh) 

Sweat, t. 

^ijlL tdzt-ghd-ghey 
JJbUurf s'shdd 

Sweet, a. 

^jl ^Mhii, ^jl ez-rey 


Swift, a. (fast, 
prompt, quick) 

^!^j^ kheehzey 

>' - &}^ 

Sword, 8, (sabre) 

Ui^i « seys-shooft 

sesh-wey, tz^shwey 


Stable, «. 

JiJ^ sh^sh 






Staircase, 8. 

tlouy-wey, tlony-ghdy 
008hdgh6, dshoghd 

State,!, (condition; 

^](i Uh-oo 


Stature, «. 

^U. ^1 eekee kh&kh 


- ^^ 

Steel, «. 

(j:.U.J-l flWliteii 

Stem, 8. (trunk) 

^a:; pkh61i 


»j/ ^U^ 

Step, 8. 

iUat teey 


Step-dangbter, <. 

l^ neema 


Steril, a. (anfruit- 

Stick, «. 

{^^y^ shoon^b 
U; pkhdh 

Stick, 8. (wand) 

^^ b^sli 


Still, a. (calm) 

itli^b dihshey 


Sting, V. 

jLuiU yeypeeghoo 


Stink, 8. 

jSj5 Ui 

Stink, V. 
Stockings, t. 

bz^h6 shoomeypoh 
ii^<tli» tleyp^t 

Stomach, «. 
Stone, 8. 

dgh-wfih, see-gbey 
4^j^ mibhey 

Stop, tf. 

ti^l fibit 


Stem, f . 

<01j jj\j w6« bdhney 






Straw, 8. 

*^1^ wirzey 


Stream, «. 

^^^^ \jy kdd^-gheps 


Street, s. 
Strength, t. 

6gh6ghoo, gh6gii 
^dajj peetay 


String, f. 

•LjIj dinowdkh 


Strong, a. T 

lO^lA J^ tl6sh shihpey 



Strong wind 
Student, t. 

Stuff, f . (building 

Stuff, $. (cloth) 

*^^ y yy '" y 

shib-gh& beydey-deyshee 

y^shghd, z^ghdshghd 
<^^iU» sheykey 

<^^<Ll sheykey 


Subject, «. 

<L«^ y6rmeyley 


Subscribe, tr. 

hill, t6s-dadh 

•^ y 


Sudden, a. (sud- 
denly, oA) 

Suffer, V. 

J* ^- i/n,' seemeeshgho 
c^Jfc)^ kooddee 

Sugar, «. 
Sulphur, «. 

^ ^ shdh shoo 
. ai *' .1 f tkh6m- 1 

r^lr^r^ li&sh.khdj 


Summer, «. 

hdmdpey, ghdm^fey 


Sun, «. 

U; teyghA 



Sunbeams, «. 

^^IjU m&zA-togh 


_ bw; 

Sunday, «. 

VOL. VI. ^ 







Sanset; s. 

^^.A {IS^'I 

^jjj?\j jjlj/ 

Soperflnitv, «. (ez- 

Supper, s. 

l::^^ berket 
psh&hA lokh-ro& teeshey-isht 


<U^U ndhpey 


Barpass, v, (to 

Surprise, v. (to be 
troubled, to become 

^idj dleygh^y 
\j^^ ghooshd 

Surreuder, v. 

ULI *\ *J dhey-^h-stkhd 

cJ^l i^Lj 

Suspicion, $. 

IJ:, sheyfee 


Table, t. 

djubl dhney 


Tailor, t. 

ddgwdh, tshdghdn 

•-^j/ - '^jj'^ 

Take, v. 

JuJjJ^ tzeereesh6h 


Take a walk, v. 

lj(^^ beyzeyghwdh 


Take heed, v. 

i^jU. ly bod khdzr6d 

cJs^ut cJjljJ 

Take something 
upon 0De*8 self, v. 

Take off, v. 

6hgoot8hook y^hshtsh 

I/O >« 

<Lu*^jl^ gho-oo-tx8h6h 

Tale, t. 

UjJ keeydh 


Tame, a. 

a-iul?*U m&htshey 

cPlji - o^l 

Tart, f . 

J J^U. khAlo-ghooi 


Taste, «. (savour, 

Taste, f . (the act 
of tMting) 

^Ijl ezoo 

(-^1 i-Aci-^lJ kiidtshee ep 





Tax, «. (daty^ as- 

Teach, «. 

^<U» sheytey 
^Ict &gh6akn 


^^^^ neypsee 


Tempest, t. 

h6ghoo8b^n& keesdkh 


Ten, a. 

iUat tsey 


Tender, a. 

U^ p86gha 


Tent, f . 

jJk?U, sh&teer 


Terrify, v.a. 

^uluf ^hdsht^ 


Testament, ». (the 
last will) 

Thanks, 8. 

shiikur tkh&mgdtsh 


Thank, V. 

That, rel. pran, 
(which, who) 

That> dem, pron. 

tsheetlilm weemor6khneb 
^j^y^A*- sVshow-dh 

The, or. 

m6rrey, mftrrey 

j^ - y* - y 

Thee, pron. 

j_^^lj wdhree 



To thee 

^^Ij w6h-y^r 


Them, pron. pL 

jlt^U»^ dshd-ee-eey6r 


To them 

^1 dsh-y6r 


Themselves, pron. 

Then, oJ. (at that 


^jiy^;U? Ahshyogh6n 





TherefOd. (yonder) 

There, <td. (here) 

Therefore, odl (for 
this reason) 

Therefore, ad, (for 
that reaaon) 

They, pron. 

Thick, a. (large, 

Thief, «. 

Thigh, 8. 

Thin, a. (lean) 

Thing, 8. 

Think, v. 

Third, f . (tierce, a 
third of the night) 

Third, a. 
Thirst, 8. 
Thirteen, a. 
Thirty, a. 




<L1j^ m^^hshey 

meeshfdf psheeghey 

/(^ .^ dreesh^r 
j^4c gh&mu 
iwUbbCj^ toghsfthhs 
U.1L tlAkhd 
j^ w6dd 

a[iU UaX« m^giisha drdrd 
*jx^ ^-y^ Isheehseyj 

^ shoe 

(jj^jaCkmi sik-weehsh 

shet-shoorey zeerah 
shet-shoorey tkoorey 
shet-shoorey sheerey 
ahet-shoorey bitley 






shet-shoorey tpeyrey 



shet-shoorey shoorey 



shet-shoorey hleerey 



shei-shoorey yeerey 
ehet-shoorey ghoogoorey 

This, pron., nam. c. 

JUajlj wiisey 


To this 

^\ &8h-yoo 


Thither, ad. 

^ifj\ Adayshey 


Then, pron. 

jjS^ weyroo 


Thought, B, 

mougub shAhzey 


Thousand, a. 

^^ moon 



6hd&n, ood&n 

Three, a. 

*i shoe 


Three hundred 

Three hundred and 
one ' 

Three hundred and 

Three hundred and 

Three hundred and 

*>yi» W «^-^:l Ukoorey' 
Bish drd bit-ley 





Three hundred and 

Three hundred and 

Three hundred and 

J. lU \ t * i fsish dra) 

. » 1 1 » . fsish 6t&\ 
ijy^ Lyl U^ tehoorey/ 

tA Jji Tl3^ 

Three hundred and 



Three hundred and 

sish 6rd ghoogoorey 

jy^Jji ^j' 

Three quarters of 
an hour 

jjijl cJ;Aj tsh^r^k ish 

Three thousand 

J^y<^ meenoosh 


Through, prep, 
(by, by means) 

Ull^l ikhshdha 

Throw, V, 

*jj dzey 


Thunder, i . 

•U \lt * J s^ib-ler \ 


Thursday, s. 

jyiU mehfok 


Till, ad. (until) 

v^^^jsffi) h^gheeb 


Time, i . 

y ^.-\K*.j seedim yoh 

Ci^j - U^ 

Tin, $, 

^IS kdleye 


Tip, s. 



Tired, past part. 

U^ psogha 



jjjjt tuteen 


Toe, ». 

^'^ -^ {o?£i} 

o^ji jV' 

To-day, i . 

t^^ n6p 


Together, ad* 

k^lj ^ tee lAhpet 



Together, ad, 


Toll, «. (eastern) 
Tomb, 8. 
To-morrow, «. 
Tongae, «. 

Tongue, «. (lan- 

Tooth, i. 

Torment, «. (pain, 

Torrent, s. 

Towards, prep. 

Tower, s, (steeple, 

Town, 8. 

Track, s. (trace) 

Trade, «. 

Train, 9. (rear, 

Travel, s. 
.Treason, s. 
Treasure, s. 
Tree, «. 
Tripe, s. 
Troop, f. 



2jj^ teehzey 

^ o *• 

C^y*^ koomrook 
U. khft 

tshej-mil biouy-g 

b«ey-g6, l>zegh 
<L^ tsej 

^Ua-i shtdhpsh 

i*l 1 Jy kod^ oogh 

^l^ jJI ddr6bheye 

jjj b^d^d 


• >' 

<U»a^ keysey 

^^\ 6hpey 

^ J keeyey 

yJu jXl^ khdgooreekwey 

ij^LufcXuj psee-shdh-zey 

Ujbb hdzna 

2fl^ frah 

^Uuu neebey 

iijijljjo b6d6d-id-*ey 


Jy - t^^. 






Troop, s. (host) 


^j^ - c3J^ 

Troubloi t. (pains) 

kee-eehn, koo-eehn 


Trowsers, s. 

4 *^Afcjl ohnsh6gh 


True, a. 

Jjlift^ sookdhded 

^^ - c^> 

Trust, V. 

J^k LT^. {^kto} 


Tuesday, «. 

ujfiui tkhdrff 


Turn, V. (to alter, 
to be spoiled) 

jU<G key-ghd« 



Turn, V. (to return) 

jUjl£v.4M> sdkhdwdz 


Turning, s, (from 
the road) 



Turkish, a. 

cJjJ^\jJk? teerkoo-bz6gh 


Twelve, a. 

Jaj^Juu*. seekit 


Twenty, a. 

<^<^Vjl 6t-shey 



w 'v^^' {"-i^} 

J ^Ji 


v> .^y {nkX'l 



'y^ 'J'S' {*£S7} 

^J^ L^/. 



^JJ-> Cf>. 


<^ 'v^y r^] 

cAJ o-l;^ 


shoorey J 



"j^- '^i" 

bleerey J 

•-^'^ I^J^ 


i yeerey / 







6t-ehe3rrey ghooghoorey 

jy> L^/. 

TwUight, a. 

LS^\jy^jU rokhw&hdee 

ij^lf /^luLs^t 

Twin, a. 

tghdree keezey dil-poh 


Twins, «. 

j;lajjjui see-atk 


Two, a. 

^\ 6h 


Two hundred 

jy- Ji^ 

Two hnndred and 

\jjj y J2j^ [^'Ziit} 


Two hundred and 

sitk 6t& tkoori' 


Two hundred and 

sitk ord sheera 


Two hnndred and 

"sitkord beetle/ 

'^jj^^jy^ Ji^ 

Two hnndred and 


tA? jji ^J 

Two hundred and 

sitk drd shoorey 


Two hnndred and 

sitk 6rd bleerey 

^'Hjy J-d 

Two hundred and 

sitk 6r£ yee-rey 

J-'jy. ^Ji^ 

Two hundred and 

sitk drd ghooghoorey 

Two thousand 

jLyLX* meenootk 

cJo.^ Jol 

Uriy, a. (de. 


i\^^ eye-^h, ^jI 6y-y6h 




Unclean^ a. (im- 

Understanding, «. 
(intellect, reason) 

Understanding, 8. 
thought, idea, re- 

Understand, v. 

Ungrateful, a. 

Unhandy, a. (an- 
skilful, awkward) 

Universal, a. 

Unknown, a. (un- 

Unmarried, a. 

Untie, r. 

Untied, a. 
Untruth, <• 
Unto, prep, (to) 

Unwell, a. 

Up, ad. 
Urine, 8. 

Us, pron. ace, case 
To us 

*Xc J« 1) ji goohzood-ghed 
j^^JLJ^ goobsheehz 

\rU^^ tzshghdgd 
^^;tAt tl^sh 
Jj« k'ghooz 
v::^o^\ dshp6t 
\x!^jdL1 shdhsh-zghd 

pshahsey kazmeeshdg6 

tatshee shiimd rokhiin 

>Vri-^] {ihee8h6} 
«uj psey 

seebh&ghey, seek^nsht, em 

meemdg fey-yoo-ghoob 
L^^^^ pay-y6ghob 

<Uj1 6ps«J 

ottkhdbz, wdtkhdbs 
j^^ t^reediwer 

teytadish khdgoo-a 







Use, f. (uflage, 

Usefd, a. 

^U, shdhbey 
*lyLJ0 yish-wdh 

Use, V. 

U^ 86ghA 


Valiant, a. (brave) 

^bsAkxlL tleetsh-ydn 


Valley, f. 

<j^ J koo l&ghey 


Value, «. 

2jjA^ teehbzey 



J^J<U-!» shkey-il 


Vein, t. 

<U p^b 


Vehement, a. 

JtJJtr tl^sh 


Vendible, a. (sale- 

Very, a. 

^U, shftnee 
.dakju pit-tey 

Vessel, 8. 

^s^^jualaJib p^rk^tzeeg 


Vexation, ». 

lA*>^ Pgl»o-koosb 


Vice, f. 

^^/Tj; b J zeppd bidg 


ViUage, «. 

Jj^-^^j zouy-tsbil 


Vine, «. 
Virgin, f . 

Virtue, 9. 

AA^'\nr« s^n^btsbee 

psay-say-sibkd, ps&b-sbey 
Ulj 40L sdpey zAM 

Visible, a. 

^^^ uO^^ tlouy-gboon 


Visit, 8. 

Ujl^^^yuui sikwebslogba 


Voice, f. 

Llyy boobsbd 

J^ - liX-tf - ^j**^ 

I ^ 





Void, a, (empty, 

i,rn\() n6hUih6h 


Yoluptaoosness, s. 

gheygher tkhd gbw^hr 

U-. - j^i 

Wager, $. 

^^ <_>UJlt tlilhb gWp 


Wait, V. 

XU pApW, iili f(ifli 


WaU, $. 

o o o 

ddfk^ d&pkd, d&hbka 


Want, f . (diminu- 

uJlj pf^nn^r 


Want, 8. (nothing) 

tdmeehshk, tdmooshk 



\yij ziihwdh 


Warm, a. 

X)yli fAbey, Xjyb p^hbey 


Wann, v. 

iO*liU ghdfdbey 


Wash, tf. 



Watch, 8. 

lU-L BOsh&t 


Watchmaker, 8, 

^UjUL. WlhJitJlsh 


Water, 8. 

,^^ psee, ^«^ psoo 



yDuuj psee-sh6r 


Water-closet, 8. 

jwj pssiihn 


Water-seller, 8, 

yjfeUlLuw psee-kdzdheyrey 

y^ > " <^ ♦ 


Wave, f . 

jji^juj* sheeboosh 


We, pran. 

^4? teyroo 


We ourselves 

Jl4j>Jb teyreesher 






Weak, a. 

jjij wood 


Weariness, s, (te- 


j_y«JjL«J ^jjV;^ 

Weather, 8. 

4^ J. wez-shoo 


Wednesday, 8. 

,_^j.,^i^ beyreyskeyzee 

Week, 8. 

sit tkh&m&fey, hdmdpey 


Weeping, «. 

df ghey 


Weight, 8. 

^5^-^ sh^kS 


Weigh, V. 

j^^jl:, sh^hkir 


WeD, a. 

yij Z8h6 



<S.)uw)J perssinney 

jiy <u^ 


ij^juuu*^ psee-neps 


Wench, t. 

bzagh^y shkhdrdwdck 

CJJ;^ - J^J^jJ 


.^\ Abaseyshee 


Wet, a. 

> A *I . 4 ^^ . • f neev-vsheed-1 


What, inter, pro. 

(<LuLili) or <Ujb ^.jjuuj 
pseedoom pdpshey (fafshey) 


Wheat, *. 

^j^^A-alS Whtzey-peehsh 

i^^«A« c^J 

Wheaten bread 

^Ui tshdkh 


When, ad. 

y 4_^jjw9 seedee y6h 


Where, ad. 

2uj^ t^h-doo-ey 






Which, rel. pro. 

^JJb ter-rdhrey 


White, a. 

<Lu*^jj peehahey 


Whither, ad. 

^^/b bjJ^ ted-reypdg 


Who, inter, pro. 

Who, rel, pron, 
(which, what) 

Why, ad. 

JL:, Bh6t 

U!jjM««j ses-wAgha 
Ijuua seedd 

Wicked, a. 

^j; hUg^h 


Wide, a. 

bbU, sh&bghd 


Widow, $. 

c^l j^ shooz&b 

ej,^ jjj 

Widower, «. 

(jMj\ 6rs 


Wife, «. 

shiihz, yeeshuhz 

Jtol _ C?;* - <;>-jy 

Wife's Bister 

ys^xAt tib-kho 


WUd, a. 

dj^l eye-y^h 


Will, *. 

shdbz^h, ndhsib 


Will, V. 

k.^ khs^t 


Willingly, ad. 

;Lla£f eehtshiz 


Wind, f . 

UjulI shib-ghd 


Wind up, V. (to 
wrap up) 

Window, f . 

i^^^ eh^hkey 
(^^1jUs«} skhandghiibsh 



Wine, f. 

^L sdn 


Wing, «. (of A bird) 

^j bzee 




Wing, «. (of an 

Winter, $. 

Wipe, V. 
Wise, a, 

Witcboraft, $. [to 


With, prep. 
Witlidraw, v. 

WitLoat, prep. 

Without, ad, (ex- 

Witness, $. 

Witness, v. 

Woman, «. (lady, 

Woman, #. (wife) 
Wood, I. 
Wool, $. 
Word, 8. 

Work, $. 


b&dz6r ogh-eye-ghd 

tsheemdhf, djdhd 
<U<di7 tl4m6h 

i^J degh 

c • 

cUjL y ixXirf ^j^j^ 

s6m6rkoQj sib-koh 

^j^joiu <0 neypsheer^r 

^ • " • 

J^b^fLxL teezeypat 

iihshey ^tsh^kw^tsh 
iij}i^ wejrey^ gjy boorey 

UUAt ii^Cx^U ir^Joil? Jj 

z^n^mtsheereh hdkeeghey 

CjULI shah&t 

jJ^ shiz, J.uO» sheez 

^j«j BUS 



\j^Syi boohshd 

v^^Jb.l ohp, iUi\ &hf-fey 







World, $. 

meydoony& fi^eyleo 


Worm, $. 

jiJ4i J9 toghoozoo 


Worst, a. 

«• c 

seb-k&h-d6t do-soobkh6h 

A^ 5Jubli 

Worthy, a. 

^^ ■•« pey-sesh 


Wound, f . 

If^y 00-iighd 


Wrap, V. 

Us <ti*--» s-8h6h key-yd 


Wrong, a. 

%M-ftf, shd-pip 


Write, V. 

<UJ2rU mdhtshey 


Writer, $. 

^ylAl? tshfikwey 


Writing, $, 

UyJ? tshoghd 


Year, $. 

Year (the current) 

tlaysee, seekhless 
Uj^ mogha 

YeUow, 8. 

^^y^l oghooshi 


Yea, ad. 

^*j wayhee 



now-oosh, toghaz 


Yet, cor\f. (not- 

You, pron,nom,c. 

<OL»L sdhstey 

jJ^ya sdreesh^r 


To you 

^^1) woh.y6r 


You, accus. case 

jj^jI^ wdhree 






Young, a. 
Young man 
Youngest brother 

Youth, 8. (tender 

Youth, «. (a young 

Zeal, 8, 

^JUsduJJu neebsheedshey 


U; tgha 

tsheenMidtshit tziok 
4a*jccUj tghfigh^bsoh 

. JajuJ tsheyldkh 


gh&yr6t zts^m&tsh 







0^ _jJ1 




^'iJo] ab&seyshee 

west, 8. 


Jj\ abkoo . 

glass, 8. 

c-^s -ur^ 

aps^y, waps'gay' 

COQgh, V. 


iUj^ ^hpsey 

above, prep. 




» Jlilil 6ptleb 

curtain, «. 


^pThc^, 6ph^d 


A^l «p hey 

'*' , f6p h6p\ 
Ur^ V^ Vltteoghd/ 

L^ V^ V] Itzoghdj 

before, prep. 

real, a. (true) 

point, V. (to 

tip, 8. 

&p h^ghee keye-key 

clever, a. 


<u;1 6ttey 

height, <. (alti- 

lift, V. (to heave) 

v^^^j^ytJ^ ^tehoob 

out, ad. 


^^1^1 etldbs 

knowledge, 8, 


j\pr\ ^4J^ 

hearth, 8. 


jLt»»fi;^\ eykhohsheen 

change, v. 


^ • c 

eddee, zeymer, pdoomey 

neck, 8. (the nape 
of the neck) 


^l^jjjl adr^bheye 


towards, prep. 


jjI — ^j\ 





O ># C C#i^ 

ddr6tl6r po gboobzo 

^Ij jj*^ m^dr^r kdghey 

jijl aydash 

42^2rj) ddayshey 


Aai' ^li! eezn ks^d 
bohl shC^det, &reerd& 

%j\Js drdhrey 
^l^lj^l arzdrdr 


ir^l Arey 

(Cs^jjf dreeshet 

-^jjl dreesh^r 
^1 jhl dzdd-eezdh 
j|jt eioo 


c-)Ll45jl ^zdjabb 

^ j\ 6z-sli(i, }ij'\ etrrey 

preference, «. 

side, at one's, t . 
(close to) 

thither, ad. 

round aboat (on 
this side, and on 
the other side) 

permission, «. 

beginning, t . 

that, rel. pron, 
(which, who) 

SO9 ad. 

absurd, a. 

widower, $. 

bitn, pro.^ aec. 

nobody, pron, 

they, pron. 

fr^e, a. 

ttote, i. (savour, 

idol, i. 
sweet, o. 
colour, 8, 
sound, a. (healthy). 







of th^m 


fisoodet, bahsh 



(J:^Jj^ sliood^t 

j^t^L:,^ dehd-ee-eey^r 

mien, «, (look, 

them, pron., pi. 

jl^ c^lll dslid-ee yee-6r 

from them, a5. c. 


universal, a. 

WjJt ^ 

juJ^l dshped 

even, a. 

jp. -jy/ - j^ 

^^U |;^1 \xJ\ |^.^j. ^^j^ 

from him, ah. c. 


KLJU\ esh-shey 

low, a. (not high) 


Cr^-^^' leheymid,} 

to-morrow, «. 



to them 


jjJb\ Aeheeyer 

of him 


jk v^*,\ dshee-yer 

his, prim. 


Jtb jul:»1 asheey^r y&t 

his father 


^j^^ &sh-yoo 

to this 

c:jjUi>l &t-h&.det, Itl atta 

high, a. 


^^! {^T4 

untied^ a. 

tM;ij J^ 

ftljo\ ^tzim 

fist, «. 


^^;L^^ atsh^sh 

chamber, «. 


,^lLj et-liibfl 

root^ #, 


m 2 






fellow, 9. (a mean 

handkerchief ». 

j^jlil 6gbMn 

live, V. 


I^UI ighia6m 

teach, V. 


terrify, «.a. 


J^\ 6gh&n 

opening, a. (aper- 

wash, V. 

efkluib, epkhdb, ^b-kh&d 

finger, #. 

&*j\ - tf!/ 

office, «. 

«— >yd.V< 

^_^^ ohp, iij\ Ahf-fey 

work, «. 

<_i>^j!» _ fjii\ 

/JT^pku, ^Tdfku 

flask, <. (flaf^on, 


i^U^ji^l ignz eibigk^ 

again (once more) 


i^ ayghey 

namely, ad. 


CJjj)j jf 1 ejgo zou'y-g 

middle, «. (inter- 
val, medinm) 

once, ad. (one 

^1 ^Iteen 

ring, ». 

<UU. _ cijy. 

i^ll^^ elmdfl 

diamond, «. 


irjljJl 6nddz6 

ell, f . 

*JU1 - ^j\ 

insapl ohflhitok 

cheap, a. 


J^4J< aynoohk 

moiety, <. 

(-jLo) . ^,b 


^\ — ^J^\ 



6n6k6-&Tee, d-Tsh 

(jliJk^M oh-oohsh 
lS»ljl oo-Aghi 
<^iX,\j1 oo-ikk6y 
J^j^jl ii-ish 
iji^\ oobaey 
c:.^^! libit 
juuf.^ oobid 
dj^\ 6hpey 
^UiUjl ohpeekhzin 
<JL^.^ oohtzey 
j\^,\ ohkh&ner 
jyiJjl ohdjok 
J^j,^ oozeeshell 
iauuJUs«i*1 oos-khdnst 

o • o «• 

<Uy-»U L*-*j! oossa ghassey 

ibufghdddt, (isupgh^ddt 
oosh^hd^ dshoghd 


end, B, 

two, a. 

back, adv. 

wound, 8. 

kUl, v.a. 

last, a, 

lip, «. 

stop, V, 

catch, tf. 

trade, «. 

handicraft, 8, 

herb, «. 

destroy, v, 

chimney, «. 

illness, «. 

sit, V, 

instruction, «. 

exact, a, (punc- 
tual, careful) 

star, 8 

through, prep, 
(by, by means) 


- dye <»::^.V 

^ -%HA»r 

*<U^ - 



ii%\ ^. J9%\ 



oosbooghey weyghotsoon 
j^ *wf oohslioolin 

^^j\ 68hyer 

ottkhdbz, wdtkh^ 
\jiju*i?j^ 6t-8if-da 

dNbeyrey ghoogoorey 

iUir^l 6t8hey 
^jLxuJyl dtahish 


amusement, a. 

aecompliBh, v.a. 
to him, {ia<. 
nrin^, 9, 

creation, «. 



thirty, a, 







twenty, a. 
sixty, a, 



(jyutjl ijJfctj\ 


6t8hish ghoogoorey 

*^ (j.iA.u.Jyl I yeerey J 

j;kx^^| dt-shitk 





' bitley / 

6t-shitk ghoogoorey 
^^JUijlLj/olI^jt dtrshit-ldsin 

dt^shit-ldsin bleerey 
oi-shit-losin bitley 
dl-shit-ldsin zeerey 







forty, a. 









seventy, a. 








6t-ehii-]68in shoorey 


<J3\ tA^i 

6t-sbii-ldsin slieerey 


^j' lM 

dt-ehit-lSsin tpeyrey 


^/uj ^,,A^ 

dt-shii-ISsin ghoogoorey 


jy> ^ 

dt-ahit-ldsin tkoorey 


cs^^ tA<4 

6tHBhii-l6siQ yeerey 


J^ cA<*i 

.dJajs^^l 6t-shit-ley 

eighty, a. 


dt-sliitrley bleerey 


t/Aj jj;*X. 

ot-shit-ley bitley 


C^jjJ jj^ 

6t-shit-ley xeerey 


ji cT^ 

ot-flhifc-ley shoorey 



dt-shit-ley eheerey 



6t^8hit-ley tpeyrey 

eighty- five 

U*^ cT^ 

6t-shifc-ley tkoorey 


^^ cT-^ 

6t-8bit-ley ghoogoorey 


Jj*> cT-^ 

j^\ — Ji\^^\ 





ot-shit-ley yeerey 

«• O O A> 

^i; ^r^' ^;^j' J^ 
fighor oldee tleyser rookhd 


adorn, v.a. (to 

hearing, s. 

Jj^jl ohghoork 

looking-glass, s. 


U.-t>jij1 oghdsh-shd 

error, «. 


j-^^jl oghooshee 

yellow, «. 


iijuLjuudp^jl 6gh6tini8ht 

find, VM. 


dghdpley, wdhptley 
^^liUjl oghdfiskin 

copper, «. 
bathe, v.a. 


^ljx« Ujl oghd m^bzfighey 

stink, «. 

yy Ui 

^[sj\ ogh&n 

hollow, a. 


^m oghan 

hole, 8, 


^^1^1 6gh6goo 
ogh6ghoo, gh6gu 

road, «. (path, 

street, s. 

oghon, m§h-kw6h 

ory, f7. (to scream, 
to bawl) 



^^j\ oghoon 

line, 8. 


*^^j! ooghoonmey 
V*4^^ ogh6y6h 
^15^1 ookdhte 


coarse, a, (gross, 
thick, rough, rude) 

collect, tf. (to 

for, prep. 






o ^ «# 

Ji^^A ookootsho 

oyer, prep. 

^^J\ cJ^jl o-koof-aree 

lips, «. 


d^^\ oohkej 

murder, v. 


oogoobzee ejgheekho 



tumiDg, «. (^m 
the road) 


J^^ki^ J^i?^^ 

take somethiDg 

^^ <uJLMt 

dhgootshook y^htsli 

upon one*s self, v. 

^^^1 d-goo-ghoob-ghee 

ninety, a. 


*^ L5^yj^' 


c/Aj j^jt 

o-goo-ghoob-ghee bleerey 

u o «# .* 

"^Wf J^.y'fi^ 


ULJyJ ^^> 

d-goo-ghoob-ghee beetley 

*jr^ ^^>^^ 


Ji^ cr^> 

d>goo-ghoob-ghee shoorey 

'^r J^/A^ 


^J^ cr^> 

o-gtxy-^wAy-^w sheerey 

O «# >» 

*^ J^.y^^i^ 


J_yIO CT^J^ 

O-goo^hoob-ghee tpeyrey 

'JJ^ ^^^' 


L5^^ cr**> 

$-goo-ghoob-ghee tkooroy 

b^ (j^^j^' 


jy> cr^> 

A-goo-ghoob-ghee ghoo-goord 

^ 0?yj^' 



6-goo-glioob-ghee jeerey 

JajjJbjl oohbeet 

hold, v. 


i^^l ohp 

labour, s. 


i\ i^\ 





6hdfiQ, oodftn 
^UjJaJJb.1 iilitsheendt 
^ g^] oohsheyghey 

oohshej, oreesheenisht 

%^>j l oohshoo 

oohshoo^ birghillu rdkhda, 
bish ghildej; oshok 

UjTjl 6hkdh 
^^^^1 oohghee 
JKflAfA^jl ohnsh^gh 
2(LuJ2ul oonesh-wdh 

oohnej, woo-ney 
cA^j' 4^1 ouj-oohsh 
(jIjI ^11 ouy-ish 
2fjU5 (^jll ouy-keeyd-d^h 
*1 6h 

thread, «. 

against, pr^. 

below, adv, 
open, 9. 

withdraw, v, 

open, a. 

clear, a. (plain, 

drunkenness, «. 
spoil, V. 
dance, «. 
trowsers, «. 
palace, «. 
house, «. 

meal, s, 

sign, «. (token) 

lose, V, 

arm, «. (the limb 
from the band to 
the shoulder) 




n 2 


Jj\ b\ 



The A or o is pronounced 
as the . in the Turkish 
word cJjyii or as the 
eu in the French word 

(J^, L^*^ ihpleey6shek 
2Ubl dhr^h 

2[<i;Lm) ^%J^ ^hrot 8hdz6h 

^1 dhzej 

^! dhz^h 

^U 2r^t &hzeh ghasen 

it:,*! ayshay 
ajijbl Ahshey 

^i^cA*^ {h Wey} 
jji^jJouuJbl ^hshyogh6n 

^j^^i\ ^hkots 

ij^^6\ aykotz 

^i^A ^hg6hshey 

aJubl ^hney 

(^1(^1 eye-ee 

*W eye-4h, <ol ey-yeh 

,<uJbJjl eed^hshee 


hand, s. 



embrace, v, 

physician, 8, 

mean, tf. (to think) 

sentence, «. 
(maxim, a saying) 

liberal, a. (ge- 

companion, «. (as- 
sociate, boy) 

down, a. 

musket, s. (wea- 
pon, arms) 

therefore, ad, (for 
that reason) 

then, ad, (at that 

in, ad, (denoting 
immediate entrance, 
as " come in") 

enter, v, (come in) 

portion, s, (part 
of anything) 

table, 8, 

hideous, a. 

spot, s. (stain) 


f^\j Jj\ 



UuL^jjt idflhinna 

J \)\ eez^pit 
^jA iz-yeh 

o o o 

istzsh^^ s'shey 

itsh^ni-shermish eehsht^sh 
:>,* ^it it-sliooz 

J,^j,*ii>\ eet-sheehl 

i^iiajl eetleeh 

;\yuJuj1 eehtshaz 
^^uu^^J ihtsh^hn 

ihtshooz, n&hpey 
• \^ ^[j1 eekee kh&kh 

^j^\ eye-yay 
A\j bdh-oo 

b^dz^r 6gheje'gha 
ijjjb h&dzey 

*^^ U-V jshood^deyj 


environs^ «. 

all, a. 

entire, a. (whole, 
all, full) 

possessor, «. (pro- 
prietor, owner) 

brother, «. 

heir, «. (inheritor) 

oval, a. 
fatherland, s. 

sentence, «• (from 
the judge to con- 

willingly, ad. 

fund, 8. (stock) 
face, 8. 

stature, 8. 

wild, a, 

unclean, a. (imr 

state, «. (condition) 

wing, 8. (of an 

gnat, £• 

greater, camp, deg, 

better, comp, deg. 


jy^\j^ - cj,!, 









AuusJj JjJib bdshil tlip-to 
b^kd shooz-khdkoo 

Alk-i»(^U bye-shtah 
*;jjbjj b^6d-id-zey 
JJJj bedded 
jjj beded 
jjj bedded 

^3>.4; ^flC^ilj ^y<^ ^«V 

b^dd^ derate psheekho rokhd 

o ^ - 

b^dd^ derdto psheekho rdkho 

d>£,yC li^^ iJJJ 

b6dd6 d^h zogh^ 

ifjjJ^ L^f <Lc^J ^JJJ 

bed6 dds^h glib sheez^h 

j1/ brdk 

j^^j.^) beyreyskeyzee 


i^ X I berket 

• >» o 

bzaghey shkhdrdwdck 


expense, «. (ooet, 

notify, V. (to re- 
port, to tell) 

rich, a. 

pistol, «. 

troop, «. 

much, 0(2. 

tower, «. (steeple, 

more, a. ^ 

as, con;, (like) 

like> a. (resem- 

date, %, 

because, conj, (for, 
on his account) 

encrease, v, 

pray, v. (to en- 

flag, «. 

Wednesday, «. 

snperflaity,«. (ex- 

wench, «. 



uA<— ll^ 




i^sj bzdghfeh 

wicked, a. (evil, 

Ui- j^ 


height shoomeypoh 

stink, V, 


^ beyiejr 

market, «. 


jj, hdzkT 

shop, 8. 


i^ bzegh 

language, «. 


- J'^ 

\j{^S}) hejzGjghw&h 

take a walk, v. 


V^ cA^^J^ bzejghish 6p 

dumb, a, (mute) 



bird, «. 


U^^^^ bzoo-oosh 

eagle, a. 

Jly - ^y V 

arrow, b. 


^;j^ bzegb 


af if^ bzeygMghej 
^^ hikgh, fij) hzey-gd 
^y bzee 

evil, «. (misfor- 

tongue, «. (1*^* 

wing, «. (of a bird) 

piece, «. (part) 

_ «Gb 

^ b^sh 

stick, 8, (wand) 


<Uj bshej 

bee, «. 


^<CuJ b'shey-shey 

bees, «. 


<tuJ bshey 

span, «. 


4 bley 

serpent, «. 


«^t.-*- C bemshesh 

com «. (seeds 
which grow m ean) 






^5jj^ V ^®^ khAzr6d 
]^ :\y) bodz shood 
^/ly bud gun 
J i^ iA ji bo-ohp-kolin 

b6bz4ghey, bz6ghey 



J?^\l Ijy or) ci^l U.^. 

bokb^ot (or boriot) touy-yeeb 

ajo Jklsi-^J bokhdtree-yeb 

bo kbdtir yee-y^kh 
iLI^Ij •J boh ddbshey 

i^^^ weyrey, ij^^ boorey 

jLiJjft^ bozdsb^z 

\jjIjw» J^ boz seypdyoo-A 





ilsLU luj^ bos rdkhdt 
bostsooghey zeysb^kb^ 

take heed, i;. 

Iioly, a. 

smell, 8, (the 
power of smeUing) 

release, s, (from 

bad, a. 

shaine^ «. 
complaiiit, «. 

mindednesS; «. (in 

remind, v,a. 

miracle, s. 
shape, 8, 

without, prep, 
love, «. 

merry, a, (cheer- 
honour, 8, 

mistress, 8. 
rest, 8. (repose) 
force, 8. 



oy — L/**^ 




2fJiJ aJImS <^4^ 

bdhse 8ehgha-zdz6 
^»j bushii 

•^JUaja-iftj boshooyetlagho 
\ j. .^. i .%> bd-sbish-khd 

biStsoopisb weedeygoosha 

^^latjj boottej 

^^4^^ biigbodshee 
*J^^ boo-ghoo-zej 

bdgboo8bdQ& keesdkh 
^•i^ bdgbot6 

Uy bdka 

^JblJ^ai bdk6d-8hej-det 

j^ boogboq 

J^jS^ b6godshee 
Uj^y boobshi 

boht tlouj mood sbooi 
bony ahzee tl^bfi§rit 


begin^ v, 

known, pa^. part. 
indiuatiou, «• 
ocean, «. 
haughtiness, s. 

across, ac2. 

field, s, 

small, a. (narrow) 

tempest, s. 

rank, «. 
exchange, v,a, 
more hnmble, 

nine, a. 

desert, «. (desert- 
ed places) 

voice, 8, (word, 

celebrated, p.part. 



-Iju? - 








^y^ ijy. W keyp^ssee 

plea^re, 8, 


JJ«0 bejd^ 

moltitnde, 9. 


ViS^^u LVlIjO bejst^ynsht 

frightful, a. 


^1 ^]^ byram iftee 

holy-day, «. 

■ uyO^i'. - '^ 



garlic, «. 


^t.Ui. bit tej 

<LlU ^^lilix) bitteendhsbej 

beegillee, beegooUoO; 

crooked, a. (bent, 

awry, dd, (ob- 
liquely, asquint) 

publicly, ad. 

biUifl, billip6" '"^ 

Monday, «. 


^jJJuu billim 

animal, «. (cattle) 


^ been 

difficult, a. 


j^ Juj beenee kesh 

departure, «. 


<JUUl; p^hbshej 

instead, (id. 


^jjb paboosh 

shoe, «. 


iOU p&hbej 

hot, a. 

(>?!-»^ - ^S"'^ 

^U)JIj p^deeshdfa 

emperor, «. 

pddfibey, beeyick 

mustaches, «. 


(^^^ *}^b p^rdh shoots 

dollar,*. (Spanish 

uV 'y 

(.^^juakS^b p^rk^tzeeg 

vessel, «. 






^C pArey 
JS:tj\U\j p&zdeesh 

pd|^h6; pagha, p&hoo 

p&ghosh^r^ paghoshey 

pdhghej, hdrdt 
a^Ulj p^Myey 


4tuJ*b p^libahey 

<)L»^\i ftihbey, ^j^]j pihbey 

4jUfeb p^hyey 

"x V 

^Luj psdney, ^Uo ptdney 

la^ pkhft 

^U^ pkhiteygoo 
^U; pkhdteygkey 

yk^L^i pkhAmbu 
<JUu\^ pkhdntey 
l^*^l5^ pkhdnshookhd 
4idail^ p'khAntey 

money, «. 

shut, V. 

eap, «. (the Turk- 
ish cap) 

cape, «. 

penurious, a. 

need, «. (neces- 

on account of, jE>r^. 
warm, a. 
cheese, «. 

4>nly, ad^ 

credit, <. (belief, 
trust reposed) 

stick, «. (wood) 

seat, «. 
chair, «. 

board, «• (a flat 
piece of wood) 

chest, «. (a large 

broom, «. 

cash-box, «. (mo- 
ney chest) 




ri, — ^' 






stem, s. (trunk) 

^^2rj/ ^Ul 

Jy^ pklidbbwa 

plum, 8. 


I«dd«7 y^booghib sh£n£r 

compare, V. 



Friday, #. 


iJJ^jl pemnnej 


Jiy ^^^ 

p^hriz, yooj-bitU 

Lent, 8, (fasting) 


*tf ^"^Vi 1 ta6pp6 } 

thirst, 8. 

- Jj^r^ 

^Luj pedshee 



jjJjLj psdhteek 

revenge, v. (being 
about to fight in 

living, pari. a. 

jlt^U padhtdk 

eoopsbdz (or eipshdz), 

neck, 8. (wind- 
pipe, throat) 

daughter, 8, (girl) 

Ai«Lj pedhney 

naked, a. 


^^^rj pey-sesh 

worthy, a. 


^(Lu p'sgay 

cough, «. 


_j p86h 

chain, «. 


^^*fcj paee, ^.uj psoo 

water, «. 


U.^ p86khA 

point, 8, (a sharp 


Jijr-e P^"^ 

all together 


L5*^ r-i 





Icyw psogba 

fine, a. (pure, 
thin, without mix- 

• M * 

Uyu*j psogha 

tired, pa^, part. 


U^Muj ps6ghd 

tender, a. 


<it^li fyui psogoo kdkh^y 

slender, a. 

^^ il^l 

^y^j^ psonghee 

all over 


^^^ pssiihn 

water-closet, «. 

Jy- jy 

4Uj psey 

untruth, «. 


<Uj psey 

soul, «. 


spirit, «. (mind, 


Ul 4Uj psey-dghA 

lie, V. (to tell an 

<^^r' uk 

Ji ul au^j psey-oreek 

every, a. 


virgin, «. 

/ - U^J^J* 

peey-sey-^ibk^ ps&h-shey 

^^ ^ psey kooldghey 

source, «. (foun- 


,^ psee 

juice, <. (sap in 


ijlotbu/yj psee-ydtsh 

grandfjEirther, $. 


(JLuJU or) <Lujb /•jJUUj 

what, ifUer. pron. 


pseedoom pdpshey (Mshey) 

J - , y 

robber, «. 

LS?^ Jy 

^*U*Ju**j psee-sh^h-zey 

treason, «. 


/**juj psee-sh^r 

waters, «. 


<0y* j^*fcj psee ehooney 

able, v.n. (to be 


cXJj ^jj\ 

jr^. — ^.r^v 



L^^ ^ L57i tgbsebdehj 

^ JbhUju**; psee-kAzaheyrey 
-^ -^ " -^ ♦ 

J -***j peee-koo 
Jj*^ -amJ psee-koobel 
J^f\^. psee-koosh 
lU > (>,, , I psee-kootl 
v_.^^X ^ psee-kootf 
^\ ^^ ^^ psee-kouy-ee 

pseemee ^gootshoo let 
^^.^ouuuui paee-neps 

<l1Jjuumj pseendshey 

^Uj p8hdgh6 

LcwLIj pshdkhoo-d 

pshdhsey kazmee6hdg6 

psh&h& lokli-m& teeshey-isht 

c^ULl Lii.'Jbli ^^MJbluJ 

psh^wdh; psh&gho 

psh^rakh^, psheyrdkhd 

khiz-metash peheerdkba 


cheat, <. (a fraud) 
water-seller, «. 
nineteen, a. 
seventeen, a. 
sixteen, a. 
fourteen, a. 
fifteen, a. 
eighteen, a. 
baptism, «. 

well-water, «. 

light, a. ( not 

smoke, <. 
sand, 9. 
unmarried, a. 

supper, <• 

marriage, «. 

fog, «. 

servant, %, (male 
or female) 


^cMiila^U* /»Lu«£>^i 





« • ^ • * f psher- \ 
^J^^-C"' IghLeedet/ 


'^ pshee 

O y O 

jb ^Ulj zaghan ddk 

JuJLj psheener 

UJu^::^ psliinndh 
" y • 

4i;,a. y^,^;..> psheehshey 

\i U <U3j ptsey kd wdh 

^V. L^. { ytto } 

l^y^ pgho-koosh 
Jui pf§nner 
Kj pkd 

jyX pldnook 
jUu p^ndyir 
t^ poorr 

. ,s * ,^< y poobsheon 
j^*t Nt* pooshoo 
JO p^li 


big, a. 

prince, s, 

backgammon, 8. 

master, s. (lord) 

king, 8. 

bow, 8. (a fiddle- 

bow, 8. 

riband, 8. 

music, 8» 

prond, a. 

name, v. 

trust, V. 

v^exation, 8, 

want, 8. (diminu- 

band, s. (a bandage 
or tie) 

sentinel, 8, 
side, 8, 
fair, 8. 

servant, 8. (maid) 
cut, v.a. 
plaster, s. 
vein, 8. 


•uaJ . 





^^ pey 

Dose, <• 


^jM$b\ZM^ p^hsoowdhsh 

decent, a. 

^i^jJj pirdeh 

rice, «. 


.dkju peetaj 

strength, «. 


^Ll^ seehte, idajj peehtey 
^ViViKj pit-tey 

fast, a. (firm, 

very, a. 



peygh&mbersher^ r^sool 


prophet, s. 

dri) - 

pew b'dsbee neb 

blunt, a. (dull) 

<U^j^ peehshey 
j^Ai/Ul; tdghdgftshey 
«Ajs-JjJJb\j tdhdfihish 
i^iu^Uf tkhdmish 

y o 

tshkbd, yukotsh feym&ter 
Ul sh'kha (or sh'khah) 

tsher zoo keerer drdr^y 

--ufclajLu^ khsdbtshee 

*'i . ^ « r tsher ) 
L5r^^>^ tgh&seeseej 

tshAgwer r^sA seeghd 
(jiul cJyU tsher^k ish 

white, a. 


part, «. (a portion) 

^b i.aa~ 

extinguish, v,a. 


poor, a. 


head, «. 


butcher, s. 

earthquake, f . 

three quarters of 
an hour 


<U^J — ^jj 

jU — 






^jl^ t8heyl6kh 

tehee-ettHBhl, tshee-yeyr 

ajuofiJ tsheepey 

youth,*, (a young 

cold, a. 
duty, #. 

letter, «. 



sincere, a. 


U; tghA 

young man 

uW - i^ 

Lw teyghi 

sun, <• 


youth, «. (tender 
perfect, a. 


tenba Axokh songhee 

always, ocf. 



^^^/Lliy toghl-ehee 

cannon, <.(agreat 


^l^ ^»^TnftTn 

bath, «. 


U. Ui&h 

dog, «. 


U. kh& 

tomb, «. 


^UU. khdbdr 

news, *. 



lend, V. 

<oU. khdhp^y 

reward,* (wages) 



quarter, «. (ward, 


JUxtfw .^ jl^ 





JJUj\^ khddshey 

gaestytf. (onstomer, 

i^jjjjuj^ » ^Lub« 

2f jU. kMdey 

oaroMS, <. (the 
dead bodj of an 


(JL>Jjjj\^ khdjdrdet 

ready, a. 


Ulf - ^^J{^ 

ship, 8. 

<ii^ - u?^ 

kh&s-ehey, gahd 

y,U. kh^Wr 

dogs, «. 


ifyjjS[^ khdgooreekwey 

travel, $. 

Jji - iiWi! 

j^^U. khdkey 

oven, «. 


^U. khAldh 

pie, «. 


JjSjJU- kh&lo-ghooz 



oUj - JmIj^U. 

orphan, s. 


kbdmishk, pRh&-shey 

jUjlI ^U- kham-eheekh&d 

jU- khdhnee 

fonnel, #. 


JJuul:^ khineedjB 

sail, t. 


^J2rl^ kk&hdey 

corpse, #. (a dead 

fj*^^iJ^ khdy-kdbs 

rope, 8. 


V^J - J^J 

kdftbaey, gdh-psey 

y.^ ^ ce;^^ 

report^ v.a. 


khtlUrae ket ft^kli6 

^-/fi - r-^t 

dawn, 8. 

u-^>^ u/ 

khebso, neyfdr^gha 

An^_^ khseed, a-^j k'sed 

demand, v.a. (to 



ask, to require) 







Lm.,1 kh«6t 

will^ V. 


kh^tkSh, keylee " 

remainder, t. 
(what 18 left) 

U^J^ - J^ 

yt khft 


J,\ - j\ 

^luJ»^ kh6b-8hWiyee 



^j\^f^ khdkheyo 

cixde, $. 


jb|^^ khoordhee 

roond, a. 


Cl^j;^ kh6i6d6t 

speedy #. (haste) 


iiy^ khika 



A^ khosli 

ezohange, s. (bar- 

iM^ - (Jt^ii 

Xi^ kh68h6d 

hundred, a. 


khdsli^ eeerat ora 

hundred and two 


khdsh^d seerd bleerey 

hundred and seven 


khdsh^d seerd seerA 

hundred and one 


khdsbW eeerd shoorey 

hundred and six 



hundred and three 


khdsh^d seerdltpeyrey 

hundred and five 

{M J3i. 


hnndred and foar 


ifry^ InH *^^ 

hundred and nine 


khtehed seerd ghooghoorej 








ihdnhkd aeetH yeerej 

hundred and eight 


^^^ khoshoon 

pitcher, s. 


^y^ khooiley 



curse, v,a. 


jrjyL khiueh, hx^ khees^ 

quick, a. (speedy, 

most frequently 


. . . . /kheezohl 
JU^ JL^ ikheewh/ 

j-» j^ 

.^^ ^y^ {kh6gh68hd} 

arise, v. 


- cK^ 

^l^jkfL kheekAee 

barrel, «. 


2j^j^ kheehzej 

swift, a. (fast, 
prompt, quick) 

splendour, «. 


- ^ 

py- lT-^^ tyw.w6kh| 

advise, v.a. 


ddghdm, jeekee sheekoo 

morning, «. 

<U3 ney-fey 

ddfkd, d&pk&,''d4hbka 

wall, s. 


tailor, «. 


- •^'^ 

Jjyb dAnow^lkh 

string, 8. 


^^b dinee 

silk, <. 


U!LJh\j ddhshey 
4Ui*b dAhshey 

beautiful, a. 
still, a. (calm) 

ij^if]j dihshey 

costume, «. (cha- 
ncteristic dross) 


^J^j ^1j 

0X1 z 




UaJ J^if\j clahshoo-sogha 

Vjjj dzoo-d 
2^j dzey 
ifjj dzey 
^^jj dezth 
aLlLlJ dshdeeley 

jdmey, meyshitter 
(jwLiaJ dahdss 

j J«J dsherz 

tlj dsh&y ^ J dsh6 
Jbl»-2aJ dalioowdr 


^_^ -'^ dshiig 


4^ft-2*J d^fihwee 

dsbehennemy Ar&ree 
^.^o^J djib 

l^yu*t J d^tshookhd 

^yufctj detshoo-^ 

heal, V. 

degree, #. (step) 
sack, <. 
army, «. 
throw, V, 
fruit, <. (corn) 
ignorant, a. 
church, 8, 

leaf, «. 
bronze, s, 
die, v.n. 
palate, «. 
chin, «. 
cross, «. 
floor, s. 
nut, «. 
persuade, v. 
heU, <. 

pocket, <. 
merchant-ship, <. 
merchant, «. 

<^J^' ^^ 

J'^ - 

J^J — V^J 





^S/j d6gh 

wise, a. 


^j dleykee 

pleasure, s. (far- 
your, kindness) 

late, ad. 

dlj dley 

seyenth, a. 


^j dley 

seven, a. 


^alj dl6gh6 

current, a. (valid) 


afalj dleygh6y 

" X o 

^^Uj dm&hsheck 

CO o 

dem tshee nemtsheerey tzoon 

surpass, v. (to 

neck, i. (stub- 


Ukl «^ *J dhey-6h-8tkh4 

• • 

recite, v. (as 

prayer [to Godl,*. 
(a tow) 

surrender, v. 

deysheydeydo d&hshey 

more beautiful, 
oomp, deg. 


ya j--»*J deyshee tsoo 

mouse, «. 


- J*x)i 

^if^ deygoo 

deaf, a. 


dey m&hzee tshassoo boh 
dookhd kdklld 

old, a. 


d'y&ley (ordjifey), tsMhley 

jshild, tf. 



i>mjJ dis 

ducat, 8. 


JiJ diz, jJLjJ dish 

gold, «. 


U— L5^i^ 





^j digghee 

sorrow, 8. (afflio- 
tion, pain) 


^j digh-ghee 

bitter, a. 


J^} ihm4ii, ^ J din 

&ith, «. (creed) 

uW - ^J;dJ 

lUJuJ deeneeyej 

religion, $, 


tj\j r&xey 

content, a. 


Uy.i^ ri8h6gh& 

lavish, & 


cs-^^jj ^1; r^hoo nisht 

disbanded troops 


\Sli,y]^ MighoshiSgA 

fault, <. 


UL./^ rftgooeAgM 

angry, a. 


UaM^ reb86gha 

faint, a. 


UyuJi r^bsoghd 

sin, v.n. (to offend, 
to transgreas) 

kiss, s. 


garrison troops, «. 


\»rt.jj, rokhoo-A 

mature, a. 


uAf '*''^***° 

be, f.w. 


^^=-•^^4; '^•'•'^"ht 

resurrection, s. 


U^jj rokhw&hdi 
^jUcLjj. rokliw4hdee 

between sunrise 
and midday) 

twilight, a. 

iUUjjj roozndmey 

almanac, <• 


^UJj «iikh4r 

disadvantage, $, 


saoo ho^Mtahey nej-peje 

save, V. (to spare) 

<i)^\ SjIjj^ 






z&&h&y wdh-tow'y-yey 

heavy, a. 



j\j\j ^T 

loss, s. 

uWj - J> 

\A.WAj «&nt-8h& 

exercise, v.a. (to 

right, a. 

»\j\}\j «i^woo-d 

campaign, «. 


z^pit, sehpet 

ooustantly, cut. 


<L^JuUbU zdhndsh^ 

just, a. 

c^> - J^ 

Ij^ij zAhw& 

quarrel, a. 


Uy^j zdhwdh 

war, «. (battle) 


soldier, «. 


cIj c;J*i»i]j zeyeetin dagh 

oil, «. 

L5^^ uyij 

vice, «. 


certainly, cuL (in- 


if, canj. 


c:^ «6pp6t 

ground, «. (bot- 
tom, foundation) 

- j-1 - j^' 

c:^ zeppet 

series, s. (row) 


iajjjj zep-pit 

inspector, $. 
refuge, <. 

JLl — ^i 





appearance, «. 


l^j) nidkil 

minute, <• 


j^ s^ ii\J^ aj -* *jl JJ 

dispnte, «. 


zddbweVy zey-sh&h-goo-ser 

^^c-^jj alr^b-khdeh 

robbery, «. (prey, 


circumstance, «. 


zerreh shittem ytftsht 

prepare, v. 


^UU JJ «6» mAhft' 

some, a« 


>J «Bho' 

well, a. 


^J^ O^A; {mS^I 



<liuulij 26ghdbs6f(§ 


j^^ -. 4Vj3^ 

4dLL;U; tkghihmk 

flee, v.n. (to fly, 


to mn from danger) 

%• ¥ 

c^jliUj z^ghdi-lopy 

appear, tf.a. (to 
come in sight) 


dull, a. (stupid, 

jr^ - -^I^J 

^Uuyjl <j?jlj J;^ 

one after another 

A^'tfT^ <-C;^ 

cekk^ zoay eehjdiey 

education, z. 
(bringing up) 


UUiJs <L^U »;Xi>tj»Jj 

without, ad. (ex- 


zin^intsheereh kikeesbey 



nought, «. (no- 


J jU. Ijj z6a-khdzir 

provision, z. 


Knolrhnn-crfiAf iAAfinfiAv lalif 

dinner, s. 

. i/?V. d^J* 


^J — V 





idgho, shdghd, ahoogoo 

salt, «. 


•^^ jilj *6gh6 khw6 

create, ir.a. 


4^J^ yL^j aogho kh($dee 

refuse, v. 


^j fweg 

ill, a. 

Ja^jJTjIj iouy-tshil 

shriek, <. (scream, 

village, «. 

a^ zay 

somebody, <. 


2;j 2ey 

old, a. 


U^lirj leyeesW 

mix, V. 


perverse, a. 


cuooir; zaypit 

any, a. (any one) 

> v^ 


obstinate, 17. 



investigate, v. 

\j\ ^jjij «ey«ee aza 

master, «. 

•s^-^y:;. ULl 

z^hr shooto shdzo 

opinion, «.(mean- 


4-£»*j zey-shoo 

narrow, a. 


different, fl. 

^Jd^> - c^T 

^jU^ zehghazklid 

bend, v.a. 


H4,^ JUjJ i^J z6h fit sh^m^h 

alone, a. 



zeykak6kh^ zegwddy^ga 

fool, $, 






ieykihk6h, z^kwdee-key 
^^ tee 

^j zee 

d^jjjb Ii^gdet, ^j zee 

^jb J zee&p6hro 
^^bj zeeydteeh 
i^b ; zeeydnesli 


UJbjj zeebldghd 

4^,y,^luuj zectleys 

j^ -> J J^^ ; zeeriz zeeriz 



jUUyLkj ; zit-fih6ghdzdk 
^ A '^\ . * t .J zeet-ehee- 1 

(jm<L1jIuj zeegfaddshds 
•jjU yu ; zeeghd-bazroh 
jj6j zeegw^r 

/ctmce ycrkliak oomifli-rff ycUtith 


mad, a. 

one, a. 

ahnsy #. 

first, a. 

origin, «. 

imitate, v. 

paternal uncle, #. 

maternal uncle 

related, a. 

skill, f . (art) 

single, a. (indi- 

satiated, a. (satis- 

attempt, v.a. (to 

dress, v. 

point, #. (a dot) 

tbere,acf. (yonder) 

speak, tr. 

order, #. 

sometbing, t. 

rigbteousness, t, 
(truth, justice) 







..i^wa sdbooii 

c > 

B^E^ghee sitshS wdshd 
2y ^.^rlrtrf 8A-&t nok 

^L«L> 8£mek6 

Mn>f>L' sfin^h tehee 
/ilLUL* sihdtasb 

8&hbey, rnkdahey 
s&htsook, ^shkhdkdtz 

s^b^booofeykhoo; s^beboo- 

Uuus seb-kAh 
eeb-k&h-det do-60obkb6h 


0oap, «. 

moist, a. (wet, 

virtae, <• 
watch, $. 
excuse, r. 

yet, eanj, Tnot- 


boy, 9. 

joke, s, (sport, 

wine, 8, 
grape, «. 
vine, «• 

watchmaker, s. 
soft, a. 

brain, #. (brains) 

cause, <. (reason) 
merit, «. 

althongh, ad, 

worst, a. 


1^ ^JuuU 

ijl*^i ^^^ AA 





dju» s^hpey 

clandoBtine, a. 


y^^ j-juj spee 8h6gh6 

bind, V. 


UUlL- Bkiah&gA 

conjecture, v.n. 


yiJlj^ seemeeshgho 
U^ULiL» steeshdghd 

sndden, a. (sud- 
denly, «/.) 

letter, s. fin the 

li;la»-* skhdrwd 

idle, a. 


- cP^ 

sldiAlizee, yeehz 


- jb** 

BkhA-iahka psh^hnsht 

bond, «. 


ipj^\jli-j skhdn^ghAbsh 

window, 8. 


4UiUs- skhdntey 

blue, a. 


^^^-^jr^^^ iehiieeehtl 

remain, v. 


c;^ seyree 

himself, herself, 
itself, nom. ease 

I myself 

also, ad. 


CO o .#0 

yj.!t..nV> - ^j^^/AM T IJm. 1 

seys-shooa, s^shwey, 

sword, 8. (sabre) 


_ JljsA 

Vrtj » ses-w&ghd 

as soon 



thy fother 


of you 


ilju:yu*^ e^yerseeat 

your £Ekther 


s^ .... 




• English. 


• ^ 

yonr Others 

' i;vv 

seyseejatim y&teesheer 

thy fathers 
sweaty 8. 

sesh-khto, ]>ee-yoob sho 

sabre, <. 

\Si <tuM 8-8h^h key-y^ 

wrap, V. 


U^Mj.C, . ^r^ WhAu, 

eldest brother, «. 

^by jiy 

s'shilt-ldghtf, s'shooltldghd 

^to *# ^^ o o 

that, dem. pron. 


lUlkitf stAhmey 

shoulders, #. 


send, V. 


^•j^jJL-» steer-rookLo 

four hundred and 
one, a. 

boil, V. 

l^.;.,vU,M) steeshoga 

bolster^ <• 


UU-«» eghagha 
UU-i sgbagha 

perceive, tr. (to 


U^ efdgha 

nourish, v. (feed 


c:j«*«^ ai^ 88eef§h zuret 

copy, «. 


U^ seohkd 

^\JLa fikoo6nk, or fikevenk 

known, a. (cele- 

fusil, s. 

Cijj X»rf sku-wenk 

rifle, 5. 

yy cX«J 






idea, t. (fancy) 
salnte, r. (greet) 

^UjLi sloghdgh 

imagination, t. 


\^^ Bloghoo-A 

see, V. 


jest, s. 


u^>i^ s^in^khooy 

pastime, #. 


a^merkouy sib-koh ioogha- 



left, d. 


arrive, v.fl. 


viJyui seynook 

4« cJjL {"KJ"'} 

fifty, a. 



^ ; cJyui fley-nook zeerey 


fley-nook gbooghoorey 



^ ^^ 1 yeerey / 



l\^..^ (^Zj\y^ so^tsheedd 

acquaintance, s. 






^ CL)L-j adit l&go 
j^jjUj^ BdkhAw&z 

prayer,*, (request, 
demand, petition) 


d^jy^ 8dr6k6 

flower, 9. 


y**ijy^ eoreeeh^r 

joUfpran. nom. c. 

Jj- - J- 

^\y^ eoozee 

knife, «. 


(jy«^ siis 

woman, «. (wife) 


^y^ SOOSh 

six hundred 

.•y. ^<^' 

1 . 1^ • * " Jsoosh oral 

six hundred and 


^y^y^ 86-8hookh 
U^ flogha 

eonfectionary, s. 

make, v. 

Uj^ 86ghd 

use, V. 


iLklcj-Mi sdghdygd 

even, a. (just) 

J}'' - u^ 

JjlS^ eookdbd^ 

true, a. 

^*- - ci*-/ 

Ujo^ sooghidlid 

nakedness, $. 

A^^ljjl _ > 

80oh-det, teheyritah 

new, a. 


souy-yey, shoodet 

good, a., po«. deg. 

u^^ - y} 

CL>J^-«j s-hood^t 

4U»^\iU seyeer-shey 

look on, V. 


(C^ju^Cd s^hplht 

favour, €. 


li^^U 8ayr6gha 

selfishness, «. 


Ujj^u seyrdghd 

from rne^ abl. case 





2f^JU» sayiay 

I, pers. pro. 


ss^h-zd-kooz sghoreb 

silly, a. 


l^^ ^jyyjJ<Us seyzisgh6tka 

convince, v. 

CJ^J c:^U5\ 

^,U seysee 

of me 


^^iU seysee 

to me, dot, case 


j^^-> sehtlo 

look, V. (to ob- 

hand, v, (to de- 

ur* ^® - 

eight hundred, a. 


^ see 

wool, «. 


ipU^ seey&t 

my father 


i-^ftU, tdht, i,U-, eeeyftt 

father, *. 


ijl) |,ir\ju, seey&tem y&t 

our father 





*vt\ju, seey&teesh^r 

fathers, «. 


see-yateeshem y&t 

my fathers 


M r * • " X ** X 

see-yateeshem yfit 

our fathers 


ijiylx-j see-ydnoosh 

grandmother, «. 

^1 cjjjo 

\jl\ \jy\ ^ see drd zeera 

eight hundred and 
one, a. 


•ij bghd, Lku-) sib-kha 

breast, «. (bosom) 

u-j^ - u-^/ 

JjAjjuj sib-shok 


brother-in-law, 8. 






UMj^ytjuurf sib-shoo gheesd 
IkiuU) 8eeb6t& 


UmJ^c, ..>,.» sibghobsd 

^H! «^ USD 

Jjuu» eeebl 
UJLuua sib-l^ba 

ajLSjuj S6eboo 

<j; 1J Jo^ l8eeboo6rti) 
ifii^ yj' -Jr:^:' f seerd / 

i^\j>yU^ seeboobzdghey 

seebhAgbey^ seek^Dsht, 6m 
sit-tkh&m&fej, bdmdpey 


;LiiJuu» sid-shdz 

l»i ^ .JUU9 seedoo shit 

aeedee khibenhee 

compel, V. 

break, v.o. 

deceiye> v. 

proye, v. 

seven hundred 

friend, «. (rela- 

seven hundred and 

nine hundred, a. 

nine hundred and 

plague, «, 
unto,^rep. (to) 

wOOK,- o« 


why, ad. 

love, V. 

glad, a. (joyful) 

however, ad, (not- 

how, ad. (in what 

look up, V. 
newspaper, s. 




■ \ 

i ▼! >T T T7 "7 "^^ Q T T ' '■" ^ 


y A^AAjut 866<lim yoh 

seedit — seedem 
y (^Juuj seedee y6h 
jUjuj seehzdk 
j;lajjjjuj see-zitk 
Cl^libL) ^ see s&bftt 

sish or£ biiley 

Vj, 1;j^ U**:^:; \ zeer& / 

yj^ )^^1 ^^^ \Bhooreyj 


time, «. 

neither — nor, oonj. 

when, od^. 

solitary, ad, (re- 

twins, <. 

hour, B. 

three hundred 

he, she, it, nom, 

three hundred and 

^ by U-^:* Itpeyrey 

fsish drdl 

"111 * fsish 6rdl 
Sj^ by U-:^::' \tkooreyj 

sish ddL ghoogoorey 

• « A fsish 6t&\ 
"jHW L^jyee-reyj 

8ee6hp6hd6h shutob 

n^mtsheero sheetob 

three hundred and 

three hundred and 

three hundred and 

three hundred and 

three hundred and 

three hundred and 

three hundred and 

three hundred and 

specially, ad. 


^ _ io 

,\ - ^,\ 

J jy ^j^ 

^j^ jji ^j^ 
lA; jji ^y 


kjun ... 






JUsu*JL»«» sish-khdl 




^U^-ii ^-^ see shoodsh 

* , * / see 1 

U^^r^ L5:f \shoow6b8hf 

Beeshey giisha ^dasbey 

•J ^ jluJaJk-j sit-shaz sbdyoo 

^laj^ sitk 

sitk drd beetley 
sitk 6ra bleerey 

sitk drd sheera 

«* Ai>. O 

sitk drd sboorey 

sitk 6r^ tkoorey 

sitk drd gboogboorey 

V^ !Jr L^^ \yee-reyj 
jJlaJurf sitl 

mole^ s. 
food^ s. 

motber-in-law^ 8. 
fatber-in-law, «. 
pronunciation, s. 

desire, «. (wisb) 

cbildbood, 8. 

two bundred 

two bnndred and 

two bnndred and 

two bnndred and 

two bnndred and 

two bnndred and 

two bnndred and 

two bnndred and 

two bnndred and 

two bnndred and 

four bundred, a. 


J. jy Ji^ 

Ji^ Jy. Ji^ 
jy '^ji'^ 

j\^ _/•. 






uJ\ ^ JJ^ sik shee ep 

nobody, *. 


i^ix^ ^ ^\f^ 

stomach, «. 


sigh-wiib, see-gbey 

•Je ^^. [S^y] 

think, V. 


comfortable, s. 

seegoo psh6 fedet 

^lL \ji\J^ ^J^ 

offend, v. 

J^jJ ir^U- 

seegii 8bdbr& tsbo 


weariness, 5. (te- 

M • «A 1 


Ujlj^^yLx-j sikwebslogba 

visit, 8, 


jjiyyljL-j sik-weebsb 

thirteen, a. 

^j' W3^ 

jj<Gu- seekiz 


V^ Ui" 

iixJou* seekit 


J^} Uj' 

^bJ « JAj^ 

elbows, «. 

Ci-.J - Cl-;JJ 

seeleean, leedbn 

s\j^\j^ _ Ulu4Uri 

son, 8, 


sim-sbdgbi, sbah-wdb 

JJuurf see-nel 

lamb, «. 

LS'"^ ^Jy 



U ^ .Jju» seeyey pooy&b 

help, 8. (assist- 


flcT*' ®^^^^ 

apple, 8. 


Uill sb&bgb& 

broad, a. (large, 


c:jjIS*u _ U.'L- 

most, a . 

i.:^U - j^ cJl 

sb^bgba, seyk^hdet 

jf\j^ ...<-^U» 




ejjUjU. 8h&bgL&d6t 

breadtb, $. 


M^J -^^^ {^} 

witness, v. 

cJk^l cl;UJI 

JU.ll sL&kh&l 

bedge, «. 

--r - JV 

4^jU, shdnney 

boot, #. (covering 
for legs) 


process, s. (biw- 


^^mJ^WmI . Andl^LMl 

bair, $, 

^y - js - ^^ 

8b&tze7> s-kh&btsee 

itlji shdteer 

tent, «. 


Ul^ shagha 

fruit, «. 

»jX, _ ,^. 

a^U sLdkey, Ul:, sLdghft 

beard, s. 


wrong, a. 


akA-m, sbd-p^p 

^ . <0U . dill 

bard, a. 

\_sI5 _ cy^- 

8bdf6, sbdpey, keytoo 

(^JuJb _ Jii^\ \^\J^ 

afternoon, 8. 

- Jr* A-y 

sbdgdoosb, yey-ken-dee 


J Li sh&nee 

vendible, a. (sale- 


Ci^UlA shdhat 

witness, s. 


Ji^L. Bbdhbkb 

measure, «. 


custom, 8. 

. cl;j^ . 2r^y 

sbdbbzey, sb&bzeb 


C,,^)Uj2f\j . 2F^^U) 

will, «. 


sbdbz^b, ndbsib 

uiT _ jki ^u 

customary, a. 

. b j^ . jl^ Uy 

sb&bzeb sbto, deygbd 





shdhbej, sdhbej* 

iJiJb\j ^}f\ji» slidhbey pdhsh 

^UJbU* shdhtej 

iP^ ^ll sLfth koosh 

shagho^ gh&tshahpej 
^ijbU) shdhlzey 

1 4^ LS.-wi» shit shoo-d 
c->U?Us2» shkhdtdp 

O X o 

^Us^ sLkhdntey 
>1 ";, sL^rdt 

. *, sh^rkli 

I jjuy^ Sucfill 


CO c 

shejshnock, sh'kh^shnock 

y^ ^^mJ« ^u.^ ^jmJ^ 

sh-shoo zghdgoo sh-shoo 



mild^ a. 

softness^ s. 
garden, «. 
pack, <. 
fold, V, 
aatumn, $. 

use, $. (usage, ap- 

room, $. (space) 

dung, «. 

lid, $. 

green, a. 

justice, «. 

muddy, a. 
bail, #. (surety) 

pledge, «. (pawn) 
stable, «. 
midnight, a. 

grateful, a. 
deed, t. 


jjy _ 






sh'shee goobz^hej 

beast of burden^ s. 


who, inter, pro. 


afraid, a. 


^^Ikl shtdhpsh 

torment, «. (pain, 

pardon, s. 


A A ** . t A f sht'kho \ 
U*^, >=«*^ \ pshish / 


shefc-sboorey bleerey 



shet-shoorey bit-ley 



shet-shoorey zeerih 



shet-sboorey sboorey 



shet-sboorey sbeerey 



shet-sboorey tpeyrey 



shet-sboorey tkoorey. 



shet-sboorey ghoogoorey 



shet-sboorey yeerey 



*j Ja^ 8bt6hbsbee 

forgiveness, «. 


UU^ shghdghd 

difference, «. 


JJ^ sheyfee 

suspicion, «. 



M) -.-I. (iJLw 



JjJiU^ sbkey-il 
Isnmi ^sLl shkey- 
jl^«A^ sh-kong&z 
1^ sh'kdfa 
iHCl sh'key 
c^Xl sh'gh^b 
^^/tJixLi sh^litah 

^ ^-ii shen ten 

J^ shoo 

ly;, shiUh, Tyi 8hd-&h 

sLu-4p^^ shigh 

8h6dtez zdeeeheerdh t^r^r 

» * . • 7? * / shodtee ) 
?^>? ^J-^- jzeeeb^re/ 

•j*1a-1 Bhoo-dh-£6 
i^J^ shd-eye 
\JL ^-^l^-* shweye-yee 
Ujy^a shoodzdh 
c^U«^ shooz&b 
dJ^^l M «^ 8hoozer-6gdt 



veal^ «. 

calfs bead, «. 

fusileer, «. 

cow, «. 

calf, «. (tbe young 
of a cow) 

not, ad, 

steel, B, 

nature, «. 

commerce, %, (traf- 
fic, business, buy- 
ing and selling) 

six, a. 
bridle, «. 

place, «. 

inn, «. (hotel) 

host, «. 
plate, 8. 
shipwreck, %. 
soil, «. (dung) 
black, a. 
widow, «. 
meet, v. 


4-^^ — - (J^^ 



IxLda^ sLoosdghd 
•Jii J^ shdb shoo 
^^y^^ sLootkhoon 
Uji^ 8h6gbd 
^4^ shogho 

erf j-^ - uy'r^ 

shoogLoon^ shogben 
jo^%-i» sbooghoon 


sbukfir tkb^gdtsb 

sboogoob sbey-sbeener 
^4-ii sboon 

v,^4^ sboonib 

\jJJ^ shoonna 

y 4^ sboonoo 

^4^ shoonney 

^CMi sbooway 

c^jl ^4^ sbooh 6zzee 

li!ti>yJb«^ shubsl&gbli 
^jyL sbouy 


goodness, «. 
sugar^ «. 
praise, v. 
moderate, a. 
sour. a. (acid) 
dress, «. (clothes) 

the Bosphorus, $. 
(in CoDStantinople) 

honour, v.a. 

thanks, ^ 
forget, V. 

conquer, v. 

steril, a, (unfruit- 

nourishment, s. 

powder, #. (gnU'- 

repast, s. 

skin, «. (leather) 

presume, v, 

prostitute, #. 

reach, v. (to at- 

to the right hand 


i:J^\ ^x* 

<— ;US\ _ U^jj^l 







^jyJU ehoh-yeh 

dust, «. 


^ sLey 

month, « 


jj^ ehkh 

hide, s. (skin) 


^ shey 

sixth, a. 


<Ll shey 

horse, #. 


sea, «. 


shey, psee, shoo 

j\j^^ - i^U- - C->1iU 

baty wnj. (except) 

_ Ul _ t=JU 

shey-eb, skha^i^h^, oozdk 


^i^^y j^-«i» 

citizen, 9. 


sh^h^r mookeye-key 

^Juj^\^ shey-ee-pish 

ball, #. (cannon- 

0-?/ ^^^^" 

Vjyjy. ^ {'toYhH'} 

melt, t>. 

tA?^ ^y. 

Uj^ - *^ - L5^J^ 

milk, %. 


8hey-8^nnee> shih, shey-zen 

U^^ sheysoghd 

ride,v. (on horse- 

cJ^ ^1 

di,^ sheytey 

tax, «. (duty, as- 



a5^^ shfikfi 

weight, 9. 


,^ sh^hkey 

wind up, V. (to 


6iiJ^ 8h6hkey 

cloth, «. (stuff) 

JiU _ a5^ 

A^<JLi sheykey 

stuff, «. (building 


j^^JL*, sh^hkir 

weigh, r. 


y^ sheyner 

gnnpowder, «. 


<Ui)L!;» shehn^h 

sell, V. 








tjJyJ^ ahoo-hoo-diey 

shuhz, jeeshuhx 
shoohhn^ lix-khd sheyrer 

A flhee 

sliij eefisby sh^y eepish 

ehib-ghd beydej-dejehee 
* 11*. sbib-sbee 


fl^xjJ^ sheebooeh 

Ij^ULjJ* sbish-oozd 

Uaj^ sbeytdn 
^ t^A^ 8bit-kb6 

sbeetlonyish boz-sbey 

'^ (V' **s^ I oom yoo ) 
^^y^j/jJ^ sbeegursebn 

board, «. (noariBb- 
ment, to Ihre in a 
boose and paj for 
lodging and emting) 

borse-fioldier, t. 

wife, «. 

J^^ ' ^J' ^j?J 

cook, f. 


tbird, a 


tbree, a. 


boop, s. 


wind, «. 


strong wind 


pepper, «. 


ligbtning, « 


wave, 8. 


Black Sea, t . 

/> y 

devil, 8, 


praise, #. 


mine, 8. 

u^^ j^^ 

simple, a. 


midday, «. 

^^ Al^' - ^J 

injure, v.a. 

^v^ - <A^1;' 

U^ JjJ:* 




X • • •■ 

shillej yey-yd-ooriz 
JU.,^ sheen^yhsh 

\)j^ shiz, l.,jJi sheez 

ij^.^ sheehzey 

U tsdh 

tsab& peesee ep 
-^.)JiL> tsah6y zeem^r 

Alto. Ju? sab^roozey 

life^ft-iU-tf tseppdehoo^hz 

1 A . I ts6pee \ 

^2fUJ ^ jdshAhs^rJ 

llujjo^ ts^peezy^gd 

tzlp^bzdnsb, zdhpeyzddehey 
^ tz^kb, ^ tzlr 


ts'sh^ghd, flkhdner 
l^^il^ te'shgWgd 

lc^M*rf> ts-shdgbd 

t8*8hey-pda^ s-sb^b f6ga 
iUUtf tsgbdgb^h 


tOWD, 8, 

parson, 9, 

leave, v. 

woman, «. (lady, 

ruin, 8, (invasion) 
name, 8, 
doubt, 8. 

faithless, a. 

patience, «. 

craft, 8, (canning, 

enamoured, a. 
danger, 8. (peril) 
faitbfol, a, 

scarce, 8. (rare) 
know, V. 

understand, v. 
measure, v, 
purchase, v. 

feel, V. (to be 










yy ^ te^fee bzeeyfth 

difibonoarable, a. 


avancioiis, a. 


t86kh6, kwab& tzoo 

rat, «. 

tzook, tziik, t^eegoodet 

little, a. 


\^^yo tsoonib 
«JO<u tseypey 

exercise, «. (prac- 

person, n. 

ts^jfi^, te^pa, taheehley 

people, «. 

d^ - J^^ 

^ tsoo, ^^ tsee 

cloak, <. 


Iflj^ju? tsee-pkd 

certain, a. 


JLijX^ teeereesboh 

take, V, 


• It tAkb 



i ^^It akbAy-yd 

fever, t. (ague) 


^uijlL tdzt-gbd-gbey 

swear, v. (to take 
an oath) 

loose, a. (slack) 

Utshee shAma rokhftn 

untie, v. 


Ub/lt tUghos-ydghA 

bill, «. 

^i"^ y.V 

^jUj^ ^\t TAm KeeghiUd 

Creator, t. (God) 


sboulder, «. 


tameebsbk, tdmoosbk 

want, t. (notbing) 







a(.\ L^IU tamiabkey 

meagre, s. 

breakfast, v.n. 


^y^U? Uhkoom 



^J^fli? t^hkoom 

ears, 9, 


4j<t tpey 

fiftb, a. 


lUL tpey 

five, fl. 



A^Ust tkhdbehey 

buy, v./y. 

cA' c»y^^ 

uJljUX tkhdrff 

Tuesday, «. 

* JU 




^^ tkhoo 

fresb butter, a. 

L5^V V" 

tkhd, tkhoo-tdatsh 

butter, 8. 

^/^ tkh({g66h 

. r. " .r J tkhdm- \ 

sulphur, 8, 

tkhoy-seeshd gbd, kakdsh 

consolation, «. 


v^U a^.jA? ted-rey pdg 

wbitber, a<i. 


8Jb\jJb ter-rdhrey 

whicb, reL pron. 


tirdzoo, w6z-ney z6kbosbee 
Ji U ter-sber 

Balance, 8. (a pair 
of scales; the dif- 
ference of an ae- 

of us 

-ili.^ terrogajsher 

from us, ab, c. 

CJ'^i^ - U'^J^ 

LiJ? ^]c 





ijc trth 

dig, v,a. 


- c.^? 

Aj I? teyreeaher 

we ourselves 


t»^^ t6ree8hw6r 

us, pron., (wrc. awe 


(JahI- t68-dzdh 

subscribe, v. 


do, V. (to act any- 
thing, either g(X>d 
or bad) 

river, «. 


^ o • 

*jU*.^ tsh&eesher 

rivers, «. 


s'shahbey, tshdbey 

mellow, a. (tender 


• Lit tsbdkh 

wbeaten bread 


tsbdkh zkhdsheyree 

baker, <. 


bread, «. 


tsbakbik, tsbonykb 

liLlt tsbdkii 

slipper, «. 


^yUi? teb&kwey 

writer, «. 


^T ,^^1:^ {*«-,t^-} 

barber, *. 


^**-j1 •.is-j skboo eepsee 

UUi tabdbd 

evening, «. 


<U5J5>UJ? tsb&kbey 

oats, <. 


U^\ ..1 UUli- tshdbd sl6gba 

dream, «. 


- uPy 

%KUJ9 ^_ ^«JUJ9 





seal], s. 


tsh'kh& yookoorom yooka- 
shee peym&tsh 

t8h*kh& sheegoo-d yookdshee 

aim, «• (end, de- 

crown, 8, (the top 
of the head) 

lijlJLt tsheyrddeh 

o" CO 

tsheetliiin weemonSkhneb 

pomp, «. (magni- 

thank, v. 

JUii tsheygbil 

noon, 8, 


Jjuyd? tshey-mil 

beef, «. 


tshej-mil bzouy-g 

tongue, «. 


JUuulli? tshen-ney 

goat, «. 


^\y^ tshooAn 
«^ ytJ? tehoo-ey 

covering, «. (any- 
thing that coven) 
ox, 8. 


2rjj1yti? tshoo-^z-z^h 

perhaps, oc?. 


^•-ifct tshoopen 

drive, v. 


c/ Jrl jy^ tehoozeel pen 

pregnant, a. 

<iL«U. — <u^ 

UyiJ? tsboghd 

writing, «. 


\^^ tshdgha 

putrid, a. (corrupt) 


Jyut tshool 

paper, «. 


^^lI? tshoo 


button, «. (a knob 
for the fastening 
of clothes) 

. ^mJp ^t^ yMjff 





^f >^{i:SJ} 



dJ^ tshey 



oourty «. 


fat, a. (greasy) 


4U*L tshey 

door, «. 


A^ tsh6y 

proscription, «. 


i^^V^^.^y, t^sh^sht 

eat, V, 


4J«\ ij-v^ tsh^hn ooney 
UaLL tsbee-ydh 

property, s, (for- 
tune, power) 

sleep, V. 


back, *. 

^Jj\ « CL^^ 

,^^ i^^joiJ? tsheep tshee 

count, t;. 


^JUuoil, tsheepey 

debt, «. 


<Uu^ tsheepey 

plan, 8. 


tsheebkh, tshee-ydkh 

sister, «. 


jj^A^ tsheerdk 

potato, 8, 


.jj^ /^.^ t8hee-6h6hzii 

remove, v. 


4_JJfljJti? tsheetleb 

receipt, «. 

' ^j^^j\ 


as ^1,Ua,^.]p tshit-lem ghey 

about, prep. 

^jj^ - ^u 

^ ^ ^ o o 

tshit-ley ookoodshook 

address, a, (a di- 

note, «.* (ticket, 

^^^AM-» ^"^ ^^5****^ 





tshit-Iish, oppoo 

(L .L ftsheeUee) 

important, a. 

bill of exchange, «. 
cavern, «. 

iljjLi> taheeley 

continent, «. (land 
not disjoined by 
the sea from other 

land, «. (country) 


tsheemdhf, d^ihi 

winter, <. 


tfiheenihdtshit tzick" 

youngest brother 

^^1J;S CJ^/ 

^!t.^.K..ll^ tsheeliBhey 

far, a. (distant) 


.OL^joii, tsheehley 

empire, «. 


^ji^LaL taaee-pey 

husband^s bro- 
ther's wife) 
artery, «. 

^^ ^^^jy^ teeypee bz6gh 

sin, «. 


abridge, v.o. 


damage, «. 


^j aeyshee, d-^ teey 



4U3I9 teey 

step, «. 


^^ tsey 

ten, a. 


A^ tsey 

tooth, «. 


ymuuaL taeepey sh^r 

men, nom. ccue,pL 








alLK^gLr tsinney 

raw, a. 




sunset, 9, 

^yil>\j \^<f 

(ghdree keezey dil-poh 

twin, a. 


j^ tghok 

couple, 8, (a pair) 

■ o 

y]p tkoo 

second, a. 


pride, «. (haughti- 

thigh, 9. 

tlakhoob kh^ded 

courage, «. 


,^w «.£ {^^i} 


J^ji jV^ 

^It tl^hahey 

lame, a. 


u£ tliigW 

near, a. 


UlL tl6gW 

dead, a. 


U^ ddgW 

duck, «. 


UlL tldgkd 

late, a. (deceased) 


ylL tl^lioo 

loud^ a. 


yit tl^d 

foot, 9, 


^^ tl&likey 

feet, «. 


^jlur/it tlouy-iiBh 
tlouy-wey, tlouy-gbdy 

sort, 8, (genua, 
kind, epecies) 

staircase, «. 


^^ , ^>£ tUhhgUp 

wager, 9, 






UDgrateful, a. 


yiit tl68h 

sharp, a. 


^J^ U&h 

vehement, a. 


^js\j^ (jilt tl6sli shdhpey 

strong, a. 

^J- - J>. 

-^ij/y^^ r^^] 

anger, «. 


<UJl«ill? tlegu^nshey 

flat, «. (a level) 


^tfijUlt tleygudnsliey 

knee, «. 


.• coo 

examination, s. 


4^^\ ji (^ji^^^ iff 


lHem beezey goes sbkheyreb 
gwey Demtsheerem yoh 
oob tsHee 


jl ^ tloh dl 

law, «. (rule) 

yj'j^ - wy^ 

^ .• o 

;*>-J^ tlookhooz 

bold, a. 


rf ^ o 

^ J^ tlookhoon 

seek, i;. (to search) 


UjV i^Ji tloosh-dghd 

healing, a. 


Ujli tiogW 

power,«. (violence, 

J3J - 't^ 

jUyi tlohghdz 

punishment, 9, 



yj^l ^jU? tlohghee-eehzey 

grudge, ». 

ui^ - J>j^ 

limbs, «. (mem- 
bers of a society) 


^ xO '' 

third, t. (tierce, a 
third of the night) 


cAtJ ^ cAdl ojlt 

manifold, a. 

^jjj ^jyj) 

tlouy-ish tlee-ififa 






^^y. c^lt tlouy-ghoon 

risible, a. 


^ji or/il tlony ftheh 

creature, 8. 

liA*^ - c^ 

or,i jlt tl6h louy 

number, a. 


-dt tley 

rule, «. 

i>cU _ ^yU 

Ali tley 

fourth, a. 


i^ tley 

four, a. 


^^v<^ tleyp6t 

stockings, «. 


tley-deymook psAs-dey 

maid, «. 


^^IjUblj <dL tley z&nsh 

courteous,a. (civil, 

J^*^^ - t5?^ 

tlaysee, seekhless 


*^ - Ji 

JL^ tlehah 

cruel, a. 


tley tsogb rokhoo-d 

old age 

j>f lijl^^ tl6k^kdgh68h 

godfather, s. 


Ue gflbzik tld fthze 

poet, 8. 


4^idt tl6m6h 

wipe, V. 


^dli tley-nk>i6 

party, «. 


^jyy^ <0 idi? tley-yey-80oa 

married womaD,«. 

iZJjy, jljl 

<LlJuljuJi9 tleebftndsliey 

knees, 8, 


jj Up deeded 

y ^^y 

manly, a. 

>j^ - JO^ 




^Ijdt tleeshee 
j^lxuLkxlt tleetsh-ydn 
Tj^ iL tleequft 
jyaj ^^ tlee yeybook 

tley gdp, tleey-ej k&p 

UjkL tenKd 

aJijj UiL t^nbd-p6z-sbey 

j<*S»J2fyJb topoo-dflhee 

tooza shooghoo, shouy-oo 

>» ^ • o 
•Ij^LtL-j a'shoa-oo 

^J^j^ tuteen 

^JLi\M£.J^ toghsahbs 

aJlCaL tOghDO 

•j^jb toghoozoo 
cJ*i*t toogbok 

t'bdb, tozgbdgbey 


oarowDy 8. (a dia- 
dem worn <m the 
heads of Soto- 

red, d, 

valiant, a, (brare) 

discourse, 8. (con- 

ancle, «. 

calf, 8. (tbick part 
of the leg) 

defence, «. (pro- 

defend, v. 

testament, s. (tbe 

artilleryman, 8, 

rest, V. (to lie 

boney, 8, 


tobacco, •. 


thief, «. 


neighbour, <. 


wonn, «. 


fork, *. 


oath, «, 





(^^^jy^ yJ^^^ sJ^\^ 
t'hddee keygh&so soreek 

^•faX^ t§b-doo-ey 
y.i^ teyroo 
J^ teyhz 

tejUidisli ]cli%oo-d 
jjlJitUid? t^hghartlesh 
• 4^ jd^U^ teedtey shookH 

teedieys zood sbogl^r sook- 

teebsowy f^tsbun 
8ii6bsbiii f§bso fetsbiin 


yScryj^ tib-kbo 
Jjfti^uL teepkbdr^l 
juuJ? teepey 
C^jiSJ^ teerkoo-bz^gb 
LiL^'l; ^ tee z&bpet 

tbjrjjd? teezejrp^t 

teezee-yeh p&deesbab 


Ood (Creator of 
the Universe) 

wbere^ ad. 
we, jpron. 
reside, v. 
to us 

beam, «. 
paternal aunt, s. 
revenge, «. 

otherwise oc?. 

wife's sister 
nepbew, «. 

necessary, a. 

Torkisb, a. 

together, ocf. 

witb, 'prtfp, 
province, «. 


<d)t^ — 

Ay'* ^j^ 






f^^^ tees 

seat, V. 


gulf, «. 


silver, «. 


teeaheen, tish-ney 

*_flUKt titf 

five hundred, a. 

Jji u^ 

!/j w -^. {'iri 

fiv« hundred and 
one, a. 

/. jH. u^- 

ijlLt teekad^y 

jud«^e, * 


^iUl i^^r^ tilmdsh 

interpreter, «. 


y^\c^ teemdl-kbd 

son-in-law, «. 


2j^aI, teehbzcy 

value, «. 


)aJLj\ iU^'J^ teehshey-isht 

breakfast, *. 

J^"^ ^^ 

<UJd iUc ^feh shem^h 

devotion, «. 


J-lbU ghad-eshl 

bide, V. (to con- 


jU gh^r 

slave, «. 



intercourse, «. 


dJ jU Ijw}U ghAsp^ h&det 

low, a. (inferior, 


2fJu»U glidadey 

light, V. (to kin- 


L^U ghdssa 

learn, v. 


<U*1?U gli&tshey 

spring, 9, 


^^U}V. - y^rjEu 

show, v. 


ghatlou-oo, y&z-gh^t-loo-yee 


ib^UU gbdfabey 

warm, v. 




^Ij . 4^U 




gh&yr^t ztslm&tsh 

o o >* 

^Lu**iflj*1^ gho-oo-tzsh6h 


LZJJJL)^ ghfibesb-det 

ghootshooghoon^ tleb-z&n 
^jy.y gboos, j^ gbooz 

Lii4^ gboosbd 

^y^V jy^ ^ \ rokbud ( 
<U*i?^ gbootsbey 

A l:*>r gbotsbee 

J«S^ gbogool6b 

y%^ gbfiinu 

40 ^\i f&b-bey 

U^ \jjli fi&eedd tsogbd 

jj fedd 

*i^^ Wb 

2FJuuJt«<ii feymdbtsbdey 


4^j\ij k&b-zep 

zeal, «. 

take off, V. 

regiment, «. 

nail, «. (on fingers 
and toes) 

dry, a. (arid) 

surprise, v. (to be 
troubled, to become 

pale, a. 

iron, B, 

course, «. (run) 

post, «. 

tbick, a. (large, 

comer, s. (angle, 

wait, V. 

beat, <. 

advantage, », 

ling, pare. 


tree, «. 

limb, «. 

sponge, «. 

dirty, a. 

-?jy - ^j9 

— jWc — *^/ 



'-■:^ '.'■'^^•■; 

s^:^ C-;lj 


- '■'•UiSiT 





^ jU kdhbzey 

clean, a. 


- j^ 

UiU XU kdbld-mdhmd 

mariner's compass 


lift.^ ^iy^ kabooloo tzogha 

accept, v.a. 

«^J^' J^ 

^^«djU k&b-leyshee 

south, s. 


jjjUo ka-kha-zik 

fleet, 8, 


JuU^ii k&kh&neez 

mast, J?. 


j.^Ui .Lli kdrdr p^tzoo 

promise. ?'. 

tJ^.\ j\ji\ 

jU kdz 

goose, 8. 

iOuULl iU k&t sh&hbtey 

bachelor, *. 


ylLU kdtl^ho 

lum, *. 


UlS kagha 

cleft, 8, (scratch, 

castle, 8, (lock) 

ka&ley, woot-keebz 

jiJbJlJi kdleednoosh 

frigate, 8, 


^h kdleye 

tin, 8. 


^llL - ^^• 

egg, s. 


k&ngbey, tsh&nkey 

UjSiuU k&h&tloka 

rudder, 8. 


^jMg..\. Ulii kdbd woors 

anchor, 8. 



^ja^i^als k^btzey-peebsb 

wheat, 8. 

t^l^ cJyT 

\3j0i ket-tet 

rough, a. 



-lis kettoo 

cat, 8, 


u 2 

fy — ^/*^ 





8ecret,a. (secretly) 


koo8-kbd, koosrd 

island, «. 


^tiai ket-shee 

bumble, a. 


jyo k'ghoo* 

(^ - r^ 

key-feem, key-peem 

unbandy, a. (un- 
skilful, awkward; 

smell, V. 

Ji kdllera 



-:^a>Aj kenp6khookb 

can, r.n. (to be 

Jljl jxi 

A^i kleeb, ^kleb 

blood, B. 


ku&tsber feymatsh reykb6h 

sight, « 

jyeb CIJ^ 

c-;l ^-Ici^lJ kui^tshee ep 
^ ijy kobzey 

taste, «. (the act 
of lasting) 

sow, f . (a pig) 

^y kutey 

snuff-box, s. 


i^\ by koda oogb 

torrent, «. 


^^^ \jy k6dd gbeps 

stream, «. 


^b^y koorban 

sacrifice, «. 


jJil>^Jy koozkbdsb 

plain, «. 


4Ll^liJ kd-l&eeglieysbey 

fountains, «. 


iLiKi^ koljleeghey 

fountain, «. 

i^^ y koo l&ghey 

valley, «. 


^^J k61dee 

easy, a. 








koobb sh^ s^D^r 

O ^^ J 

^U>y koo~hab-hey 
4^Ja*3 koohdee 
Jby kwejhn 

;\x^ key-gh^z 
^y^ kibway 

iSj^ j^ kir abey-yeh 


^(^ kdttey 
il^ k&kh 

VfiVUy kabadet 
l:>m1j*^1^ kdkboonfibt 

iJ:Ji^Si kdddsbe 

yiJ:(^ kdztsbo 

ij A^ kdbkooyey 

i^^*.( lsl< kdboojGrb^sht 


pig, «- 
deep, fl. 
embarrassment, s 

prow, «. 

draw, V. 

pasture, v. 

operation, s, (ef- 

turn, r. (to alter, 
to be spoiled) 

coffee, «. 

set out, V, 

rust, 8, 

tale, «. 

train, «. (rear, 

fowl, B, (a ben) 
bring, v. a, 
long, a. 

cease, v. 

form, «. 

at, prep, (near to, 
in, by, on) 

come, t, 
future, a. 



>^ - J* 

r^ - 







^>\i kacegliey 

command) v.a. 


^>Jdkv^^ ^\j^ 

book, 8. 

c^U^ . 

_ iLL>J 

keeUby tshit-lish 

&J:^i\^ keer&bshey 

intereijt, «. 


. jX koobzoo 
^/ koi)poo 
^JJ«^ kooddee 

prudent, a. (wi^e, 

matter, « (affair, 

suffer, v. 


3LIJ psbdli, LlL.4i kootshd 

bone, s. 


iUat.^ kotzey 

grain, «. (corn) 


^jX kofeer 

bridge, s. 


jjj -^ koomrook 

toll, «. (custom) 


;\ iLi>*5^ goolisb^h az 

fame, «. 



Ij ^1 ^%i VoMy eebshooyd 

awake, a. 


k^htsbey, gbdsagbodet 

sbort, a. 


. <L^ 

:> ,U-j psahrey 

i^ii keysey 

track, s, (trace) 



kaysbey, tsbeytsbee 

nigbt, «. 


kee-eebn, koo-eehn 

trouble, s, (pains) 


, r »< kehf 

humour, s. 

fj^ kiss 

purse, s. 


punisb, V. 



gdtshii-ooz speykboo 




J^ gAnn 

(^. j^ gheydoob 

gehshdh, oobtshdhtey 
^^j^\j^ ^ )shee-immeej 
p^^ goobzegh 

*X£.i}%'j^ goobzootl-ghed 
sjj^ goobzey 
JjJij^ goobshiz 
,L.m..-kAjjS goobsbist 
li-Xduuj Ai goobsheez 



understanding, ^. 
thought, idea, re- 

•1 (^•\Ji> JS S^^ shouy-oo compassion, «. 

ehirt, s. 
fur, *. 
distribute, v,a. 

little, a. (insigni- 
ficant, unimportant)! 

reason, s. i 

understanding, a. \ 
(intellect, reason) I 

manner, s. 
sense, s. 
care, «. 

^\jjjf goorzoo 

o o ^ 

»y^j/ gooz-sbw6y 
jj\j\/ ij/goozej gudr&roo 
\j^^ gooshd 
\j^S gooshd 

iiiuLj •$ goobnetsh 
ddUAjjS^ gi^eebshey 
<if ghcy 

judicious, a. (pru- 

laughter, «. 
middle, « (centre) 
history, *. (story) 
speech, a. 

silent, a. 

jejune, a. (empty) 
parcel, s, 
weeping, «. | 




oU if 



CO ^ 

ghezoo gh&det, dz4hsh 

gheygher tkhd ghw6hr 
^yi^ geymoosh 

(^ ^gliee-ybgh 

[See the word v^:^.^^] 
Li»;Uj! I^ghdz-sh& 

i^\ <Li»ij! Mhshey 6b 

<Uul leb-sey 


iiAA^JuJ l^h-nist 
^ij J looldk 


4ju^ leyhpney 

a) ley, ^ lee 

t4jjjjj liz-sliood 

(jIjJ lish 

ii^aji sh^likey, ^ lim 

^^^lU m&-dt-hee 

zeyeahzey washoomshey 

^} ^^^ ^ tt -r} 

<^^U m&hbskey 


heart, «. 

camp, «. (the order 
of tents for soldiers) 

voluptuousness, «. 

spoon, «. 

play, v. 

play, *. (game) 

roast meat, 9, 

preferable, a. 

broth, 9, 

scissors, 9, 

pipe, 9, (to smoke 

light, 9, (a spark 
of fire) 

meat, 9. 

boiled meat, 9. 

old man, 9. 

goods, *. (mer- 

moon, 9, 







dance, v. 
sneezing, *. 

^ - ju 






^ mdpsghoy 

^jU mddshokhoond 

jump, V. 

enquire, r. (to ask 

almost, ad. 

shey, mdhb^r 
U in&z&-togli 

slow, a. 


sunbeams, k. 

^U mdsddsh 



^\y mdsee nok 

half moon 

^^ r-^^ 

U mdhsbt-hd 

fear, b, (dread, 

comb, «. 

U m^eezdkd 

Saturday, «. 

^^mJ^I \xj^ 

y^o, ^U mdgo 

go, V. 



going, «. (walk) 


ey, m&dfey 
^ mdhtshey 

^ mdhtshey 

day, 9. 

softly, ad, 

write, V. 

pird, m&-asey 

3y, m&hsee 
^ mdhstd 

month, «. 
needle, «. 

U mdhshtey 

frighten, v.a. 


t« mdhtsliey 

tame, a. 

tPV- - c^' 


cuX« ^u 





^UULifU mdhtshoy 

few, a. (a small 

sound, 8. 

mihnoo, mahnee 


often, od. 

»J 03^ - cf- 

a-wwd^ m^bbsey 

false, 2i. 


^ J'- { ^A^i } 

look at me ! intery. 

Jf ^. 

since, ad. 


,U»X« m6d6h«bey 
murrey, mCirrey 

tbere, a<£. (bere, 

the, art. 

t,.^j^ merkeb 

ink, «. 



dark, a. (dusky, 

meye&shey, m^zdbah^ 

o ^ c o 

darkness, «. 

J^\J _ jLi^i 

m^sh^dshn^t, tleyn<^gh 

against, prep. 

^J ^y _ jJy 

ylL^ m6tkoo 

drop, «. 


metloay eedebee nemsboo 

gender, «. (race) 

(^ - u-^ 

m^tn^fer, ts^f^r zogbd 

better, «. (superior) 


fair, a. (weatber) 


OJjjl (^/-i^ mefAs-oondM 

favourable wind 


^.^^JS^ m^kteh 

school, 5. 

» .;(- 

J<U ^ 





joy,«. CJoyfulness, 


^^i^f li/^ m^gilflha dTktk 

thing, «. 

<U-*J « ^ 

^Sj^,^ meghee-kee 

keep, v,a. 

(>*y J^ 

JiSjX^ mejlaiksher 

angels, <. 


^X* meldike 


angel, «. 


JLiU^ monaster 

meynAlitey ket-shey 

oonvent, «. (a re- 
ligiooa house) 

forehead, «. 

iijyt muhbkey 

believe, v. 


ij^\j 3fjy moozey dAsliey 

precious stone, «. 

^u? yi^ 

UUy. mfiflhey 

stone, «. 


*i^ moo-shee 

of this 


Uj^ mogha 

year (the current) 

Ji j^ 

^^•^ mdkshey 

meadow, s. 


^y. moon 

thousand, a. 


j^ybj^ miihiir 

iy ^j -ttj - i^ j^\ ^jU 

mouy ^%tjy wdt-wee ghood 

seal, «. 

ache, «. (smart, 

mongiib shiihzey 

thought, «. 


meydoonyi drdeylee 

world, «. 


iC^^rJiU m^hd^hshey 

here, o^. 


X 2 

Jj^ — ;<u 



. English. 


ij»\j^ mejxdhwej 

moonlight, «. 


^jd^ mejkee, ijji^ rn^ha^ 

forest, «. 


mejzej wAh-heeyej-bz^hey 

rage, «. (fury) 

J^J^ - (Jj^ 

^a^ meyzee 

mouDtain, s. 


ifjj^ meyzzey 
jUa^ meyshdk 

desert, s, (wilder- 

labourer, 8. 

4U,a^ m^yshey 

seed, «. 


.^U^riL^ meyghootsher 

linen, «. 


j^^ m^hfok 

Thursday, #. 


<OJa^ mey-lley 

sheep, 8, 


JjJ^ mey-lil 

mutton, 8, 

kJ^ C!3^ 

j^^ meyhiir 

signature, 8. 


c^^lI^ ^^lJ^ 

sketch,*, (arough 


meez^ghdgiin seeneesht^b 

derision, «. 


meeshfdf peheeghey 

therefore, <uf. (for 
this reason) 

UJ^ ^> 

ytj^ meeshoo 

smell, 8. (scent) 


Jx^ mil 

mile, «. 


^^^IJj^ mil-lee, Jjjc^ millel 

ice, 8. 






meemag fey-yoo-ghoob 
c^y^ pa7-y6ghob 

^ Ju^ meenoosh 

i^^Aj^ meenootp 

^;t Ju^ meenootk 

^Jt Ju>^ meenootl 

Ju^ meenee 

^^^^ • 

Jjuuu^ meeneebl 
^yuuui^ meeneebookh 
;^^)j^ meenikh 
JUaxA^jK^ meehshish 

o • • 

U^jlfi^U ndkhdz-shogha 

v_^^lj naseb 

nahsib 70o-6r6kho 
ULjj..^^ b'eye-oorokho 

», *! \ M- I ndfeeloo 
bf^V rit^ \ ro^khoo-d 

^^^ »U n&h ptsey 
^>U nahpey 
v.^JLy»*l3 ndhseeb 


anwell, a. 

three thousand^ a. 
five thousand 
two thousand 
four thousand 
eight thousand 
seven thousand 
nine thousand 
six thousand 
from, of, frefp. 
gift, «. 

pray, v. (the prayer 
which the Mookhii- 
m&^ans have to say 

* five times a day) 

luck, i. (fortune, 

council, «. (coun- 

gratis, ad, 
eyebrows, «. 
surfjELce, «. 
fate, «. 





^U. u: 









^i\j n&hshey 
«^^ n6p 
<tlJj n^dshey 

^*..^j nes-shCL 


^ ^»,,V ti net-shej 
^J^^ nef-nej 


nek kher kleesheeedey 
^\Xi n6kwdh 
Jb^^jLC" n^mtshoohz 

n^mtsheeret shil 
^;^-<j^^ nem-tsheedjey 

nemtsheereli f&kiim 

n^msdhsin b6dz zey6ghdshey 
nem k6tzoor &dey * 

melon^ ^. 

across, a(£. (ob- 

to-day, $. 

blow, «. 

spectacles, s. 

blind, a. 

enough, a. (suffi- 

empty, a. 
early, a. 

light, «. (clear- 

cheeks, s. 

B,\vsky,ad, (absent; 
begone; let us go) 

common, a. 
foreign country 

Grerman, a. 
German, «. 

(, a, (pure) 

eyelid, ^ 



^ — \y 



ya\y noo-ej-800 

iiu^j^j* n6kh6Bh 

Isi-lS^ \jy \jy 
UjbJ noohkd 

nowj-oosh, toghaz 

nouj'Uh tkh&-m^ 
nowysht khftgdsht 
nowy-shel noosh-mieli 
D&hsheb n&sh-mish 
noay koobsheesd 

^uuAJ nejpsee 


*ij^ nejdshee 
^*,j4J0 neydshee 

old woman, s, 
conntiyman, s. 
troop, «. (host) 

half, «. 

day before yes- 
terday, 4. 

Sunday, s, 
grace, «. (favour) 

day after to-mor- 
row, «. 

proof, «. 

eye, «. 

tear, s, 

witchcraft, «. [to 

Toid, a. (empty, 

hungry, a. 
hunger, 9. 


U^l^ LT*^ 





^f. y \ *,<U nehsheeboog 

cucumber, « . 



hm\±i* n^hmtshir 
C ^1 . fnee-^h't) 

cbeek, 9. 

save, ad. except- 
intention, «. 


^*. i*. !».; nib-shoesh^ 

it^^3^^^^<>_„^w;i neebeheedehey 

fresh, a. (brisk, 

young, a. 

^f^*^ii•• neebaheeghey 

never, od. 

»/-/ -e 

<U^jjJ nib-shee-yey 

eternity, %. 


4juJ neebey 

belly, *. 


4juJ neebey 

tripe, «. 


^^y ' ^ y y y 

Deebinsh^ neez&btsee 

navel, «. 


\f^ neemd 


step-daughter, «. 


Ji^ nivsli ' 

life, «. 
wet, a. 

}i "' 

saddle, <. 


2[;j^j wdraey 

straw, «. 


wash&bbshey, woz shdbshey 

cloud, s. 

ciJj^y — LsJ^ 

wAaehooliey, wahsey 

heaven, «. 

^U w&heey 

price, s. 


w^hghey, wdeh^h 

rain, «. 






y^i 4'i {'^^} 

rain, v. 


jjjk-ltj w&ahecder 

dew, n. 

^\^\^ voo-oh 

ah! alas! int. 


woo-dh-see, weyfsee 

snow, «. 

jJ^ f^\ ^\j woh-ee-sher 

of thee 


jj\^ wood 

weak, a. 


[^j^\^ w6rdgbi 

from thee, 06. <?. 


i^j^yj wdhree 

thee, pron. 


tiTj^tj wdhree 

yoa, ac<?i«. ww 


JGU jjlj w6£ Mhnej 

storm, $. (rainy 

candle, «. (taper) 

lUjIj wiisey 

this, prwi.,nowi.c. 


jjSji^jVj wo6h6kir 

bed, v. 


^^^.^ju^^lj w^h-ships 

rain-water, s. 


astonished, to be 


jKkCh^yj wootkeebz 

lock, V. 


y^^X wootzoo 

salve, s. (a plaster) 


A.^j!j wootzey 

pavement, «. 

r^ - cj^^ 

iUa^j wooteey 

pill, s. 


J<Gy^ woo-key-n6r 

comiiose, v.a. 

cX^\ t-filt; 

wooner boo in neetsbA 


fort, «, 

jb — '^'j 





-AJGjlj woo-ney-eh^r 

houses^ «. 


yj- wdh-y^r 

to you 


^ Jj wdh-y^r 



(*i>\? wdhyem 

from you, ab. c. 


*y.Jh|j wdhshwey 

grey, a, (hoary) 

cJ/ _^ 

dear, a. 


l£% b6tlapg4 

«Li shoo6y, »lj wdh 

air, «. 


4j,lj wdhWy 

lukewarm, a. 



wdhtshey^ qaadshey 

power, «. (strength) 


j^ w6dd 

thin, a. (lean) 


ixu*JuuJi«0« w^dCisheenisht 

fall, V. 


^^Uj J *j^ weyrey ddghdn 

sing, v. 

<>v«r t,^" 

4-i»j« wez-flhoo 

weather, «. 



w^staghd tdgbdndp 

candlestick, s. 


«jda-2b^ w^fiht6 

Me, a. (apt, fit) 


wdtshooz, edshooz 

body, «. 

leegh&nee shor^ sho-ey-oo 

jt?*^ weyroo 

thou, jE>ron. 


L.> - 



JbS^ wayhee 
\i Ak *j wit-logh6 
i ^^.^i jj^C't^ weegoozwensht 
*J^J veegoozay 
JjU hdbloo 

i/AJ^Ad IJltjLb h^dshdgohsh 

* ^* • %!i^ fhadsLoo) 
Lr!r- ^^^ \ shoosh / 

(^Aci^lt ^ tlejtlakhsh 

c^ ^^^ {"Shi 

ir-^jUb hddeheegd 
•^2f jU Hddeygho 


i.-.'^J^ U»^^ ?/t-uJa^ ^ jU 

hidem n^mtsheere shogbon 
sliib ghitleemej r^khon 

4C»U b&b-sh^j 


j^^^jil>U batsb^sb 

<^UU . ajUU 
b^^pej^ gbdm^ej 

(JUlJubllb babtsb^ 

jij^j io^ ^^'^ lekbreer 

yes, a<i. 

dignity, s. 

ndicalous, a. 
laugh, V. 

motb, 8, 
pilgrimage, «. 

dwarf, «. 

dwelling, s. 

flour, «. (tbe fine 
part of ground 

deatb, «. 
alter, V. (to cbange) 

treasure, «. 
east, «. 
room, «. 
summer, s. 

foreign, a. (exotic, 

carrier, «. (one 
who carries) 


L5-l?*5^ u/ 






h*khd^ m^gushej 
jj^ h^gh-d6d 


JJ^ h6gh-ded 

^U^ <UjLj1J ifjj^ 

h^gd^deh wdst^n^h 

v_ ^^> fh h^gheeb 
f$j^ b6gh-ghee 

h^gheesee shousht 


cany, v. (to con- 
vey by Imnd or 


speedy, a. 
already, ad, 

till, ad. (until) 

now, ojd, (at this 

poison, ». 

I- A \ . fhees^beel 

jlb ydh-oo 
^^\ ydh-oosh 
CJuJUiU jdrmdlik 

i?b A-luxLlj yatecsliein y&t 

jateesheerem yat 

^\ ^\i { y^^^fY"^ j! bis fatl*re 

account, vm. 

push, V. 

morrow, *. 
I ma^s, «. 

ashes, «. 
; father, ». 

their father 

their fathers 

y&ttA, wahtey, ydhtey 


*H^^V. y%^^6ht-h^ 

earth, «. 

fear, v. (to be 
afraid of something) 



Ci^ J^. 





Up.I jjiilj y&nkee 6t& 
X ^ ^ 

^\ diU <)Jb iOb 

ydhney ydhtey mafey in 
JJbb yibood 

Ciwwyjj yey-pesk 

idlajj y^ptley 
^ ^'^ V 

^ '* " y •^ v; 
yeyp^nd^ kittpdgh6 

<01ju yeyUhney 

^ y^tt^lj 

^Is^Jj yed khdn^h 
yu*j;jij yedzeesho 
JLiSi y^deesho 

i^y y^rmeyley 
^,y^ y6zakh 

^a^jjj yee-zooshun 

c o 

*^'' ^ -n I- ^ l^ *• ^ 1^1 riT \£^% iJ 

yeyzogha s^pleenisht 
y^hsesb, mdnim 

y^sbghd, zegbaehgh^ 
iUltlj yeshgdwab 

motber, %. 
omelet, «. 
rout, 8. (uproar) 

Jew, a. 
piDcb, «. 

beer, 5. 
student, b. 
envy, «. 

^/bb bl 

bebold, v.a. (to 
look upon) 


sermon, 9, 


after, pr^p. 

ijj)\ _ *,/ 

give, V. 


again, ad. 


enemy, ». 


fall, B, 


subject, #. 


cboose, V. 


fill, v,a. 


cost, v.n. 



^^_ yu<J 





i^ yesh-wey 

drinic, v. 


*j y^hshee 

own, a. (self) 


UU^l yetkhdnd 


again, ad, (more) 


ijAJblnVit yet shdheb 

bow mucb 


burden, s. 


a^ yetl^rkey 

pain, s. 


''a *• • (yeyfendee-l 

saintfi, «. 


^ Ai, tlee-y6h, J^ yil 

application, 9. (in- 

busband, «. 

(^r^ ck yii-y«««>08h 

family, s. 

JU* Jjbl 

jijK^ju yen-sbee-resh 

Janissary, s. 

yo-oort, f^bagbdzInd 
Lliy^ y6gh&8s4 

question, s, (in- 

cartilage, «. 

cudgel, V. (to cane, 
to beat) 

spice, #. 


iLuJ^^y yugopeesey (Fr. m) 
c>^^^ yeywdn, ^^ yob 

profession,*, (han- 

beat,v. (to strike) 


40 yee 

eigbt, a. 


yeebpdboofib, tsbak&zey 

shoemaker, «. 


^ — 'V. 





^Jj yeypeeghoo 

sting, V. 


IsLiO yeykhA 

generally, ad. 



<LuJaj yeehtahey 
jj«0 yayd6h 

load, 8, (burden, 

hear, v, (bearken] 


<t^iO jejzejghey 
yee-«ey-roo-kboo, yeehz 

accommodate, v.a, 
(one*8 self jto dr- 

full, a. (replete, 

jjL*f> yeyhstd 

drawing, t. 


t-^« y61i86n. 

accustom, v.a. 


iUiaJu yeetehey 

overtbrow, v. 


^Ji^^J yeyhtsey 
yeyteen^r, steezooshd 

cipber,«. (the cha- 
racter (0) in nam- 
bering; the initials 


jS'«0 yeehk6b 

passport, «. 



j^iO y^bghey 

read, v. 


Jv-: yee^i 

lay, V. 


v^^v* A^ yeeb mep 
• • -? 

^•1? ^^J fteepsb^b) 

absent, a. 


2^Lu*Jl[ yiab-wdb 

useful, a. 


JJ^Uxj yee-gbdr-d6d 

pious, a. 


^^'^>^ { ^^, } 

themselves, /?ran., 




2-month loans may be renewed by calling 

1-year loans may be recharged by bringing books 

Renewals and recharges may be made 4 days 

prior to due date 




OCT 09 1995